2023 Turkish general election

General elections are scheduled to be held in Turkey in 2023. Voters will elect a new president, as well as 600 members of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, each for a term of five years.

2023 Turkish presidential election

2023
Opinion polls

Incumbent President

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
AK Party


Background

Elections of 2018

The previous Turkish general election took place on 24 June 2018. The election marked the country's transition from a parliamentary system to a presidential one, as narrowly endorsed by voters in the controversial 2017 constitutional referendum. That election resulted in a victory for incumbent president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who had held the position since 2014. Meanwhile, the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) lost its absolute majority in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey for the first time since June 2015, forcing it to rely on its ally, the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) of Devlet Bahçeli, to pass legislation. The office of the Prime Minister of Turkey was abolished on 12 July 2018, and its last holder, Binali Yıldırım, took office as the Speaker of the Grand National Assembly.

Electoral system

The President of Turkey, who serves as the country's head of state and government, is directly elected through the two-round system, under which a candidate must obtain an absolute majority of votes in order to be elected. If no candidate secures an overall majority outright, a runoff is held between the two most voted-for candidates from the first round, the winner of which is then declared elected. This electoral system was first introduced for the 2014 presidential elections, when it replaced a system of indirect elections under which the president was elected by parliament. The president is subject to term limits, and may serve at most two consecutive five-year terms. However, it has been speculated that incumbent president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan could be eligible to seek a third term in 2023, since the current executive presidential system was only fully implemented after the conclusion of his first term in office, meaning that his period in power from 2014 to 2018 would not count towards his two-term limit.[1]

In order to participate in a presidential election, a candidate must have received the nomination of a political party that either obtained 5% of the vote in the most recent parliamentary election, or that holds at least 20 seats in parliament. Other prospective candidates may still obtain ballot access if they are able to collect signatures from 100,000 eligible voters.[2]

The Grand National Assembly of Turkey is composed of 600 members, who serve five-year terms adjacent to those of the president. These representatives are elected through a form of party-list proportional representation from 87 electoral districts, by the D'Hondt method. The electoral districts largely correspond to the provinces of Turkey, though provinces with larger populations are divided into multiple districts. Specifically, Istanbul and Ankara are each divided into three districts, while Izmir and Bursa are divided in two. Political parties must be officially organised in at least half of the country's provinces (41 or more) and in at least a third of districts in those provinces, and must nominate two candidates in 41 or more provinces, in order to be entitled to seats. Since the introduction of the Constitution of 1982, political parties are also required to pass an electoral threshold of 10% in order to qualify for seats in parliament. Parties that fail to cross the threshold are disregarded for seat allocation purposes.

Individuals who have publicly expressed interest

Electoral districts

DistrictMPs
Adana15
Adıyaman5
Afyonkarahisar6
Ağrı4
Aksaray4
Amasya3
Ankara (I)13
Ankara (II)11
Ankara (III)12
Antalya16
Ardahan2
 
DistrictMPs
Artvin2
Aydın8
Balıkesir9
Bartın2
Batman5
Bayburt1
Bilecik2
Bingöl3
Bitlis3
Bolu3
Burdur3
 
DistrictMPs
Bursa (I)10
Bursa (II)10
Çanakkale4
Çankırı2
Çorum4
Denizli8
Diyarbakır12
Düzce3
Edirne4
Elazığ5
Erzincan2
 
DistrictMPs
Erzurum6
Eskişehir7
Gaziantep14
Giresun4
Gümüşhane2
Hakkâri3
Hatay11
Iğdır2
Isparta4
İstanbul (I)35
İstanbul (II)28
 
DistrictMPs
İstanbul (III)35
İzmir (I)14
İzmir (II)14
Kahramanmaraş8
Kars3
Kastamonu3
Karabük3
Karaman3
Kayseri10
Kilis2
Kırklareli3
 
DistrictMPs
Kırıkkale3
Kırşehir2
Kocaeli13
Konya15
Kütahya5
Malatya6
Manisa10
Mardin6
Mersin13
Muğla7
Muş4
 
DistrictMPs
Nevşehir3
Niğde3
Ordu6
Osmaniye4
Rize3
Sakarya7
Samsun9
Siirt3
Sinop2
Sivas5
Şanlıurfa14
 
DistrictMPs
Şırnak4
Tekirdağ7
Tokat5
Trabzon6
Tunceli2
Uşak3
Van8
Yalova3
Yozgat4
Zonguldak5
Total600

Candidates and parties

Presidential candidates

to be determined to be determined to be determined to be determined to be determined
AKP CHP HDP MHP İYİ

Contesting parties

Justice and Development Party Republican People's Party Peoples' Democratic Party Nationalist Movement Party İyi Party
Last election:
42.56%
21,335,579 votes

295 / 600
Last election:
22.64%
11,348,899 votes

146 / 600
Last election:
11.70%
5,866,309 votes

67 / 600
Last election:
11.10%
5,564,517 votes

49 / 600
Last election:
9.96%
4,990,710 votes

43 / 600

Opinion polls

Parliamentary election

References

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