The 2S1 Gvozdika (Russian: 2С1 «Гвоздика», "Carnation") is a Soviet self-propelled howitzer based on the MT-LBu multi-purpose chassis, mounting a 122 mm 2A18 howitzer. "2S1" is its GRAU designation. An alternative Russian designation is SAU-122 but in the Russian Army it is commonly known as Gvozdika. The 2S1 is fully amphibious with very little preparation, and once afloat is propelled by its tracks. A variety of track widths are available to allow the 2S1 to operate in snow or swamp conditions. It is NBC protected and has infrared night-vision capability.
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Used by||see Operators|
War in Abkhazia (1992–1993)
First Chechen War
Second Chechen War
2008 South Ossetia War
First Libyan Civil War
Second Libyan Civil War
Syrian Civil War
War in Donbass
|Designer||Kharkiv Tractor Plant|
|No. built||more than 10,000|
|Mass||16 tonnes (35,273 lbs)|
|Length||7.26 m (23 ft 10 in)|
|Width||2.85 m (9 ft 4 in)|
|Height||2.73 m (8 ft 11 in)|
|Shell||separate loading, cased charge|
|Breech||Horizontal sliding-wedge, semi-automatic|
|Elevation||-3 to +70 degrees|
|Rate of fire||Maximum: 5 rpm|
Sustained: 1-2 rpm
|Muzzle velocity||680 m/s (2,200 ft/s)|
|Maximum firing range||Conventional: 15.3 km (9.5 mi)|
Extended: 21.9 km (13.6 mi)
|Armor||20 mm (.78 in)|
|2A18 122 mm (4.8 in) howitzer|
220 kW (300 hp)
|500 km (310 mi)|
|Speed||Road: 60 km/h (37 mph)|
Off-road: 30 km/h (18 mph)
Swim: 4.5 km/h (2.8 mph)
The 2S1 has seven road wheels on each side; the running gear can be fitted with different widths of track to match terrain. The interior is separated into a driver's compartment on the left, an engine compartment on the right and a fighting compartment to the rear. Within the fighting compartment the commander sits on the left, the loader on the right and the gunner to the front. The all-welded turret is located above the fighting compartment. The 2S1 utilizes a 122 mm howitzer based on the towed D-30 howitzer. The gun is equipped with a power rammer, a double-baffle muzzle brake and a fume extractor. It is capable of firing HE (high explosive), leaflet, HE/RAP, armor-piercing HE, flechette and chemical rounds.
The first prototype was ready in 1958. The 2S1 entered service with the Soviet Army in the early 1970s and was first seen in public at a Polish Army parade in 1974. The vehicle was deployed in large numbers (72 per tank division, 36 per motorized rifle division). It was designated the M1974 by the U.S. Army and manufactured in Soviet, Polish and Bulgarian state factories.
Former Soviet Union/Russia
- 2S34 Hosta – Modernisation of the 2S1 with the 122 mm 2A31 gun replaced by the 120 mm 2A80-1 gun-mortar. Further improvements include a new Malakhit fire control system, a battlefield observation system and the ability to fire the Kitolov-2M guided ammunition. One unit, the 21st Mechanized Brigade in Totskoye is currently being equipped with the system.
- 2S15 "Norov" – A prototype tank destroyer equipped with a radar-based fire control system and a 100 mm gun.
- Kevlar-E – Infantry fighting vehicle based on the 2S1 platform, equipped with Shturm remote weapon station and room for 6 passengers in addition to the 3 crew. The original 300 horsepower V8 diesel engine has been replaced with 420 horsepower diesel engine, produced by Caterpillar, Cummins or Deutz, increasing the maximum road speed to 70 km/h. Additionally, the vehicle is amphibious, includes air conditioning, a fire detection and suppression system, an NBC system, navigation system and night-vision equipment. The variant was first introduced in April 2018.
- 2S1M Goździk – Version with special amphibious kit that increases the vehicle's amphibious capabilities.
- 2S1T Goździk – Version with a TOPAZ digital fire control system from WB electronics. The system consists of a FONET-IP digital intercom system, new digital radio, military GPS receiver, military computer and dedicated software. The same system is used on other Polish Armed Forces artillery systems like the AHS Krab, Dana-T and WR-40 Langusta.
- Model 89 – Romanian variant that uses a modified version of the hull of the MLI-84.
- Raad-1 ('thunder') – Iranian variant that is based on the hull of the Boragh APC.
Algeria – 145 Angola Armenia – 20 Azerbaijan – 81 2S1 and unknown number of UR-77 Bosnia and Herzegovina – 5 Belarus – 246 Bulgaria – 506 Cuba Croatia – 9 (to be used alongside 15 Panzerhaubitze 2000 from German Army stock) Eritrea – 20 Ethiopia Finland – 72 (known as 122 PsH 74) Georgia 48 India – 110 (to be replaced) Iran Iraq Kazakhstan – 10 Libya Moldova Poland – 324 (to be replaced by SMK Rak and AHS Krab) Russia – 622 Serbia – 72 Slovakia – 49 South Ossetia Syria – 400 Transnistria Turkmenistan – unknown number in service as of 2016 Ukraine – 638 Uruguay – 6 Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen
Czech Republic – Phased out in the early 2000s. Czechoslovakia – Passed on to successor states. East Germany – Phased out in 1990 after German reunification. Hungary – Phased out in 2004. Original there were 144 pieces of Gvozdikas. Islamic State – Reportedly; currently probably all destroyed. Romania – 48 reserve status since 2005. Slovenia – 8 reserve status. Soviet Union – Passed on to successor states. Yugoslavia – Passed on to successor states.
- Afghanistan – Soviet–Afghan War
- Chechnya (Russia) – First Chechen War (1994–1996), Second Chechen War (1999 to 2000)
- Iraq – Iran–Iraq War, Gulf War, Iraq War
- Yugoslavia – Yugoslav Wars, Kosovo War
- Georgia – 2008 South Ossetia War
- Libya – First Libyan Civil War, Second Libyan Civil War
- Syria – Syrian Civil War
- Ukraine – War in Donbass
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