25 kV AC railway electrification
This electrification is ideal for railways that cover long distances or carry heavy traffic. After some experimentation before World War II in Hungary and in the Black Forest in Germany, it came into widespread use in the 1950s.
One of the reasons why it was not introduced earlier was the lack of suitable small and lightweight control and rectification equipment before the development of solid-state rectifiers and related technology. Another reason was the increased clearance distances required where it ran under bridges and in tunnels, which would have required major civil engineering in order to provide the increased clearance to live parts.
Railways using older, lower-capacity direct current systems have introduced or are introducing 25 kV AC instead of 3 kV DC/1.5 kV DC for their new high-speed lines.
The first successful operational and regular use of the 50 Hz system dates back to 1931, tests having run since 1922. It was developed by Kálmán Kandó in Hungary, who used 16 kV AC at 50 Hz, asynchronous traction, and an adjustable number of (motor) poles. The first electrified line for testing was Budapest–Dunakeszi–Alag. The first fully electrified line was Budapest–Győr–Hegyeshalom (part of the Budapest–Vienna line). Although Kandó's solution showed a way for the future, railway operators outside of Hungary showed a lack of interest in the design.
The first railway to use this system was completed in 1936 by the Deutsche Reichsbahn who electrified part of the Höllentalbahn between Freiburg and Neustadt installing a 20 kV, 50 Hz AC system. This part of Germany was in the French zone of occupation after 1945. As a result of examining the German system in 1951 the SNCF electrified the line between Aix-les-Bains and La Roche-sur-Foron in southern France, initially at using the same 20 kV but converted to 25 kV in 1953. The 25 kV system was then adopted as standard in France, but since substantial amounts of mileage south of Paris had already been electrified at 1,500 V DC, SNCF also continued some major new DC electrification projects, until dual-voltage locomotives were developed in the 1960s.
The main reason why electrification at this voltage had not been used before was the lack of reliability of mercury-arc-type rectifiers that could fit on the train. This in turn related to the requirement to use DC series motors, which required the current to be converted from AC to DC and for that a rectifier is needed. Until the early 1950s, mercury-arc rectifiers were difficult to operate even in ideal conditions and were therefore unsuitable for use in railway locomotives.
It was possible to use AC motors (and some railways did, with varying success), but they have less than ideal characteristics for traction purposes. This is because control of speed is difficult without varying the frequency and reliance on voltage to control speed gives a torque at any given speed that is not ideal. This is why DC series motors are the best choice for traction purposes, as they can be controlled by voltage, and have an almost ideal torque vs speed characteristic.
In the 1990s, high-speed trains began to use lighter, lower-maintenance three-phase AC induction motors. The N700 Shinkansen uses a three-level converter to convert 25 kV single-phase AC to 1,520 V AC (via transformer) to 3,000 V DC (via phase-controlled rectifier with thyristor) to a maximum 2,300 V three-phase AC (via a variable voltage, variable frequency inverter using IGBTs with pulse-width modulation) to run the motors. The system works in reverse for regenerative braking.
The choice of 25 kV was related to the efficiency of power transmission as a function of voltage and cost, not based on a neat and tidy ratio of the supply voltage. For a given power level, a higher voltage allows for a lower current and usually better efficiency at the greater cost for high-voltage equipment. It was found that 25 kV was an optimal point, where a higher voltage would still improve efficiency but not by a significant amount in relation to the higher costs incurred by the need for larger insulators and greater clearance from structures.
To avoid short circuits, the high voltage must be protected from moisture. Weather events, such as "the wrong type of snow", have caused failures in the past. An example of atmospheric causes occurred in December 2009, when four Eurostar trains broke down inside the Channel Tunnel.
Electric power from a generating station is transmitted to grid substations using a three-phase distribution system.
At the grid substation, a step-down transformer is connected across two of the three phases of the high-voltage supply. The transformer lowers the voltage to 25 kV which is supplied to a railway feeder station located beside the tracks. SVCs are used for load balancing and voltage control.
In some cases dedicated single-phase AC power lines were built to substations with single phase AC transformers. Such lines were built to supply the French TGV.
Railway electrification using 25 kV, 50 Hz AC has become an international standard. There are two main standards that define the voltages of the system:
- EN 50163:2004+A1:2007 - "Railway applications. Supply voltages of traction systems"
- IEC 60850 - "Railway Applications. Supply voltages of traction systems"
The permissible range of voltages allowed are as stated in the above standards and take into account the number of trains drawing current and their distance from the substation.
|25000 V, AC, 50 Hz||17500 V||19000 V||25000 V||27500 V||29000 V|
This system is now part of the European Union's Trans-European railway interoperability standards (1996/48/EC "Interoperability of the Trans-European high-speed rail system" and 2001/16/EC "Interoperability of the Trans-European Conventional rail system").
Systems based on this standard but with some variations have been used.
25 kV AC at 60 Hz
In countries where 60 Hz is the normal grid power frequency, 25 kV at 60 Hz is used for the railway electrification.
- In the United States, newer electrified portions of the Northeast Corridor (i.e. the New Haven-Boston segment) intercity passenger lines, New Jersey Transit commuter lines, Denver RTD Commuter Rail, and select isolated short lines.
- In Japan, Tokaido, Sanyo and Kyushu Shinkansen lines (using 1,435 mm or 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in gauge) use 60 Hz.
- In Taiwan, Taiwan High Speed Rail. Line (using 1,435 mm or 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in gauge) use 60 Hz
- In Canada on the Deux-Montagnes line of the Montreal Metropolitan transportation Agency,
- In South Korea on Korail (using 1,435 mm or 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge),
- In Argentina on Roca Line (using 1,676 mm or 5 ft 6 in gauge).
20 kV AC at 50/60 Hz
12.5 kV AC at 60 Hz
Some lines in the United States have been electrified at 12.5 kV 60 Hz or converted from 11 kV 25 Hz to 12.5 kV 60 Hz. Use of 60 Hz allows direct supply from the 60 Hz utility grid yet does not require the larger wire clearance for 25 kV 60 Hz or require dual-voltage capability for trains also operating on 11 kV 25 Hz lines. Examples are:
12 kV at 25 Hz
6.25 kV AC
Early 50 Hz AC railway electrification in the United Kingdom was planned to use sections at 6.25 kV AC where there was limited clearance under bridges and in tunnels. Rolling stock was dual-voltage with automatic switching between 25 kV and 6.25 kV. The 6.25 kV sections were converted to 25 kV AC as a result of research work that demonstrated that the distance between live and earthed equipment could be reduced from that originally thought to be necessary.
The research was done using a steam engine beneath a bridge at Crewe. A section of 25 kV overhead line was gradually brought closer to the earthed metalwork of the bridge whilst being subjected to steam from the locomotive's chimney. The distance at which a flashover occurred was measured and this was used as a basis from which new clearances between overhead equipment and structures were derived.
50 kV AC
Occasionally 25 kV is doubled to 50 kV to obtain greater power and increase the distance between substations. Such lines are usually isolated from other lines to avoid complications from interrunning. Examples are:
2 x 25 kV autotransformer system
The 2 × 25 kV autotransformer system is a split-phase electric power system which supplies 25 kV power to the trains, but transmits power at 50 kV to reduce energy losses. It should not be confused with the 50 kV system. In this system, the current is mainly carried between the overhead line and a feeder transmission line instead of the rail. The overhead line (3) and feeder (5) are on opposite phases, so the voltage between them is 50 kV, but the voltage between the overhead line (3) and the running rails (4) remains at 25 kV. Periodic autotransformers (9) divert the return current from the neutral rail, step it up, and send it along the feeder line. This system is used by Indian Railways, Russian Railways, Italian High Speed Railways, UK High Speed-1 and Crossrail, with some parts of older lines being gradually converted, French lines (LGV lines and some other lines), most Spanish high-speed rail lines, Amtrak and some of the Finnish and Hungarian lines.
For TGV world speed record runs in France the voltage was temporarily boosted, to 29.5 kV and 31 kV at different times.
25 kV on narrow gauge lines
- In Taiwan: see Rail transport in Taiwan (60 Hz).
- In Tunisia (50 Hz): see Rail transport in Tunisia.
- in Malaysia: see Rail transport in Malaysia
- In Queensland, Australia: see Rail electrification in Queensland (50 Hz).
- In Perth, Australia. Entire suburban network, see: Transperth Trains
- In New Zealand: see North Island Main Trunk (50 Hz) and Auckland railway electrification
Multi-system locomotives and trains
- Haydock, David (1991). SNCF. "Modern Railways" special. London: Ian Allan. ISBN 978-0-7110-1980-5
- Cuynet, Jean (2005). La traction électrique en France 1900-2005. Paris: La Vie du Rail. ISBN 2-915034-38-9
- SVCs for load balancing and trackside voltage control, ABB Power Technologies. Archived 2007-02-06 at the Wayback Machine
- TGV power Archived May 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- British Standards Institution (January 2005). BS EN 50163:2004+A1:2007 Railway Applications. Supply voltages of traction systems. doi:10.3403/30103554.
- IEC 60850 - "Railway Applications. Supply voltages of traction systems"
- "GF6C #6001 PRESERVED". West Coast Railway Association, BC. May 2004. Archived from the original on February 18, 2009. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- The reminder of the French lines use 1 × 25 kV booster-transformer system.
- Comparative Study of the Electrification Systems 1×25 kV and 2×25 kV (PDF) (Report). Madrid: Ineco. June 2011. Retrieved 2017-03-30.
- "The Test Tracks: an Overview".
- "French Train Hits 357 MPH Breaking World Speed Record". 4 April 2007.
- "Traxx locomotive family meets European needs". Railway Gazette International. 2008-01-07. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
Traxx MS (multi-system) for operation on both AC (15 and 25 kV) and DC (1·5 and 3 kV) networks
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- Machefert-Tassin, Yves; Nouvion, Fernand; Woimant, Jean (1980). Histoire de la Traction Electrique, vol.1. La Vie du Rail. ISBN 2-902808-05-4.
- Nock, O.S. (1965). Britain's new railway: Electrification of the London-Midland main lines from Euston to Birmingham, Stoke-on-Trent, Crewe, Liverpool and Manchester. London: Ian Allan. OCLC 59003738.
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- Proceedings of the British Railways Electrification Conference, London 1960 - Railway Electrification at Industrial Frequency. London: British Railways Board. 1960.
- Semmens, Peter (1991). Electrifying the East Coast Route. Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 0-85059-929-6.