2009 in spaceflight

Several significant events in spaceflight occurred in 2009, including Iran conducting its first indigenous orbital launch, the first Swiss satellite being launched and New Zealand launching its first sounding rocket. The H-IIB and Naro-1 rockets conducted maiden flights, whilst the Tsyklon-3, Falcon 1 and Ariane 5GS were retired from service.[3][4] The permanent crew of the International Space Station increased from three to six in May, and in the last few months of the year, Japan's first resupply mission to the outpost, HTV-1, was conducted successfully.

2009 in spaceflight
The Hubble Space Telescope was serviced for the last time during the STS-125 mission
Orbital launches
First18 January
Last29 December
Total78
Successes73
Failures4
Partial failures1
Catalogued75
National firsts
Spaceflight New Zealand
Satellite  Switzerland[1]
Orbital launch Iran[2]
Rockets
Maiden flightsDelta IV-M+ (5,4)
H-IIB
Naro-1
Taurus-XL 3110
RetirementsAriane 5GS
Falcon 1
Tsyklon-3
Crewed flights
Orbital9
Total travellers46

Overview

The internationally accepted definition of a spaceflight is any flight which crosses the Kármán line, 100 kilometres above sea level. The first spaceflight launch of the year was that of a Delta IV Heavy, carrying the USA-202 ELINT satellite, which launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 02:47 GMT on 18 January. This was also the first orbital launch of the year.

On 2 February Iran conducted its first successful orbital launch,[2] when a Safir was used to place the Omid satellite into low Earth orbit.

At 16:56 GMT on 10 February, the first major collision between two satellites in orbit occurred, resulting in the destruction of Kosmos 2251 and Iridium 33, launched in 1993 and 1997 respectively. Up until the collision, Iridium 33 was operational, and an active part of the Iridium network of satellites, whilst Kosmos 2251 was an inactive piece of space junk.

On 25 August, the Russo- South Korean Naro-1 rocket made its maiden flight on 25 August, marking South Korea's first involvement in conducting a satellite launch attempt, however the rocket failed to reach orbit after its payload fairing malfunctioned.

The first flight of the SpaceX Falcon 9 carrier rocket was scheduled to occur in November, but was delayed to February 2010 to allow more time for preparations. The SpaceX Dragon, a commercial unmanned logistics spacecraft which was developed as part of NASA's COTS programme, was also scheduled to make its first flight in 2009, however its launch has also slipped to 2010 as a result of knock-on delays. The first H-II Transfer Vehicle, HTV-1, was successfully launched on the maiden flight of the H-IIB carrier rocket on 10 September. The first Swiss satellite, SwissCube-1, was launched on 23 September aboard a PSLV.

On 18 December, the Ariane 5GS made its final flight, delivering the Helios-IIB satellite into a sun-synchronous orbit. The last orbital launch of the year was conducted eleven days later, on 29 December, when a Proton-M with a Briz-M upper stage launched the DirecTV-12 satellite.

Space exploration

Although no planetary probes were launched in 2009, four astronomical observatories were placed into orbit. The Kepler spacecraft, which was launched by a Delta II on 7 March, entered an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit from where it will search for exoplanets. On 14 May, and Ariane 5ECA launched the Herschel and Planck spacecraft. Both were placed at the L2 Lagrangian point between the Earth and Sun, from where they will be used for astronomy. Herschel carries an infrared telescope whilst Planck carries an optical one. The fourth observatory to be launched was the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, which is a replacement for the Wide Field Infrared Explorer which failed shortly after launch. WISE was launched into a sun-synchronous orbit by a Delta II on 14 December, and will be used for infrared astronomy. Repairs made to the Hubble Space Telescope during STS-125 restored it to full operations after a series of malfunctions in 2008.

Two lunar probes were launched in 2009; the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite were launched on a single Atlas V rocket on 18 June. LRO entered selenocentric orbit and began a series of experiments, whilst LCROSS remained attached to the Centaur upper stage of the carrier rocket, and flew past the Moon. After orbiting the Earth twice, LCROSS separated from the upper stage and both it and the Centaur impacted the Cabeus crater at the South Pole of the Moon, on 9 October. By observing the Centaur's impact, LCROSS was able to confirm the presence of water on the Moon.[5] Several other Lunar probes ceased operations in 2009; Okina impacted the far side of the Moon on 12 February, Chang'e 1 was deorbited on 1 March, having completed its operations. Kaguya was also deorbited following a successful mission, impacting near Gill crater on 12 June. The Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft failed on 29 August, having operated for less than half of its design life.

The Mars Science Laboratory and Fobos-Grunt missions to Mars had been scheduled for launch at the end of 2009, however both were delayed to 2011 to allow more time for the spacecraft to be developed. Fobos-Grunt, a sample return mission to Mars' natural satellite Phobos, would have carried the first Chinese planetary probe, Yinghuo-1.

Several flybys occurred in 2009, with Cassini continuing to orbit Saturn, passing close to a number of its natural satellites. In February, Dawn passed within 549 kilometres (341 mi) of Mars, during a gravity assist manoeuvre for its journey to the asteroid belt. In September, MESSENGER made its third and final flyby of Mercury before entering orbit in 2011. Whilst the primary objective of the flyby, achieving a gravitational assist, was successful, the spacecraft entered safe mode shortly before its closest approach, which prevented it recording data as it flew away from the planet.[6] In November, the Rosetta spacecraft performed its third and final gravity assist flyby of Earth.

Manned spaceflight

Nine manned launches occurred in 2009, the most since 1997. STS-119, using Space Shuttle Discovery, was launched on 15 March. It installed the last set of solar arrays on the International Space Station. Soyuz TMA-14, the 100th manned Soyuz launch, delivered the Expedition 19 crew in March. In May, Space Shuttle Atlantis conducted the final mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope, STS-125. Several days later, Soyuz TMA-15 launched with the ISS Expedition 20 crew, brought the total ISS crew size up to six for the first time. This was also the 100th manned spaceflight of the Soyuz programme, excluding the original Soyuz T-10 mission which failed to reach space. In July, Space Shuttle Endeavour delivered the final component of the Japanese Experiment Module on mission STS-127. STS-128, using Discovery in August, delivered supplies using the Leonardo MPLM. September saw the launch of Soyuz TMA-16, with the ISS Expedition 21 crew. This was the 100th manned Soyuz mission reach orbit. In November, Space Shuttle Atlantis flew mission STS-129, delivering two EXPRESS Logistics Carriers to the ISS. The final manned flight of the year, Soyuz TMA-17, was launched on 20 December with the ISS Expedition 22 crew.

Although not a spaceflight in its own right, the Ares I-X test flight was conducted on 28 October, with the rocket lifting off from Launch Complex 39B of the Kennedy Space Center at 15:30 GMT. The flight was successful and reached an altitude of around 46 kilometres (29 mi), within the upper atmosphere. A parachute failure during descent resulted in some damage to the first stage, which was recovered.

Launch failures

Four orbital launch failures occurred in 2009. On 24 February, a Taurus-XL launched from the Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, United States, with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory. The payload fairing did not separate from the rocket, leaving the upper stage with too much mass to reach orbit. The stage, with spacecraft and fairing still attached, reentered the atmosphere, coming down off the coast of Antarctica. The second failure was a controversial North Korean launch attempt using an Unha rocket to launch the Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2 communications satellite. The launch was conducted on 5 April, and North Korea maintains that it successfully reached orbit, however no objects from the launch were tracked as having orbital velocity, and US radar systems tracking the rocket detected that it failed at around the time of third stage ignition, with debris falling in the Pacific Ocean.

A Soyuz-2.1a suffered a failure during the launch of Meridian 2 on 21 May, due to the premature cutoff of the second core stage of the carrier rocket. The satellite was placed in a lower than planned orbit, which it was initially expected to be able to correct by means of its onboard propulsion system, and the launch was reported to be a partial failure. By the time of the next Meridian launch in 2010 it had been confirmed that the satellite could not correct its own orbit, and that the mission was a failure.[7] On 25 August, the Naro-1 rocket was launched on its maiden flight, however one half of the payload fairing failed to separate, and it did not reach orbit.

On 31 August a Long March 3B placed the Palapa-D satellite into a lower than expected orbit after its third stage gas generator burned through, resulting in an engine failure at the start of the second burn.[8] The satellite was able to raise itself to its correct orbit at the expense of fuel which would have been used for five or six years of operations.[8]

Summary of launches

In total, seventy eight orbital launches were attempted in 2009, with seventy five catalogued as having reached orbit, and the three outright launch failures, including the North Korean launch, not being catalogued. This is an increase of nine attempts compared to 2008, and eight more launches reached orbit. This continues a four-year trend of increasing annual launch rates. The United States National Space Science Data Center catalogued 123 spacecraft placed into orbit by launches which occurred in 2009.[9]

Suborbital spaceflight in 2009 saw a number of sounding rocket and missile launches. New Zealand's Ātea-1 sounding rocket was launched on 30 November, marking that country's first suborbital flight. Russia twice attempted launches of its Bulava missile, however both launches failed. The second failure, which occurred on 9 December, resulted in a spiral pattern which was observed in the sky over Norway. The SpaceLoft-XL rocket experienced another launch failure during its third flight, on 2 May. The payload section separated from the rocket whilst it was still burning, and as a result the vehicle did not reach space.[10] It had been carrying samples of cremated human remains for Celestis, and student experiments.

By country

China conducted six launches in 2009; satellite problems early in the year followed by the fallout of the August partial launch failure resulted in many planned launches slipping into 2010. Europe launched seven Ariane 5 rockets, six in the ECA configuration and one in the GS configuration. It had also intended to launch the first Vega rocket, however this was delayed due to ongoing development issues, which had already left the project several years behind schedule. India conducted two launches of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicles, however the first flight of a new variant of the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle with an Indian-built upper stage slipped into 2010. Japan conducted three launches; two using the H-IIA, plus the first H-IIB. Russia and the former Soviet Union conducted twenty nine launches, not including the international Sea and Land launch programmes, which conducted four, and the single Naro-1 launch conducted in cooperation with South Korea.

The United States made twenty four launch attempts, with the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles accounting for eight; the most EELV launches in a single year to date. Eight Delta II launches were also made, including its last mission with a GPS satellite, and its last flight with a payload for the United States armed forces. As the Delta II programme wound down, Space Launch Complex 17A at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, one of the oldest operational launch pads in the world, was deactivated. SpaceX launched a single Falcon 1, which successfully placed an operational satellite into orbit for the first time. This was the final flight of the Falcon 1, which was subsequently retired from service in favour of the Falcon 1e.[4] At the start of the year, a mockup Falcon 9 was erected on its launch pad at Canaveral, however the type's maiden flight slipped into 2010.

Sea Launch only conducted a single launch in 2009; a Zenit-3SL launched Sicral 1B in April. In June, the company was declared bankrupt,[11] and subsequently it lost a number of launch contracts.[12] By the end of the year it was expecting to resume launches in 2010.[12] Its subsidiary, Land Launch, conducted three launches. Iran made its first successful indigenous orbital launch, however planned follow-up launches had not been conducted by the end of the year. North Korea made one launch which it claimed had successfully placed a satellite into orbit, however no such satellite was detected by any country capable of doing so. Israel was not reported to have scheduled or conducted an orbital launch attempt.

List of launches

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January

18 January
02:47[13]
Delta IV-H[14] Cape Canaveral SLC-37B United Launch Alliance
USA-202[15] (Mentor) NRO Geosynchronous ELINTIn orbitOperational
NRO Launch 26
23 January
03:54[16]
H-IIA 202 Tanegashima LA-Y1 Mitsubishi
Ibuki (GOSAT) JAXA Low Earth ClimatologyIn orbitOperational
SDS-1 JAXA Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitSuccessful[17]
Sohla-1 (Maido-1) SOHLA[18] Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitSuccessful[19]
Raijin (Sprite-Sat)[21] Tohoku Low Earth Sprite researchIn orbitSpacecraft failure[22]
Kagayaki[24] Sorun[25] Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitSpacecraft failure[22]
Hitomi (PRISM)[27] Tokyo Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitOperational
Kukai (STARS)[28][29] Kagawa Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitSpacecraft failure[22]
Kiseki (KKS-1)[31] TMCIT Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitSpacecraft failure[22]
Raijin failed to respond to commands from ground following electromagnetic boom deployment, Kagayaki failed to contact ground, STARS tether deployment failed, Kiseki failed to respond to commands from ground.[22]
26 January
00:15[32]
S-310 Andøya LA-U3 Andøya
Delta-2 JAXA/Nagoya[32][33][34] Suborbital Auroral[32]26 JanuarySuccessful
29 January
09:49
Black Brant IX Poker Flat NASA
ACES-I[35] Iowa Suborbital Auroral09:59Successful
29 January
09:51
Black Brant VB Poker Flat NASA
ACES-II[35] Iowa Suborbital Auroral10:01Successful
30 January
13:30[3]
Tsyklon-3 Plesetsk Site 32/2 Roskosmos
Koronas-Foton Roskosmos/MEPhI/NIIEM[36] Low Earth[36] SolarIn orbitSpacecraft failure
Final flight of Tsyklon-3 rocket,[3] satellite problems during mid-2009, loss of signal in early December due to power system malfunction. Declared a total loss in April 2010.[37]

February

2 February
18:36[38]
Safir Semnan ISA
Omid[40] ISA Low Earth Technology25 AprilSuccessful
First successful Iranian orbital launch[2]
6 February
10:22:01[41]
Delta II 7320-10C Vandenberg SLC-2W United Launch Alliance
NOAA-19 (NOAA-N') NOAA/NASA Low Earth WeatherIn orbitOperational
10 February
05:49:46[42]
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 31/6 Roskosmos
Progress M-66 Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) Logistics18 May
15:14:45
Successful
ISS flight 32P
11 February
00:03[43]
Proton-M/Briz-M Enhanced Baikonur Site 200/39 Khrunichev
Ekspress-AM44[45] RSCC Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
Ekspress-MD1 RSCC Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
12 February
22:09:00[46]
Ariane 5ECA Kourou ELA-3 Arianespace
Hot Bird 10 Eutelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
NSS-9 SES New Skies Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
Spirale-A CNES Geosynchronous Transfer TechnologyIn orbitOperational
Spirale-B CNES Geosynchronous Transfer TechnologyIn orbitOperational
13 February[47] UGM-133 Trident II D5 USS Alabama, Pacific Ocean US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test13 FebruarySuccessful
18 February
09:52:00[48]
Terrier-Orion Poker Flat NASA
Clemson Suborbital Atmospheric18 FebruarySuccessful
18 February
10:29:00[48]
Terrier-Orion Poker Flat NASA
Clemson Suborbital Atmospheric18 FebruarySuccessful
18 February
10:59:00[48]
Terrier-Orion Poker Flat NASA
Clemson Suborbital Atmospheric18 FebruarySuccessful
18 February
11:47:00[48]
Terrier-Orion Poker Flat NASA
Clemson Suborbital Atmospheric18 FebruarySuccessful
24 February
09:55:30[49]
Taurus-XL 3110 Vandenberg LC-576E Orbital Sciences
OCO NASA Intended: Sun-synchronous Climatology24 FebruaryLaunch failure
Maiden flight of Taurus-XL 3110, payload fairing failed to separate, failed to reach orbit.[50] Satellite was to have been part of A-train constellation
25 February
10:45[51]
Black Brant IX White Sands LC-36 NASA
CIBER Caltech Suborbital IR Astronomy[52]10:55Successful
26 February
18:29:55[53]
Zenit-3SLB Baikonur Site 45/1 Land Launch
Telstar 11N Telesat Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
28 February
04:10
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 81/24 Khrunichev
Raduga-1 VKS Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
February[38] UGM-133 Trident II D5 Submarine, Pacific Ocean US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile testFebruarySuccessful

March

6 March
10:54[54]
Dhanush Ship, Indian Ocean DRDO
DRDO Suborbital Target6 MarchSuccessful
Target for successful Prithvi interceptor test, apogee: 120 kilometres (75 mi)[54]
7 March
03:49:57[55]
Delta II 7925-10L Cape Canaveral SLC-17B United Launch Alliance
Kepler NASA Heliocentric AstronomyIn orbitOperational
Exosolar planet research, operating in an Earth-trailing orbit[56]
15 March
23:43:44[57]
Space Shuttle Discovery[58] Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-119[59] NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS Assembly[60][61]28 March
19:13[62]
Successful
ITS S6 Truss NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS componentIn orbitOperational
Manned flight with seven astronauts
17 March
14:21[63]
Rokot/Briz-KM Plesetsk Site 133/3[64] Eurockot
GOCE ESA Low Earth Gravity11 November 2013
00:16
Successful
18 March[65]
00:25[66]
TRBM USS Tripoli, Barking Sands US Army
US Army/MDA Suborbital Target18 MarchSuccessful
Intercepted by THAAD launched at 00:30 UTC[65][66]
18 March[65]
00:30[66]
THAAD Barking Sands US Army
US Army/MDA Suborbital ABM test18 MarchSuccessful
Intercepted target missile[65]
18 March[65]
00:30[66]
THAAD Barking Sands US Army
US Army/MDA Suborbital ABM test18 MarchSuccessful
Backup interceptor, destroyed by range safety after first missile succeeded[67]
20 March
11:04
Black Brant XII Poker Flat NASA
Cascades-2 Dartmouth Suborbital Auroral20 MarchSuccessful
24 March
08:34:00[68]
Delta II 7925-9.5 Cape Canaveral SLC-17A United Launch Alliance
USA-203 (GPS IIR-20/M7) US Air Force Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitPartial spacecraft failure
Operational
25 March
13:25[69]
Hera Fort Wingate LC-96 US Army
US Army Suborbital Target25 MarchSuccessful
Target for MIM-104 Patriot PAC-3 test, interceptor failed
26 March
11:49:06
Soyuz-FG Baikonur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Soyuz TMA-14[14] Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS Expedition 1911 October
04:32
Successful
Manned flight with three cosmonauts. First space tourist to make two flights.

April

3 April
16:24
Proton-M/Briz-M Enhanced Baikonur Site 200/39 International Launch Services
Eutelsat W2A Eutelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
4 April
00:31[70]
Atlas V 421 Cape Canaveral SLC-41 United Launch Alliance
USA-204 (WGS-2) US Air Force Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
5 April
02:30:15[71]
Unha Tonghae KCST
Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2 KCST Intended: Low Earth Technology5 AprilLaunch failure
North Korea claimed the launch was successful,[72] however no objects were tracked in orbit.
7 April Blue Sparrow F-15 Eagle, Israel Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force Suborbital Arrow-2 target7 AprilSuccessful
Arrow-2 target, successfully intercepted
7 April Arrow-2 Negev Israel Aerospace Industries
IAI/Israeli Defense Forces Suborbital ABM Test7 AprilSuccessful
Successful intercept of a Blue Sparrow target over the Mediterranean
10 April
09:10
RS-12M Topol Plesetsk RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test10 AprilSuccessful
14 April
16:16
Long March 3C Xichang LA-2 CNSA
Compass-G2 CNSA Geosynchronous NavigationIn orbitOperational
17 April
11:17[73]
FalconLaunch White Sands US Air Force Academy
FalconLAUNCH VII US Air Force Academy Suborbital Technology17 AprilSuccessful
Apogee: 108 kilometres (67 mi),[73] first student-built rocket to reach space
20 April
01:15
PSLV-CA Satish Dhawan SLP ISRO
RISAT-2 ISRO Low Earth Radar imagingIn orbitOperational
ANUSAT Anna Low Earth Technology18 April 2012Successful
20 April
08:16
Zenit-3SL Ocean Odyssey Sea Launch
Sicral-1B ASI Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
22 April
02:55
Long March 2C Taiyuan LC-1 CNSA
Yaogan-6 CNSA Sun-synchronous Remote sensingIn orbitOperational
29 April
16:58
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 16/2 VKS
Kosmos 2450 (Kobal't-M) VKS Low Earth Optical imaging27 JulySuccessful

May

2 May
14:02[10]
SpaceLoft XL Spaceport America UP Aerospace
SL-3 NMSGC Suborbital Student research2 MayLaunch failure[74]
Discovery Celestis Suborbital Space burial
Failed to reach space due to premature payload separation whilst rocket was still burning[10][75][74]
5 May
20:24:25[14][70]
Delta II 7920-10C Vandenberg SLC-2W United Launch Alliance
USA-205 (STSS-ATRR) US Air Force/MDA Low Earth Missile defence
Technology
In orbitOperational
7 May
02:42:00[76]
Terrier-Orion[76] Woomera DSTO
HiFIRE 0 DSTO/AFRL Suborbital Technology7 MaySuccessful
7 May
18:37
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Progress M-02M Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) Logistics13 July
16:28:47
Successful
ISS flight 33P
11 May
18:01
Space Shuttle Atlantis[58] Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-125[78] NASA[79] Low Earth (HST) HST servicing flight[80][81]24 May
15:39
Successful
Manned flight with seven astronauts, final Space Shuttle mission to the Hubble Space Telescope
14 May[82]
13:12
Ariane 5ECA Kourou ELA-3 Arianespace
Herschel[83] ESA Earth/Sun L2 IR astronomyIn orbitOperational
Planck[84] ESA Earth/Sun L2 AstronomyIn orbitOperational
16 May
00:57
Proton-M/Briz-M Enhanced Baikonur Site 200/39 International Launch Services
ProtoStar II ProtoStar Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
19 May
04:36
Agni II Integrated Test Range Indian Army/DRDO
Indian Army/DRDO Suborbital Missile test+127 secondsLaunch failure
Loss of control, landed in sea 203 kilometres (126 mi) downrange[85]
19 May
23:55
Minotaur I MARS LP-0B Orbital Sciences
TacSat-3 USAF-RL Low Earth Technology30 April 2012Successful
PharmaSat NASA Low Earth Biological14 August 2012Successful
AeroCube 3 Aerospace Corporation Low Earth Technology6 January 2011Successful
HawkSat I[86] HISS Low Earth Technology[86][87]4 September 2011Successful
CP6[86] CalPoly Low Earth Technology6 October 2011Successful
All payloads except TacSat-3 and Pharmasat are CubeSats
20 May[66] Sejjil-2 Semnan IRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test20 MaySuccessful
Apogee: 800 kilometres (500 mi)
21 May
21:53
Soyuz-2.1a/Fregat Plesetsk Site 43/4 RVSN
Meridian 2[66] VKS Intended: Molniya
Achieved: Medium Earth
CommunicationIn orbitLaunch failure[88]
Core vehicle second stage shut down five seconds early,[89] attempt to compensate using Fregat resulted in propellent depletion during second of three burns[66] Satellite reached a lower orbit than expected, and despite being expected to be recoverable to fully operational status[90] was unable to recover[88]
22 May
10:32[91]
Nike-Orion Esrange EuroLaunch
MAPHEUS DLR Suborbital Technology22 MaySuccessful
Apogee: 140.8 kilometres (87.5 mi)[91]
26 May UGM-133 Trident II D5 HMS Victorious Royal Navy
Royal Navy Suborbital Missile test26 JulySuccessful
27 May
10:34:42
Soyuz-FG Baikonur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Soyuz TMA-15 Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS Expedition 201 December
07:17
Successful
Manned flight with three cosmonauts, established first permanent six-man crew on the ISS
28 May
16:52
Terrier-Orion Wallops Island NASA
SOAREX VII NASA Suborbital 28 MaySuccessful
29 May Orion Alcântara AEB
Maracati 1 INPE Suborbital Microgravity29 MaySuccessful

June

6 June Terrier-Lynx San Nicolas US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital YAL-1 target6 JuneSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
13 June Terrier-Lynx San Nicolas US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital YAL-1 target13 JuneSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
18 June[92]
21:32
Atlas V 401 Cape Canaveral SLC-41 United Launch Alliance
LRO NASA Selenocentric Lunar orbiterIn orbitOperational
LCROSS NASA High Earth (TLI) Lunar impactor9 October
11:37
Successful
LCROSS observed the upper stage impacting the Cabeus crater on the Moon at 11:31 on 9 October shortly before its own impact into the same crater. The LCROSS spacecraft confirmed the presence of water at the Lunar South Pole.[5]
21 June
21:50
Zenit-3SLB Baikonur Site 45/1 Land Launch
MEASAT-3a MEASAT Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
26 June
09:30
Terrier-Orion Wallops Island LA-2 NASA
RockOn! Colorado Suborbital Student research09:45Successful
27 June
07:30
Black Brant IX White Sands LC-36 NASA
DICE Colorado Suborbital UV Astronomy07:40Spacecraft failure[93]
27 June
22:51[94]
Delta IV-M+ (4,2) Cape Canaveral SLC-37B United Launch Alliance
GOES-O (GOES-14) NOAA/NASA Geostationary WeatherIn orbitOperational
29 June
10:01
LGM-30G Minuteman III Vandenberg US Air Force
GT-199GM US Air Force Suborbital Missile test29 JuneSuccessful
30 June
19:10
Proton-M/Briz-M Enhanced Baikonur Site 200/39 International Launch Services
Sirius FM-5 (RadioSat-5) Sirius XM Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational

July

1 July[95]
19:52
Ariane 5ECA Kourou ELA-3 Arianespace
TerreStar-1 TerreStar Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
6 July
01:26
Rokot/Briz-KM Plesetsk Site 133/3 VKS
Kosmos 2451 (Rodnik) VKS Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2452 (Rodnik) VKS Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2453 (Rodnik) VKS Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
13 July
01:20[96]
R-29RMU Sineva K-84 Ekaterinburg, North Pole VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test13 JulySuccessful
Carried ten re-entry vehicles, impacted Kura Test Range
13 July
23:50[96]
R-29RMU Sineva K-117 Bryansk, North Pole VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test14 JulySuccessful
Carried ten re-entry vehicles, impacted Chizha test site
14 July
03:35[97]
Falcon 1 Omelek SpaceX
RazakSat-1 (MACSat) ATSB Low Earth ImagingIn orbitOperational
Final flight of Falcon 1[4]
15 July[94]
22:03
Space Shuttle Endeavour[59] Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-127 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS Assembly31 July
14:48
Successful
JEM-EF JAXA Low Earth (ISS) ISS componentIn orbitOperational
AggieSat 2 NASA Low Earth Technology17 March 2010
18:26[98]
Partial spacecraft failure
Successful
BEVO-1 NASA Low Earth TechnologyPartial spacecraft failure
Successful
Castor[99] NRL Low Earth Atmospheric18 August 2010
17:48[100]
Successful
Pollux[99] NRL Low Earth Atmospheric29 March 2010Successful
Manned flight with seven astronauts, AggieSat 2 and BEVO-1 collectively designated Dragonsat, Castor and Pollux collectively designated ANDE-2, both deployed on 30 July; Dragonsat at 12:34:30 UTC and ANDE-2 at 17:23:02; Dragonsat satellites failed to separate from each other
16 July[101] RSM-56 Bulava TK-208 Dmitri Donskoi, White Sea VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test16 JulyLaunch failure
First stage malfunction[101]
21 July
03:57:43
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132/1 RVSN
Kosmos 2454 (Parus) VKS Low Earth Navigation
Communications
In orbitOperational
Sterkh-1 Roskosmos Low Earth Communication
Search and rescue
In orbitOperational
22 July
03:40
LRALT C-17 Globemaster III, Pacific Ocean MDA
MDA/IMDO Suborbital ABM target22 JulySuccessful
Target for Arrow test, interceptor launch scrubbed
24 July
10:56:51
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Progress M-67 Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) Logistics27 September
10:19:11
Successful
Final flight of original Progress-M; ISS flight 34P
29 July
18:46
Dnepr Baikonur Site 109/95 ISC Kosmotras
DubaiSat-1 EIAST Sun-synchronous ImagingIn orbitOperational
Deimos-1 Deimos Space Sun-synchronous ImagingIn orbitOperational
UK-DMC 2 BNSC (2009-2010)
UKSA (2010—)
Sun-synchronous ImagingIn orbitOperational
Nanosat 1B INTA Low Earth ImagingIn orbitOperational
AprizeSat-3 LatinSat Low Earth CommunicationIn orbitOperational
AprizeSat-4 LatinSat Low Earth CommunicationIn orbitOperational
31 July
03:40
Kauai MDA
MDA Suborbital ABM target31 JulySuccessful
Target for Stellar Avenger test, intercept successful
31 July
03:42
RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 USS Hopper MDA
Stellar Avenger MDA Suborbital ABM test31 JulySuccessful
31 July
04:00[96]
Kauai MDA
FTX-06 Event 1 MDA Suborbital ABM target31 JulySuccessful
Radar target for exercise after Stellar Avenger, not intercepted

August

11 August
04:50
Black Brant IX San Nicolas NASA
MARTI US Air Force Suborbital ABL target11 AugustSuccessful
11 August
19:47
Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur Site 200/39 International Launch Services
AsiaSat 5 AsiaSat Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
17 August
10:35:00
Delta II 7925-9.5 Cape Canaveral SLC-17A United Launch Alliance
USA-206 (GPS IIR-21/M8) US Air Force Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
Final launch from SLC-17A,[68] final GPS IIR launch, final flight of Delta II 7925
17 August
12:52:00
Black Brant IX Wallops Island NASA
IRVE-II[103] NASA Suborbital Technology17 AugustSuccessful
21 August
22:09
Ariane 5ECA Kourou ELA-3 Arianespace
JCSAT-12 SKY Perfect JSAT Group Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Optus D3 Optus Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
23 August
16:01[104]
LGM-30G Minuteman III Vandenberg US Air Force
GT-200GM US Air Force Suborbital Missile test23 AugustSuccessful[104]
Travelled 6,743 kilometres (4,190 mi) downrange[104]
25 August[105]
08:00
Naro-1 Naro[106] Khrunichev/KARI[106]
STSAT-2A KARI[107] Intended: Low Earth Technology25 AugustLaunch failure[108]
Maiden flight of Naro-1,[109] first South Korean orbital launch attempt (with Russian assistance). First flight of Angara Universal Rocket Module (used as first stage), half of payload fairing failed to separate, failed to reach orbit.[110][111]
29 August
03:59
Space Shuttle Discovery Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-128[113] NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly11 September
00:53
Successful
Leonardo MPLM ASI/NASA Low Earth (ISS) LogisticsSuccessful
Manned flight with seven astronauts
31 August
09:28[114]
Long March 3B Xichang CNSA
Palapa-D Indosat Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitPartial launch failure
Operational[115]
Third stage failed during restart[114] due to gas generator burnthrough[8]

September

3 September[116] UGM-133 Trident II D5 USS West Virginia, Eastern Range US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test3 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
4 September[116] UGM-133 Trident II D5 USS West Virginia, Eastern Range US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test4 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
8 September
21:35
Atlas V 401 Cape Canaveral SLC-41 United Launch Alliance
USA-207 (PAN) Geostationary CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
10 September
17:01:46[117]
H-IIB Tanegashima LA-Y2 JAXA[118]
HTV-1 JAXA Low Earth (ISS) Logistics1 November
21:26
Successful
Maiden flight of H-IIB and H-II Transfer Vehicle, first launch from LA-Y2
14 September
17:40[93]
Black Brant IX White Sands LC-36 NASA
HERSCHEL NRL Suborbital Solar14 SeptemberSuccessful
17 September
15:55
Soyuz-2.1b/Fregat Baikonur Site 31/6 Roskosmos
Meteor M-1 Roskosmos Sun-synchronous WeatherIn orbitOperational
Universitetsky-Tatyana-2[119] MSU Sun-synchronous TechnologyIn orbitOperational
Sterkh-2 Roskosmos Sun-synchronous Communication
Search and rescue
In orbitOperational
UGATUSAT UGATU Sun-synchronous Imaging[120]In orbitOperational
BLITS Roskosmos Sun-synchronous Radar calibrationIn orbitOperational
Sumbandila Stellenbosch Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitOperational
IRIS Low Earth Technology[121]In orbitOperational
IRIS intentionally remained attached to upper stage
17 September
19:19:19
Proton-M/Briz-M Enhanced Baikonur Site 200/39 International Launch Services
Nimiq 5 Telesat Canada Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational[122]
19 September
23:32
Black Brant XII Wallops Island LP-1 NASA
CARE[124] NRL Suborbital Aeronomy19 SeptemberSuccessful
23 September
06:21 [125]
PSLV-CA Satish Dhawan FLP ISRO
Oceansat-2 ISRO Sun-synchronous OceanographyIn orbitOperational
BeeSat TU Berlin Sun-synchronous TechnologyIn orbitOperational
UWE-2 Würzburg Sun-synchronous TechnologyIn orbitOperational
ITU-pSat1 ITU Sun-synchronous TechnologyIn orbitOperational
SwissCube-1 EPFL Sun-synchronous AtmosphericIn orbitOperational
Rubin 9.1 OHB-System Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitSuccessful
Rubin 9.2 OHB-System Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitSuccessful
First Swiss satellite, Rubin payloads intentionally remained attached to upper stage
25 September
12:20 [126]
Delta II 7920-10C Cape Canaveral SLC-17B United Launch Alliance
USA-208 (STSS-Demo 1) US Air Force Low Earth Technology
Missile defence
In orbitOperational
USA-209 (STSS-Demo 2) US Air Force Low Earth Technology
Missile defence
In orbitOperational
27 September[116] Shahab 1 Iran IRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test27 SeptemberSuccessful
Part of Great Prophet IV exercise, apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
27 September[116] Shahab 2 Iran IRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test27 SeptemberSuccessful
Part of Great Prophet IV exercise, apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
28 September[116] Shahab 3 Iran IRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test28 SeptemberSuccessful
Part of Great Prophet IV exercise, apogee: 500 kilometres (310 mi)
28 September[116] Sejjil-1 Iran IRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test28 SeptemberSuccessful
Part of Great Prophet IV exercise, apogee: 800 kilometres (500 mi)
30 September
07:14
Soyuz-FG Baikonur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Soyuz TMA-16 Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS Expedition 2118 March 2010Successful
Manned flight with three cosmonauts

October

1 October
21:59[127]
Ariane 5ECA Kourou ELA-3 Arianespace
Amazonas-2 Hispasat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
COMSATBw-1 Bundeswehr Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
6 October[128] R-29R Volna K-433 Svyatoy Georgiy Pobedonosets, Sea of Okhotsk VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test6 OctoberSuccessful
Carried four re-entry vehicles
7 October[128] R-29R Volna K-44 Ryazan, Sea of Okhotsk VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test7 OctoberSuccessful
Carried four re-entry vehicles
8 October
18:51[129]
Delta II 7920 Vandenberg SLC-2W United Launch Alliance
WorldView-2 DigitalGlobe Low Earth ImagingIn orbitOperational
12 October Prithvi 2 Odisha Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force Suborbital Target12 OctoberSuccessful
15 October
01:14
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Progress M-03M Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) Logistics27 April 2010
18:50:56
Successful
ISS flight 35P
16 October[128] ARAV-B (Terrier-Oriole) Kauai MDA
FTX-06 Event 2 MDA Suborbital ABM target16 OctoberSuccessful
Radar target, not intercepted
16 October[128] ARAV-B (Terrier-Oriole) Kauai MDA
FTX-06 Event 3 MDA Suborbital ABM target16 OctoberSuccessful
Radar target, not intercepted
18 October
16:12
Atlas V 401 Vandenberg SLC-3E United Launch Alliance
USA-210 (DMSP-5D3 F18) US Air Force/NOAA Low Earth WeatherIn orbitOperational
28 October
04:00[128]
Kauai MDA
JMSDF/MDA Suborbital ABM target28 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi), intercepted by SM-3
28 October
04:04[128]
RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 JDS Myōkō, Pacific Ocean JMSDF
JMSDF Suborbital ABM test28 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi), intercepted target
29 October
20:00
Ariane 5ECA Kourou ELA-3 Arianespace
Thor-6 Telenor Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
NSS-12 SES New Skies Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational

November

1 November[128] R-29RMU Sineva K-117 Bryansk, Barents Sea VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test1 NovemberSuccessful
Carried four re-entry vehicles
2 November
01:50
Rokot/Briz-KM Plesetsk Site 133/3 Eurockot[130]
SMOS[132] ESA Sun-synchronous Earth scienceIn orbitOperational
Proba-2 ESA Sun-synchronous Earth scienceIn orbitOperational
5 November[128] ARAV-C (Talos-Castor) Kauai MDA
FTX-06 Event 4 MDA Suborbital ABM target5 NovemberSuccessful
Radar target, not intercepted
10 November[70]
14:22
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Progress M-MIM2 Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) Orbital tug8 December
05:27[133]
Successful
Poisk (MRM-2) Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS componentIn orbitOperational
ISS flight 5R
12 November
02:45[134]
Long March 2C Jiuquan LA-4 CASC
Shijian XI-01 CASC Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitOperational
14 November
02:30[135]
Black Brant IX White Sands LC-36 NASA
CyXESS Colorado Suborbital X-ray astronomy[136]14 NovemberSuccessful
16 November[94]
19:28
Space Shuttle Atlantis[59] Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-129 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly27 November
14:44[137]
Successful
ExPRESS-1 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logisticsIn orbitOperational
ExPRESS-2 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logisticsIn orbitOperational
Manned flight, launching with six astronauts, and landing with seven
20 November
10:44
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 16/2 RVSN
Kosmos 2455 (Lotos-S) VKS Low Earth ELINTIn orbitOperational
22 November
11:15[138]
VSB-30 Esrange EuroLaunch
TEXUS-46 ESA Suborbital Microgravity22 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 252 kilometres (157 mi)[139]
23 November
06:55[140]
Atlas V 431 Cape Canaveral SLC-41 United Launch Alliance
Intelsat 14 Intelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
23 November
14:20[141]
Agni II Integrated Test Range Indian Army/DRDO
Indian Army/DRDO Suborbital Missile test23 NovemberLaunch failure
Loss of control after second stage separation[141]
24 November
14:19[142]
Proton-M/Briz-M Enhanced[143] Baikonur Site 200/39 International Launch Services
Eutelsat W7 Eutelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
28 November[144]
01:21
H-IIA 202 Tanegashima LA-Y1 Mitsubishi
IGS Optical 3[139] Low Earth ReconnaissanceIn orbitSuccessful[145]
29 November
09:00[138]
VSB-30 Esrange EuroLaunch
TEXUS-47 ESA Suborbital Microgravity29 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 264 kilometres (164 mi)[139]
30 November
01:38[139]
Ātea-1 Great Mercury Island Rocket Lab
Manu Karere Rocket Lab Suborbital Test flight30 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 120 kilometres (75 mi),[139] maiden flight of Ātea-1, first spaceflight to be conducted by New Zealand
30 November
21:00
Zenit-3SLB[146] Baikonur Site 45/1 Land Launch
Intelsat 15 Intelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational[147]

December

6 December
01:47[148]
Delta IV-M+ (5,4) Cape Canaveral SLC-37B United Launch Alliance
USA-211 (WGS-3) US Air Force Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitSuccessful
Maiden flight of Delta IV-M+ (5,4), final Block I WGS satellite
9 December
06:45[139]
RSM-56 Bulava TK-208 Dmitri Donskoi, White Sea VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test9 DecemberLaunch failure
Loss of control during third stage burn,[139] caused spiral patterns in the sky above Norway
9 December
08:42[149]
Long March 2D Jiuquan LA-4/SLS-2 CNSA
Yaogan-7 CNSA Sun-synchronous Remote sensingIn orbitOperational
10 December
11:35[139]
RS-12M Topol Kapustin Yar RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test10 DecemberSuccessful
11 December LRALT C-17 Globemaster III, Pacific Ocean MDA
MDA/IMDO Suborbital ABM target11 DecemberLaunch failure
Target for THAAD
13 December Dhanush INS Subhadra Indian Navy
Indian Navy Suborbital Target13 DecemberSuccessful
14 December
10:38[150]
Proton-M/DM-2 Enhanced Baikonur Site 81/24 Khrunichev
Kosmos 2456 (Glonass-M 730) VKS Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2457 (Glonass-M 733) VKS Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2458 (Glonass-M 734) VKS Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
14 December
14:09[151]
Delta II 7320 Vandenberg SLC-2W United Launch Alliance
WISE NASA Sun-synchronous IR AstronomyIn orbitOperational
15 December
02:31
Long March 4C Taiyuan LC-2 CNSA
Yaogan-8 CNSA Sun-synchronous Remote sensingIn orbitOperational[152]
Xi Wang 1 CNSA Sun-synchronous Amateur radioIn orbitOperational[152]
16 December[139] Sejjil-2 Iran IRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test16 DecemberSuccessful
Apogee: 800 kilometres (500 mi)
17 December
03:25
Terrier-Orion Wallops Island NASA
HAROH[153] ERAU Suborbital Aeronomy17 DecemberSuccessful
18 December
16:26
Ariane 5GS Kourou ELA-3 Arianespace
Helios IIB DGA Low Earth ReconnaissanceIn orbitOperational
Final flight of Ariane 5GS
19 December[154] UGM-133 Trident II D5 USS Alaska US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Test flight19 DecemberSuccessful
Demonstration and Shakedown Operation
20 December
21:52
Soyuz-FG Baikonur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Soyuz TMA-17 Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS Expedition 222 June 2010
03:25
Successful
Manned flight with three cosmonauts
24 December[155] R-36M2 Voyevoda Dombarovsky RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test24 DecemberSuccessful
29 December
00:22
Proton-M/Briz-M Enhanced Baikonur Site 200/39 International Launch Services
DirecTV-12 DirecTV Planned: Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational

Deep space rendezvous

Date Spacecraft Event Remarks
7 FebruaryCassini50th flyby of TitanClosest approach: 960 kilometres (600 mi)
12 February[156]OkinaLunar impactFarside of the Moon
17 FebruaryDawnFlyby of MarsGravity assist, closest approach 549 kilometres (341 mi) at 00:28 GMT
1 March[157]Chang'e 1Lunar impactDeorbited at 07:36 and impacted at 08:13[157]
27 MarchCassini51st flyby of TitanClosest approach: 960 kilometres (600 mi)
4 AprilCassini52nd flyby of TitanClosest approach: 4,150 kilometres (2,580 mi)
20 AprilCassini53rd flyby of TitanClosest approach: 3,600 kilometres (2,200 mi)
5 MayCassini54th flyby of TitanClosest approach: 3,244 kilometres (2,016 mi)
21 MayCassini55th flyby of TitanClosest approach: 965 kilometres (600 mi)
6 JuneCassini56th flyby of TitanClosest approach: 965 kilometres (600 mi)
10 June[158]KaguyaLunar Impactat 18:25 UTC, around Gill crater.
22 JuneCassini57th flyby of TitanClosest approach: 955 kilometres (593 mi)
23 JuneLROSelenocentric orbit insertionOrbital insersion burn lasted from 09:47 to 10:26 UTC
23 JuneLCROSS/CentaurLunar flybyGravity assist to align for impact in October, closest approach: 3,200 kilometres (2,000 mi) at 10:30:33 UTC
8 JulyCassini58th flyby of TitanClosest approach: 965 kilometres (600 mi)
24 JulyCassini59th flyby of TitanClosest approach: 955 kilometres (593 mi)
9 AugustCassini60th flyby of TitanClosest approach: 970 kilometres (600 mi)
25 AugustCassini61st flyby of TitanClosest approach: 970 kilometres (600 mi)
17 SeptemberArtemis P1Lunar flybyClosest approach: 43,875 kilometres (27,263 mi) at 00:49 UTC[159]
30 SeptemberMESSENGER3rd flyby of MercuryGravity assist, closest approach: 229 kilometres (142 mi)[160]
9 OctoberAV-020 CentaurLunar impact2,000-kilogram (4,400 lb) upper stage of the Atlas V rocket used to launch LRO and LCROSS. Impacted Cabeus crater[5] at Lunar South Pole.[161] Impact occurred at 11:31 UTC, and was observed by LCROSS.
LCROSS (S-S/C)Lunar impact700-kilogram (1,500 lb) shepherding spacecraft. Detached from Centaur at 01:50 UTC, and impacted same crater at 11:37.
12 OctoberCassini62nd flyby of TitanClosest approach: 1,300 kilometres (810 mi)
2 NovemberCassini7th flyby of EnceladusClosest approach: 103 kilometres (64 mi)
13 NovemberRosetta3rd flyby of EarthGravity assist
21 NovemberCassini8th flyby of EnceladusClosest approach: 1,607 kilometres (999 mi)
8 DecemberArtemis P1Lunar flybyClosest approach: 16,101 kilometres (10,005 mi) at 01:25 UTC[159]
12 DecemberCassini63rd flyby of TitanClosest approach: 4,850 kilometres (3,010 mi)
28 DecemberCassini64th flyby of TitanClosest approach: 955 kilometres (593 mi)
Distant, non-targeted flybys of Dione, Mimas, Rhea, Tethys and Titan by Cassini occurred throughout the year.

EVAs

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Remarks
10 March
16:22
4 hours
49 minutes
21:11 Expedition 18
ISS Pirs
Yuri Lonchakov
Michael Fincke
Installed the EXPOSE-R experiment, removed tape straps from a docking target on the Pirs docking compartment, inspected and photographed the exterior of the Russian portion of the station.[162][163]
19 March
17:16
6 hours
7 minutes
23:23 STS-119
ISS Quest
Steven Swanson
Richard R. Arnold
Installed the S6 truss to the S5 truss, connected S5/S6 umbilicals, released launch restraints, removed keel pins, stored and removed thermal covers, and deployed the S6 photovoltaic radiator.[164]
21 March
16:51
6 hours
30 minutes
23:21 STS-119
ISS Quest
Steven Swanson
Joseph M. Acaba
Advanced preparation of worksite for STS-127, installation of an unpressurised cargo carrier attachment system on the P3 truss, installation of a Global Positioning System antenna to the Kibo laboratory, and infrared imagery of panels of the radiators on the P1 and S1 trusses.[165][166] Cargo carrier installation unsuccessful
23 March
15:37
6 hours
27 minutes
22:04 STS-119
ISS Quest
Joseph M. Acaba
Richard R. Arnold
Relocation of a crew equipment cart, complete the deployment of a cargo carrier, lubricated the station robotic arm's latching end effector B snare bearings, and finish swapping electrical relays to the station's gyroscopes.[167] Cargo carrier deployment unsuccessful
14 May
12:52
7 hours
20 minutes
20:12 STS-125
Atlantis
John M. Grunsfeld
Andrew J. Feustel
HST servicing: Replaced the WFPC-2 with WFC-3, replaced the Science Instrument Command and Data Handling Unit, lubricated three shroud doors, installed SCM.[168][169][170]
15 May
12:49
7 hours
56 minutes
20:46 STS-125
Atlantis
Michael J. Massimino
Michael T. Good
HST servicing: Replaced rate sensing gyroscopes, removed one of two batteries.[171][172]
16 May
13:35
6 hours
36 minutes
20:11 STS-125
Atlantis
John M. Grunsfeld
Andrew J. Feustel
HST servicing: Replaced COSTAR with COS. Repaired ACS, performed get-ahead tasks from EVA-5.[173]
17 May
13:45
8 hours
2 minutes
21:47 STS-125
Atlantis
Michael J. Massimino
Michael T. Good
HST servicing: Repaired Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph.[174]
18 May
13:20
7 hours
2 minutes
20:22 STS-125
Atlantis
John M. Grunsfeld
Andrew J. Feustel
HST servicing: Final HST servicing EVA, final EVA from Space Shuttle. Replaced second battery, installed FGS-3, replaced some insulation and a low-gain antenna cover.[175][176][177]
5 June
07:52
4 hours
54 minutes
12:46 Expedition 20
ISS Pirs
Gennady Padalka
Michael R. Barratt
Prepared the Zvezda service module transfer compartment for the arrival of the Poisk module, installed docking antenna for the module, photographed antenna for evaluation on the ground, and photographed the Strela-2 crane. First use of the Orlan-MK spacesuit.[178][179][180]
10 June
06:55
12 minutes 07:07 Expedition 20
ISS Zvezda
Gennady Padalka
Michael R. Barratt
Internal spacewalk in the depressurised Zvezda transfer compartment, replaced one of the Zvezda hatches with a docking cone, in preparation for the docking of Poisk, later this year.[181]
18 July
16:19
5 hours
32 minutes
21:51 STS-127
ISS Quest
David Wolf
Timothy L. Kopra
JEF installed and P3 nadir UCCAS deployed. S3 zenith outboard PAS deploy postponed due to time constraints.
20 July
15:27
6 hours
53 minutes
22:20 STS-127
ISS Quest
David Wolf
Thomas Marshburn
Transferred Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) from the Shuttle Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) to the External Stowage Platform-3 (ESP-3). Transferred materials included a spare high-gain antenna, cooling-system pump module and spare parts for the Mobile Servicing System. JEF Visual Equipment (JEF-VE) installation on the forward section was postponed due to time constraints.
22 July
14:32
5 hours
59 minutes
20:31 STS-127
ISS Quest
David Wolf
Christopher Cassidy
JPM preparation work, ICS-EF MLI, and P6 battery replacement (2 of 6 units). EVA was cut short due to high levels of CO
2
in Cassidy's suit.
24 July
13:54
7 hours
12 minutes
21:06 STS-127
ISS Quest
Christopher Cassidy
Thomas Marshburn
P6 battery replacement (final 4 of 6).
27 July
11:33
4 hours
54 minutes
16:27 STS-127
ISS Quest
Christopher Cassidy
Thomas Marshburn
SPDM thermal cover adjustment, Z1 patch panel reconfiguration, JEM visual equipment (JEM-VE) installation (forward and aft), and JEM-LTA reconfigurations. S3 Nadir PAS (outboard) deployment postponed to later mission.
1 September
21:49
6 hours
35 minutes
2 September
04:24
STS-128
ISS Quest
John D. Olivas
Nicole P. Stott
Prepared for the replacement of an empty ammonia tank on the station's port truss by releasing its bolts. Retrieved the MISSE-6 and EuTEF experiments mounted outside Columbus, and stowed them in the Shuttle's payload bay for their return to Earth. Nicole Stott becomes the tenth woman to conduct a spacewalk.
3 September
22:13
6 hours
39 minutes
4 September
04:51
STS-128
ISS Quest
John D. Olivas
Christer Fuglesang
Removed the new ammonia tank from the shuttle's payload bay and replaced it with the used tank from the station. The new tank, weighing about 1,800 pounds (820 kg), was the most mass ever moved by spacewalking astronauts. With this spacewalk, Christer Fuglesang became the first person, who is not from either an American or Russian space program, to have participated in four or more spacewalks.
5 September
20:39
7 hours
1 minute
6 September
03:40
STS-128
ISS Quest
John D. Olivas
Christer Fuglesang
Prepared for the arrival of Tranquility by attaching cables between the starboard truss and Unity, the area where Tranquility will be installed. The spacewalkers also replaced a communications sensor device, installed two new GPS antennas, deployed the PAS on the S3 truss, and replaced a circuit breaker.
19 November
14:24
6 hours
37 minutes
21:01 STS-129
ISS Quest
Michael Foreman
Robert Satcher
Installed a spare antenna on the station's truss and a bracket for ammonia lines on Unity. Lubricated the grapple mechanism on the Payload Orbital Replacement Unit Attachment Device on the Mobile Base System and lubricated the snares of the hand of the station's Japanese robotic arm. Deployed the S3 outboard Payload Attach System.
21 November
14:31
6 hours
8 minutes
20:39 STS-129
ISS Quest
Michael Foreman
Randolph Bresnik
Installed the GATOR (Grappling Adaptor to On-Orbit Railing) bracket to Columbus and an additional ham radio antenna. Installed on the truss an antenna for wireless helmet camera video. Relocated the Floating Potential Measurement Unit that records electrical potential around the station as it orbits the Earth. Deployed two brackets to attach cargo on the truss.
23 November
13:24
5 hours
42 minutes
19:06 STS-129
ISS Quest
Robert Satcher
Randolph Bresnik
Installed a new High Pressure Gas Tank (HPGT) on the Quest airlock. Installed MISSE-7A and 7B on ELC-2. Strapped two micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shields to External Stowage Platform #2. Relocated foot restraint, released a bolt on Ammonia Tank Assembly, installed insulated covers on cameras on mobile servicing system and Canadarm 2's end effector. Worked heater cables on docking adapter.

Orbital launch statistics

By country

Country Launches Successes Failures Partial
failures
Remarks
 China6501
 Europe7700
 India2200
International4400Sea Launch / Land Launch
 Iran1100First successful orbital launch[2]
 Japan3300
 North Korea1010
 South Korea1010With Russian assistance
 Russia /
 CIS
292810
 United States242310
World787341

By rocket

By family

Family Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Angara Russia1010Maiden flight
Ariane Europe7700
Atlas United States5500
Delta United States111100
Falcon United States1100
H-II Japan3300
Long March People's Republic of China6501
Minotaur United States1100
Pegasus United States1010
PSLV India2200
R-7 Russia131210
R-14 Russia1100
R-36 Ukraine2200
Safir Iran1100First successful launch[2]
Space Shuttle United States5500
Unha North Korea1010
Universal Rocket Russia131300
Zenit Ukraine /  Russia4400

By type

Rocket Country Family Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Ariane 5 EuropeAriane7700
Atlas V United StatesAtlas5500
Delta II United StatesDelta8800
Delta IV United StatesDelta3300
Dnepr UkraineR-361100
Falcon 1 United StatesFalcon1100Retired[4]
H-IIA JapanH-II2200
H-IIB JapanH-II1100Maiden flight
Kosmos RussiaR-12/R-141100
Long March 2 People's Republic of ChinaLong March3300
Long March 3 People's Republic of ChinaLong March2101
Long March 4 People's Republic of ChinaLong March1100
Minotaur I United StatesMinotaur1100
Naro Russia
 South Korea
Angara1010Maiden flight
Proton RussiaUniversal Rocket101000
PSLV IndiaPSLV2200
Safir IranSafir1100
Soyuz RussiaR-7111100
Soyuz-2 RussiaR-72110
Space Shuttle United StatesSpace Shuttle5500
Taurus United StatesPegasus1010
Tsyklon UkraineR-361100Retired[3]
Unha North KoreaUnha1010
UR-100 RussiaUniversal Rocket3300
Zenit Ukraine /  RussiaZenit4400

By configuration

By launch site

Site Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Baikonur Kazakhstan242400
Cape Canaveral United States111100
Jiuquan People's Republic of China2200
Kennedy United States5500
Kwajalein Atoll Marshall Islands1100
Kourou France7700
MARS United States1100
Ocean Odyssey International1100
Naro South Korea1010First launch
Plesetsk Russia8710
Satish Dhawan India2200
Semnan Iran1100
Taiyuan People's Republic of China2200
Tanegashima Japan3300
Tonghae North Korea1010
Vandenberg United States6510
Xichang People's Republic of China2101

By orbit

Orbital regime Launches Achieved Not Achieved Accidentally
achieved
Remarks
Failed to orbit 0 N/A 0 N/A 0 N/A 3
Low Earth 43 40 3 0 14 to ISS, 1 to HST
Medium Earth 3 3 0 2
Geosynchronous/transfer 24 23 1 0
High Earth 3 2 1 0 Including highly elliptical and Molniya orbits and trans-lunar trajectories.
Heliocentric 1 1 0 0

See also

References

  • Bergin, Chris. "NASASpaceFlight.com".
  • Clark, Stephen. "Spaceflight Now".
  • Kelso, T.S. "Satellite Catalog (SATCAT)". CelesTrak.
  • Krebs, Gunter. "Chronology of Space Launches".
  • Kyle, Ed. "Space Launch Report".
  • McDowell, Jonathan. "Jonathan's Space Report".
  • Pietrobon, Steven. "Steven Pietrobon's Space Archive".
  • Wade, Mark. "Encyclopedia Astronautica".
  • Webb, Brian. "Southwest Space Archive".
  • Zak, Anatoly. "Russian Space Web".
  • "ISS Calendar". Spaceflight 101.
  • "NSSDCA Master Catalog". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • "Space Calendar". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  • "Space Information Center". JAXA.
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