2008 in spaceflight

The year 2008 contained several significant events in spaceflight, including the first flyby of Mercury by a spacecraft since 1975, the discovery of water ice on Mars by the Phoenix spacecraft, which landed in May, the first Chinese spacewalk in September, and the launch of the first Indian Lunar probe in October.

2008 in spaceflight
The first Automated Transfer Vehicle, Jules Verne approaches the ISS
Orbital launches
First15 January
Last25 December
Total69
Successes66
Failures2
Partial failures1
Catalogued67
National firsts
Satellite Venezuela
 Vietnam
Space traveller South Korea
Rockets
Maiden flightsAriane 5ES
Long March 3C
PSLV-XL
Safir
Zenit-3SLB
RetirementsH-IIA 2024
Crewed flights
Orbital7
Total travellers37

Overview

The internationally accepted definition of a spaceflight is any flight which crosses the Kármán line, 100 kilometres above sea level. The first recorded spaceflight launch of the year occurred on 11 January, when a Black Brant was launched on a suborbital trajectory from White Sands, with the LIDOS ultraviolet astronomy payload.[1] This was followed by the first orbital launch of the year on 15 January, by a Sea Launch Zenit-3SL, with the Thuraya 3 communications satellite.[2] The launch marked the return to flight for Sea Launch following the explosion of a Zenit-3SL on the launch pad the previous January during an attempt to launch the NSS-8 satellite.

Five carrier rockets made their maiden flights in 2008; the Ariane 5ES, Long March 3C, Zenit-3SLB, PSLV-XL, and the operational version of the Falcon 1, with an uprated Merlin-1C engine.[3] These were all derived from existing systems. The Blue Sparrow and Sejjil missiles also conducted their maiden flights, and the ATK Launch Vehicle made its only flight, but was destroyed by range safety after it went off course. In November, the baseline Proton-M was retired in favour of the Enhanced variant, first launched in 2007.

The first Vietnamese and Venezuelan satellites, Vinasat-1 and Venesat-1 respectively, were launched in 2008, while a failed Iranian launch was reported to have been that country's first indigenous orbital launch attempt. In September, SpaceX conducted the first successful orbital launch of a privately developed and funded liquid-fuelled carrier rocket, when the fourth Falcon 1 launched RatSat, following previous failures in 2006, 2007, and August.

Space exploration

India launched its first Lunar probe, Chandraayan-1, on 22 October, with the spacecraft entering selenocentric orbit on 8 November. On 16 November, the Moon Impact Probe was released, and crashed into the Lunar surface. Although no other spacecraft were launched beyond geocentric orbit in 2008, several significant events occurred in interplanetary flights which had been launched in previous years. MESSENGER conducted flybys of Mercury in January and October, the first spacecraft to do so since Mariner 10 in 1975. Cassini continued to make flybys of the moons of Saturn, including several close passes of Enceladus, one at a distance of 25 kilometres.[4] In September Rosetta flew past the asteroid 2867 Šteins. On 25 May, the Phoenix spacecraft landed in the Green Valley on Mars, where it discovered water ice.[5] Phoenix exceeded its design life of 90 days, finally failing on 10 November. The Ulysses spacecraft, launched in 1990, was also retired in 2008.[6]

Manned spaceflight

Seven manned flights were launched in 2008, one by China, two by Russia and four by the United States. In April, Yi So-yeon became the first South Korean to fly in space, aboard Soyuz TMA-12. On the same flight, Sergey Volkov became the first second-generation cosmonaut. Yi returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TMA-11, which nearly ended in disaster following a separation failure between the descent and service modules, resulting in a ballistic reentry.[7] In September, China conducted its third manned mission, Shenzhou 7, from which Zhai Zhigang and Liu Boming conducted the first Chinese spacewalk.[8] Soyuz TMA-13, launched in October, was the hundredth flight of the Soyuz programme to carry a crew at some point in its mission.[9]

Assembly of the International Space Station continued, with the delivery of the Columbus module by Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-122 in February. March saw the launch of the Jules Verne Automated Transfer Vehicle, an unmanned European spacecraft which was used to resupply the space station. Also in March, Space Shuttle Endeavour launched on STS-123 with the first component of the Japanese Experiment Module, the Experiment Logistics Module. STS-123 marked the final flight of the Spacelab programme, with a SpaceLab pallet used to carry the Canadian-built Dextre RMS extension. The second JEM component, the main pressurised module, was launched by STS-124, flown by Discovery in May. In November, Endeavour launched on the STS-126 logistics flight, with the Leonardo MPLM.

Launch failures

On 14 March, a Proton-M with a Briz-M upper stage launched AMC-14. Several hours later, on 15 March, the Briz-M engine cut off prematurely during a burn,[10] leaving the satellite in a medium Earth orbit. Following a small legal dispute,[11] the satellite was sold, and raised to a geosynchronous orbit by its manoeuvring thrusters, at the expense of a large amount of its fuel and hence operational life.

On 3 August, SpaceX launched the third Falcon 1. Due to residual thrust caused by the upgraded Merlin-1C engine which was being flown for the first time, the first stage recontacted the second during staging, resulting in the rocket failing to reach orbit. The Trailblazer, PreSat and NanoSail-D satellites were lost in the failure, as was a space burial capsule, containing the remains of several hundred people, including astronaut Gordon Cooper, actor James Doohan, writer and director John Meredyth Lucas and Apollo mission planner Mareta West.[12]

On 16 August, Iran launched a Safir, which though officially successful, was reported to have failed due to a second stage malfunction. The purpose of this launch is in doubt, as before the launch it was claimed that it would place the Omid into orbit, whilst following the launch, it was reported that a boilerplate payload had been launched.[13] Other reports indicated that the launch was only a suborbital test of the rocket.[14] If this was an orbital launch attempt, it was the first Iranian attempt to launch a satellite.

On 22 August, the inaugural launch of the Alliant Techsystems ALV X-1 was terminated 27 seconds after launch from Wallops Flight Facility when it veered off course. Both hypersonic physics experiments on board were destroyed.[15]

Summary of launches

In total, sixty nine orbital launches were made in 2008, with sixty seven reaching orbit, and two outright failures if the Iranian launch in August is counted.[3] This is an increase of one orbital launch attempt on 2007, with two more launches reaching orbit, which continues a trend of increasing launch rates seen since 2006. The final launch of the year was conducted on 25 December, by a Proton-M with three GLONASS navigation satellites for the Russian government.

Suborbital spaceflight in 2008 saw a number of sounding rocket and missile launches. On 21 February, a RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 was used as an anti-satellite weapon to destroy the USA-193 satellite. USA-193 was a US spy satellite which had failed immediately after launch in 2006.[16][17]

By country

China conducted twelve orbital launches of a planned fifteen. Europe had intended to conduct seven launches of Ariane 5 rockets, and the maiden flight of the Vega rocket, however payload delays pushed one of the Arianes into 2009, and the Vega was delayed due to development issues. India had originally scheduled five to seven launches, however only three of these were conducted, mostly due to delays with the launch of Chandraayan-1. Japan scheduled three launches for 2008, of which one was launched; an H-IIA with WINDS in February. Russia and the former Soviet Union conducted twenty six launches, not including the international Sea and Land launch programmes, which conducted six. Fourteen launches were conducted by the United States, which had originally announced plans to launch many more, however technical issues with several rockets, particularly the Atlas V, Delta II and Falcon 1, caused a number of delays. The Atlas problems, combined with a series of delays to the launch of NRO L-26 on a Delta IV, resulted in just two of ten planned EELV launches being conducted.[3][18] Two of six planned Space Shuttle launches were also delayed to 2009, one due to problems with External Tank delivery, and another due to a major systems failure on the Hubble Space Telescope, which it was to have serviced. Israel was not reported to have scheduled, or conducted an orbital launch attempt.

List of launches

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January

11 January
05:32[1]
Black Brant IX White Sands LC-36 NASA
LIDOS JHU Suborbital UV Astronomy05:42Successful
Apogee: 315 kilometres (196 mi)
15 January
11:49[2]
Zenit-3SL Ocean Odyssey Sea Launch
Thuraya 3 Thuraya Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
17 January[19] Jericho III Palmachim Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force Suborbital Missile test17 JanuarySuccessful
18 January
07:30[20]
Black Brant XII Andøya NASA
SCIFER-2 Cornell/Dartmouth Suborbital Ionospheric18 JanuarySuccessful
Apogee: 1,460 kilometres (910 mi)
21 January
03:45[2]
PSLV-CA Satish Dhawan FLP ISRO
TecSAR (Polaris) IAI Low Earth Radar imagingIn orbitOperational
25 January[21] Shaheen-I Sonmiani Army of Pakistan
Army of Pakistan Suborbital Missile test25 JanuarySuccessful
28 January
00:18[2]
Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur Site 200/39 Roskosmos
Ekspress AM-33 RSCC Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
31 January
19:14[22]
VS-30-Orion Andøya DLR/Andøya
HotPay-2 Leeds Suborbital Ionospheric31 JanuarySuccessful
Apogee: 380.6 kilometres (236.5 mi)

February

4 February[23] Safir Semnan ISA
Kavoshgar-1 ISA Suborbital Test4 FebruarySuccessful
5 February
13:02:54[2]
Soyuz-U Bakionur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Progress M-63 Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) Logistics7 April
11:50[24]
Successful
ISS flight 28P
6 February
09:14:40[25]
S-310 Uchinoura JAXA
JAXA Suborbital Ionospheric6 FebruarySuccessful
7 February
11:30[26]
VSB-30 Esrange DLR/ESA
TEXUS-44 DLR/ESA Suborbital Microgravity7 FebruarySuccessful
Apogee: 264 kilometres (164 mi)
7 February
19:45:30[2]
Space Shuttle Atlantis Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-122 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly20 February
14:07:10[27]
Successful
Columbus ESA Low Earth (ISS) ISS componentIn orbitOperational
Manned flight with seven astronauts
11 February
11:34[2]
Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur Site 200/39 International Launch Services
Thor-5 Telenor Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
21 February
03:26[28]
RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 USS Lake Erie US Navy/MDA
ASAT MDA Suborbital Satellite intercept03:29[28]Successful
Destroyed USA-193 satellite[16]
21 February
06:15[26]
VSB-30 Esrange DLR/ESA
TEXUS-45 DLR/ESA Suborbital Microgravity21 FebruarySuccessful
23 February
08:55[2]
H-IIA 2024 Tanegashima LA-Y Mitsubishi
WINDS (Kizuna) JAXA/NICT Geosynchronous Communication
Technology
In orbitSuccessful[29]
26 February
07:28[30]
K-15 Sagarika INS Kalinga Indian Navy
Indian Navy Suborbital Missile test26 FebruarySuccessful

March

9 March
04:03:07[2]
Ariane 5ES Kourou ELA-3 Arianespace
Jules Verne ATV ESA Low Earth (ISS) Logistics29 September
13:31
Successful
Maiden flight of Ariane 5ES and ATV
11 March
06:28:14[2]
Space Shuttle Endeavour Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-123 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS Assembly27 March
00:39:08[31]
Successful
Spacelab MD002[32] NASA Low Earth (STS/ISS) LogisticsSuccessful
JEM ELM-PF JAXA Low Earth (ISS) ISS componentIn orbitOperational
Dextre (SPDM) MDA Corporation Low Earth (ISS) ISS componentIn orbitOperational
Manned flight with seven astronauts
Final flight of Spacelab programme, pallet used to transport Dextre[32]
13 March
10:02[2]
Atlas V 411 Vandenberg SLC-3E United Launch Alliance
USA-200 (Improved Trumpet)[33] NRO Molniya[33] ELINT[33]In orbitOperational
NRO Launch 28, first Atlas V launch from Vandenberg
14 March
23:18:55[2][34]
Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur Site 200/39 International Launch Services
AMC-14 SES Americom Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
Partial launch failure[3]
Upper stage malfunction during second burn left spacecraft in wrong orbit[10][35]
Initial recovery attempted but abandoned due to legal issues.[11][36] Later sold and recovery efforts restarted.[37]
15 March
06:10[38]
Delta II 7925-9.5 Cape Canaveral SLC-17A United Launch Alliance
USA-201 (GPS IIR-19/M6)[39] US Air Force Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
80th consecutive successful Delta II launch.[38]
19 March
22:47:59[40]
Zenit-3SL Ocean Odyssey Sea Launch
DirecTV-11 DirecTV Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
23 March
04:45[41]
Agni 1 Integrated Test Range LC-4[41] Indian Army
SFC/DRDO Suborbital Missile test23 MarchSuccessful
27 March
17:15[42]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132/1 COSMOS International
SAR-Lupe 4 Bundeswehr Low Earth, polar Radar imagingIn orbitOperational
28 March VSB-30 Andøya Andøya
Mini-DUSTY 14 Andøya Suborbital Ionospheric28 MarchSuccessful

April

2 April
08:01[43]
LGM-30G Minuteman III Vandenberg LF-09 US Air Force
GT-196GM US Air Force Suborbital Missile test2 AprilSuccessful
Travelled 6,759 kilometres (4,200 mi) downrange[43]
8 April
11:16:39[24][44]
Soyuz-FG Baikonur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Soyuz TMA-12 Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS Expedition 17[44]24 October
03:37[45]
Successful
Manned flight with three cosmonauts, including first South Korean in space[24] and first second-generation cosmonaut[46]
Docked on 10 April at 12:57 GMT[44]
14 April
16:58[47]
Black Brant IX White Sands LC-36 NASA
SEE UCB LASP Suborbital UV Astronomy[48]17:08[47]Successful
14 April
20:12:00[49]
Atlas V 421 Cape Canaveral SLC-41 United Launch Alliance
ICO G1 ICO Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
Heaviest single commercial satellite to be placed in GSO.
Heaviest satellite to be launched by an Atlas rocket.[49]
15 April Blue Sparrow F-15 Eagle, Israel Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force Suborbital Test flight15 AprilSuccessful
Maiden flight of Blue Sparrow
16 April
17:01[50]
Pegasus-XL Stargazer, Kwajalein Atoll Orbital Sciences
C/NOFS STP/NASA Low Earth Electrodynamics28 November 2015Successful
18 April
22:17[51]
Ariane 5ECA Kourou ELA-3 Arianespace
Vinasat-1 VNPT Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
Star One C2 Star One Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
First Vietnamese satellite
19 April[52][53] Shaheen-II Sonmiani Army of Pakistan[54]
Army of Pakistan[54] Suborbital Missile test19 AprilSuccessful
21 April[55] Shaheen-II Sonmiani Army of Pakistan
Army of Pakistan Suborbital Missile test21 AprilSuccessful
25 April
15:35[56]
Long March 3C Xichang LA-2 CNSA
Tianlian I-01 CNSA Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
Maiden flight of Long March 3C
26 April
22:16:02[57]
Soyuz-FG/Fregat Baikonur Site 31/6 Starsem
GIOVE-B ESA Medium Earth Navigation
Technology
In orbitOperational
28 April
03:53:51[58][59]
PSLV-C Satish Dhawan SLP ISRO
Cartosat-2A[60] ISRO Low Earth Remote sensingIn orbitOperational
TWSAT[60] ISRO Low Earth Remote sensingIn orbitOperational
CanX-2[61] UTIAS Low Earth Technology[61]In orbitOperational
Cute-1.7+APD II[62] Tokodai Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitOperational
Delfi-C3[63] Delft Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitOperational
AAUSAT-II[64] Aalborg Low Earth Radiation[64]In orbitOperational
COMPASS-1[65] Aachen Low Earth Remote sensing
Technology
In orbitOperational
SEEDS-2[66] Nihon Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitOperational
CanX-6[67] UTIAS/COM DEV Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitOperational
RUBIN-8[68] OHB System Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitOperational
All payloads except CartoSat, TWSAT and RUBIN were CubeSats, launched under designation NSL-4, except CanX-6 which was NSL-5.[69]
RUBIN-8 intentionally remained attached to upper stage
28 April
05:00[70]
Zenit-3SLB Baikonur Site 45/1 Land Launch
AMOS-3 (AMOS-60) SCL Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
First Land Launch flight and maiden flight of Zenit-3SLB.
Reached incorrect orbit due to carrier rocket underperformance.[71] Corrected by satellite through use of spare fuel, without affecting operational life.

May

1 May
05:30[72][73]
Black Brant IX White Sands LC-36 NASA
JHU Suborbital UV Astronomy05:40Successful
7 May
04:26[74][75]
Agni-III Integrated Test Range LC-4 Indian Army
SFC/DRDO Suborbital Missile test04:41Successful
8 May UGM-133 Trident II USS Nebraska US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test8 MaySuccessful
8 May UGM-133 Trident II USS Nebraska US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test8 MaySuccessful
14 May
20:22:54[76][77]
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Progress M-64 Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) Logistics8 September[78]Successful
ISS flight 29P
15 May
04:00[79][80][81]
VSB-30 Esrange SSC/DLR
MASER-11 SSC/ESA Suborbital Microgravity15 MaySuccessful[81]
Apogee: 252 kilometres (157 mi)[81]
21 May
09:43[82]
Zenit-3SL Ocean Odyssey Sea Launch
Galaxy 18 Intelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
22 May
10:04[83][84]
LGM-30G Minuteman III Vandenberg LF-10 US Air Force
GT-197GM US Air Force/NNSA[83] Suborbital Missile test22 MaySuccessful
Long range test[85]
23 May
05:00[86]
Prithvi Integrated Test Range Indian Army
Indian Army[86] Suborbital Missile test23 MaySuccessful
User test[86]
23 May
15:20:09[87]
Rokot/Briz-KM Plesetsk Site 133/3[70] RVSN
Kosmos 2437 (Rodnik)[88] VKS Low Earth CommunicationIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2438 (Rodnik)[88] VKS Low Earth CommunicationIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2439 (Rodnik)[88] VKS Low Earth CommunicationIn orbitOperational
Yubeleiny NPO PM[89] Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitOperational
27 May
03:02[90]
Long March 4C Taiyuan LC-1 CNSA
Feng Yun 3A CMA Sun-synchronous Weather[91]In orbitOperational
29 May Tszyuylan-2 P629 Submarine, Yellow Sea PLAN
PLAN Suborbital Missile test29 MaySuccessful
31 May
21:02:12[92][93]
Space Shuttle Discovery Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-124 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS Assembly14 June
15:15[94]
Successful
JEM-PM JAXA Low Earth (ISS) ISS ComponentIn orbitOperational
Manned flight with seven astronauts

June

5 June
18:13
TR-SRBM USS Tripoli, Kauai US Navy/MDA
MDA Suborbital AEGIS target5 JuneSuccessful
Destroyed after re-entry by endoatmospheric SM-2 missile launch
9 June
12:15[95]
Long March 3B[96] Xichang LA-2 CNSA
Chinasat 9[98] CNPT Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
11 June
16:05[99]
Delta II 7920H-10C Cape Canaveral SLC-17B United Launch Alliance
FGST[100] (GLAST)[102] NASA Low Earth Gamma-ray astronomyIn orbitOperational
12 June
22:05:02[103]
Ariane 5ECA Kourou ELA-3 Arianespace
Skynet 5C MoD Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
Turksat 3A Turksat Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
13 June MRT Barking Sands US Navy/MDA
MDA Suborbital AEGIS target13 JuneSuccessful
Used for simulated test, not intercepted
13 June MRT Barking Sands US Navy/MDA
MDA Suborbital AEGIS target13 JuneSuccessful
Used for simulated test, not intercepted
19 June
06:36
[104][105]
Kosmos-3M Kapustin Yar Site 107 COSMOS International
Orbcomm CDS-3 Orbcomm Low Earth CommunicationIn orbitSpacecraft failure
Orbcomm QL-1 Orbcomm Low Earth CommunicationIn orbitOperational[106]
Orbcomm QL-2 Orbcomm Low Earth CommunicationIn orbitSpacecraft failure
Orbcomm QL-3 Orbcomm Low Earth CommunicationIn orbitOperational[106]
Orbcomm QL-4 Orbcomm Low Earth CommunicationIn orbitSpacecraft failure
Orbcomm QL-5 Orbcomm Low Earth CommunicationIn orbitSpacecraft failure
Spacecraft affected by communications problems, four had failed by December 2009.[107]
20 June
07:46:25[104]
Delta II 7320 Vandenberg SLC-2W United Launch Alliance
Jason-2 (OSTM) NASA Low Earth OceanographyIn orbitOperational
26 June
02:16[108]
TRBM C-17, Pacific Ocean US Air Force
MDA Suborbital THAAD Target26 JuneSuccessful
Intercepted after re-entry by THAAD launched from KMR at 02:22 GMT.[108][109][110]
26 June
19:57[111][112]
Black Brant XI Wallops Island NASA
MDA[112] Suborbital Technology26 JuneSuccessful
26 June
23:59[113]
Proton-K/DM-2[114] (?? DM-3[37]) Baikonur Site 81/24 RVSN
Kosmos 2440 (Prognoz)[37] VKS Geosynchronous Missile defence[37]In orbitOperational
30 June[115] Nike-Orion Andøya Andøya
ECOMA 2008-1 Andøya/DLR Suborbital Aeronomy30 JuneSuccessful

July

7 July
21:30[115]
Nike-Orion Andøya Andøya
ECOMA 2008-2 Andøya/DLR Suborbital Aeronomy7 JulySuccessful
Apogee: 125 kilometres (78 mi)
7 July
21:47[116]
Ariane 5ECA Kourou ELA-3 Arianespace
Badr-6 Arabsat Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
ProtoStar-1[118] ProtoStar Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
9 July[119] Shahab-3[120] Strait of Hormuz[119] IRG
IRG Suborbital Missile test9 JulySuccessful
Part of Great Prophet III exercise[120]
9 July[119] Shahab-2[121] Strait of Hormuz[119] IRG
IRG Suborbital Missile test9 JulySuccessful
Part of Great Prophet III exercise,[120] missile type not confirmed
9 July[119] Shahab-1[121] Strait of Hormuz[119] IRG
IRG Suborbital Missile test9 JulySuccessful
Part of Great Prophet III exercise,[120] missile type not confirmed
10 July[122] Shahab-3 Strait of Hormuz IRG
IRG Suborbital Missile test10 JulySuccessful
Part of Great Prophet III exercise, missile type not confirmed
12 July
10:46[115]
Nike-Orion Andøya[115] Andøya
ECOMA 2008-3 Andøya/DLR Suborbital Aeronomy[115]12 JulySuccessful
Apogee: 123 kilometres (76 mi)[115]
14 July
10:10[123]
Terrier-Orion[124] Wallops Island LP-1 NASA
SubTEC-II Andøya/DLR Suborbital Technology14 JulySuccessful
16 July
05:20:59
[125][126]
Zenit-3SL Ocean Odyssey Sea Launch
Echostar 11 Echostar Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOngoing
18 July
22:47[127]
UGM-27 Polaris (STARS Kodiak Island US Air Force
FTX-03 MDA Suborbital Target18 JulySuccessful[128]
Radar targeting test only, missile not intercepted
22 July
02:40:09
[129][130][131]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132/1 COSMOS International[129]
SAR-Lupe 5 Bundeswehr Low Earth, polar Radar imagingIn orbitOperational
26 July
18:31[132]
Soyuz-2.1b Plesetsk Site 43/4 RVSN
Kosmos 2441 (Persona)[132] VKS Sun-synchronous Optical imagingIn orbitSpacecraft failure
Spacecraft lost due to electrical malfunction[133]

August

1 August[134] R-29 RFS Ryazan, Barents Sea[134] VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test1 AugustSuccessful[134]
2 August
08:30[135][136]
S-520 Uchinoura JAXA
JAXA/Teikyo Suborbital Microgravity2 AugustSuccessful
Apogee: 293 kilometres (182 mi)
3 August
03:34[137][138]
Falcon 1 Omelek SpaceX
Trailblazer ORS/MDA Intended: Low Earth Technology~T+140 seconds[139]Launch failure[139]
PreSat[140] Santa Clara/NASA[140][141] Intended: Low Earth Biological
NanoSail-D[140] Santa Clara/NASA[140][142] Intended: Low Earth Solar sail
Explorers[143] Celestis Intended: Low Earth Space burial
First and second stage recontact due to residual thrust.[137] PreSat and Nanosail CubeSats, Celestis burial payload included remains of astronaut Gordon Cooper,[144] actor James Doohan,[145] writer and director John Meredyth Lucas,[146] and Apollo mission planner Mareta West[147]
13 August
08:01[148]
LGM-30G Minuteman III Vandenberg US Air Force
GT-195GM US Air Force Suborbital Missile test13 AugustSuccessful[148]
Travelled about 6,790 kilometres (4,220 mi) downrange.[149]
14 August
20:44[104]
Ariane 5ECA Kourou ELA-3 Arianespace
Superbird 7 SCC Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
AMC-21 SES Americom Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
16 August
19:32[150]
Safir[151] Semnan ISA
DemoSat[152] ISA Intended: Low Earth[150] Test flight16 AugustLaunch failure[150]
Reported to have been first Iranian orbital launch attempt. Officially successful, however no objects were left in orbit.[150] Unofficial reports of a second stage malfunction.[150] Also reported to have been a suborbital test, or an attempt to launch the Omid satellite, instead of an orbital test launch.
18 August
22:43[153][154][155]
Proton-M/Briz-M Enhanced Baikonur Site 200/39[155] International Launch Services
Inmarsat-4 F3[157] Inmarsat Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
22 August
09:10[158]
ALV MARS LP-0B Alliant Techsystems
SOAREX VI NASA Suborbital TechnologyT+27 seconds[158]Launch failure
Hy-BoLT NASA Suborbital Aerodynamics
Only flight of ALV, veered off course to the South and destroyed by RSO[159]
25 August[160] UGM-133 Trident II USS Louisiana, Pacific Ocean US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test25 AugustSuccessful
25 August[160] UGM-133 Trident II USS Louisiana, Pacific Ocean US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test25 AugustSuccessful
28 August[161] RT-2PM Topol (RS-12M) Plesetsk RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test28 AugustSuccessful
29 August
07:15[162]
Dnepr Baikonur Site 109/95 ISC Kosmotras
Tachys (RapidEye-1)[163] RapidEye Low Earth ImagingIn orbitOperational
Mati (RapidEye-2)[163] RapidEye Low Earth ImagingIn orbitOperational
Choma (RapidEye-3)[163] RapidEye Low Earth ImagingIn orbitOperational
Choros (RapidEye-4)[163] RapidEye Low Earth ImagingIn orbitOperational
Trochia (RapidEye-5)[163] RapidEye Low Earth ImagingIn orbitOperational

September

6 September
03:25[164]
Long March 2C Taiyuan LC-1 CNSA
Huan Jing 1A CNSA Sun-synchronous Remote sensingIn orbitOperational
Huan Jing 1B CNSA Sun-synchronous Remote sensingIn orbitOperational
6 September
18:50:57[165]
Delta II 7420 Vandenberg SLC-2W United Launch Alliance
GeoEye 1 (Orbview 5) GeoEye Sun-synchronous ImagingIn orbitOperational
10 September
19:50:02[78]
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Progress M-65 Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) Logistics7 December
08:48:47[166]
Successful
ISS flight 30P
18 September
02:05[167]
Kauai MDA
MDA Suborbital Target18 SeptemberLaunch failure[167]
Two THAAD intercept launches cancelled.[167]
18 September
14:45[168]
RSM-56 Bulava (R-30) RFS Dmitri Donskoi, White Sea[169] VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test15:05[170]Successful
19 September
21:48[163][171]
Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur Site 200/39 International Launch Services
Nimiq-4[172] Telesat Canada Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
24 September
06:57[173]
Chimera[173] (Minuteman/Minotaur II) Vandenberg LF-06 Orbital Sciences
NFIRE 2b MDA Suborbital Target24 SeptemberSuccessful
Tracked by NFIRE satellite
24 September
09:27:59[174]
Zenit-3SL Ocean Odyssey Sea Launch
Galaxy 19 Intelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
25 September
08:49:37
[163][175]
Proton-M/DM-2[176] Baikonur Site 81/24 RVSN
Kosmos 2442 (GLONASS)[163][177] VKS Medium Earth Navigation[178]In orbitOperational
Kosmos 2443 (GLONASS)[163][177] VKS Medium Earth Navigation[178]In orbitOperational
Kosmos 2444 (GLONASS)[163][177] VKS Medium Earth Navigation[178]In orbitOperational
25 September
13:10[163][179]
Long March 2F Jiuquan LA-4/SLS-1 CNSA
Shenzhou 7 CNSA Low Earth Manned flight28 September
09:37:40[180]
Successful
Ban Xing[180] CNSA Low Earth Technology30 October 2009[182]Successful
Shenzhou 7-GC[180] CNSA Low Earth Technology4 January 2010[184]Successful
Manned flight with three yǔhángyuán, crew conducted first Chinese EVA
Ban Xing deployed from Shenzhou on 27 September at 11:27 GMT, GC separated on 28 September at 08:48 to begin independent mission[180]
28 September
23:15[185]
Falcon 1 Omelek SpaceX
RatSat[180] SpaceX Low Earth DemoSatIn orbitSuccessful[185][186]
Launched boilerplate payload. First privately funded and developed liquid fuelled rocket to reach orbit[186]

October

1 October
06:37:16
Dnepr Dombarovskiy ISC Kosmotras
THEOS GISTDA Low Earth Remote sensingIn orbitOperational
11 October[187] R-29RMU Sineva RFS Tula, Barents Sea VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test11 OctoberSuccessful
Long-range test[187]
12 October
07:01[188]
Soyuz-FG Baikonur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Soyuz TMA-13[190] Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS Expedition 188 April 2009
07:16
Successful
Manned flight with three cosmonauts, including a space tourist. 100th flight of the Soyuz programme to be manned at some point in its mission[9]
12 October
07:24[191]
RT-2PM Topol (RS-12M) Plesetsk RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test07:50[191]Successful
12 October[192] R-29R Vysota RFS Zelenograd, Sea of Okhotsk[192] VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test12 OctoberSuccessful
12 October[192] R-29RM Shtil RFS Yekaterinburg, Barents Sea[192] VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test12 OctoberSuccessful
19 October
17:47:23[193]
Pegasus-XL/Star-27 Stargazer, Kwajalein Atoll Orbital Sciences
IBEX NASA High Earth SolarIn orbitOperational
20 October
08:39[194]
Black Brant IX White Sands LC-36 NASA
NRL Suborbital UV Astronomy[195]08:49[194]Successful
22 October
00:52:11[196]
PSLV-XL Satish Dhawan SLP ISRO
Chandrayaan-1[197] ISRO Selenocentric Lunar orbiterIn orbitPartial spacecraft failure
MIP ISRO Selenocentric Lunar impactor14 NovemberSuccessful
First Indian lunar spacecraft,[198] failed on 28 August 2009 after less than half of planned mission duration, maiden flight of PSLV-XL
22 October
09:10[199]
RS-18 UR-100N Baikonur RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test22 OctoberSuccessful
22 October
12:30[200]
Nike-Orion Esrange EuroLaunch
REXUS-4 SSC/DLR Suborbital Student research22 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 175 kilometres (109 mi)
25 October
01:15[201]
Long March 4B Taiyuan LC-2[202] CNSA
Shi Jian 6E CNSA Low Earth ScientificIn orbitOperational
Shi Jian 6F CNSA Low Earth ScientificIn orbitOperational
First launch from Taiyuan LC-2[202]
25 October
02:28[203]
Delta II 7420-10 Vandenberg SLC-2W United Launch Alliance
COSMO-3 ASI[204] Sun-synchronous Radar imagingIn orbitOperational
29 October
16:53:53[205]
Long March 3B/E Xichang LA-3 CNSA
Venesat-1 VMoST Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
First Venezuelan satellite[205]

November

1 November[206] Barking Sands US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Target1 NovemberSuccessful
Intercepted by SM-3 missile, part of Pacific Blitz exercise[206]
1 November[206] RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 USS Paul Hamilton, Pacific Ocean[206] US Navy
US Navy[206] Suborbital Intercept test1 NovemberSuccessful
Intercepted target missile, part of Pacific Blitz exercise[206]
1 November[206] Barking Sands US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Target1 NovemberSuccessful
Intercept by SM-3 missile failed. Part of Pacific Blitz exercise[206]
1 November[206] RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 USS Hopper, Pacific Ocean[206] US Navy
US Navy[206] Suborbital Intercept test1 NovemberSpacecraft failure
Sensor fault resulted in failure to intercept target missile.[206] Part of Pacific Blitz exercise[206]
5 November
00:15[207]
Long March 2D[208] Jiuquan LA-4/SLS-2[209] CNSA
Chuang Xin 1B CNSA Low Earth WeatherIn orbitOperational
Shiyan Weixing 3[209] CNSA Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitOperational
5 November
09:00[210]
LGM-30G Minuteman III Vandenberg US Air Force
GT-198GM US Air Force Suborbital Missile test5 NovemberSuccessful
Travelled 6,740 kilometres (4,190 mi) downrange[210]
5 November
20:44
Proton-M/Briz-M Baikonur Site 200/39 International Launch Services
Astra 1M SES Astra Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
Final flight of standard Proton-M
12 November
05:56[211]
Shaurya[212] Integrated Test Range LC-3[213] DRDO
Indian Army Suborbital Missile test12 NovemberSuccessful
12 November[214] Sejjil Iran IRGC AF
IRGC AF Suborbital Missile test12 NovemberSuccessful
Maiden flight of Sejjil missile
13 November
09:06[215]
M51 CEL FOST
FOST Suborbital Missile test13 NovemberSuccessful
14 November
15:50[216]
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 16/2 RVSN
Kosmos 2445 (Kobalt-M) VKS Low Earth Optical imaging23 February 2009[218]
16:15[219]
Successful
14 November Black Brant IX White Sands LC-36 NASA
NRL[220] Suborbital Solar[220]14 NovemberSuccessful
15 November
00:55:39[221]
Space Shuttle Endeavour[222] Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-126[224] NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS Assembly30 November
21:25:06[225]
Successful
Leonardo MPLM ASI/NASA Low Earth (ISS) LogisticsSuccessful
PSSC US Air Force Low Earth Technology17 February 2010
17:31[226]
Successful
Manned flight with seven astronauts, PSSC deployed from Shuttle at 20:33 GMT on 29 November and operated for 110 days.[227]
19 November
02:18[228][229]
Barking Sands US Navy
US Navy/JMSDF Suborbital Target19 NovemberSuccessful
Intercept by SM-3 missile failed
19 November
02:21[229]
RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 JDS Chōkai, Pacific Ocean JMSDF
JMSDF Suborbital Interceptor19 NovemberSpacecraft failure
Infrared sensor fault, failed to intercept target[230]
26 November
12:38:27[231]
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Progress M-01M Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) Logistics8 February 2009
08:20[232]
Successful
First flight of modernised Progress spacecraft, Kurs anomaly necessitated manual docking.
ISS flight 31P
26 November
13:24[233]
RS-24 Yars Plesetsk RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test26 NovemberSuccessful
26 November[234] Iran ISA
Kavoshgar-2 ISA Suborbital Test flight26 NovemberSuccessful
Payload recovered by parachute
28 November[235] RSM-56 Bulava (R-30) RFS Dmitri Donskoi, White Sea[236] VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test28 NovemberSuccessful

December

1 December
04:42[237]
Long March 2D Jiuquan LA-4/SLS-2 CNSA
Yaogan-4 CNSA Sun-synchronous Remote sensingIn orbitOperational
2 December
05:00[238]
Molniya-M/2BL[239] Plesetsk Site 16/2 RVSN
Kosmos 2446 (Oko) VKS Molniya Missile defenceIn orbitOperational
5 December
10:35:10[240]
VS-30-Orion SvalRak Andøya
ICI-2[242] Oslo Suborbital Auroral10:45[240]Successful
Apogee: 330 kilometres (210 mi)[240]
5 December
20:04[243]
UGM-27 Polaris (STARS) Kodiak Island US Air Force
FTG-05 MDA Suborbital Target20:29[244]Partial spacecraft failure
Decoy target failed to deploy,[245] intercepted by GBI
5 December
20:21[243]
Ground Based Interceptor Vandenberg US Air Force
FTG-05 MDA Suborbital Target20:29[244]Successful
Intercepted Polaris
10 December
13:43:00[246]
Proton-M/Briz-M Enhanced Baikonur Site 200/39 International Launch Services
Ciel-2[104] Ciel[247] Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
15 December
03:22[248]
Long March 4B Taiyuan LC-2 CNSA
Yaogan-5 CNSA Sun-synchronous Remote sensing2 September 2014Successful
20 December
22:35[249]
Ariane 5ECA Kourou ELA-3 Arianespace
Hot Bird 9[104] Eutelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitOperational
Eutelsat W2M[104] Eutelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationIn orbitSpacecraft failure[250]
23 December
00:54[251]
Long March 3A Xichang LA-2 CNSA
Feng Yun 2E CMA Geosynchronous WeatherIn orbitOperational
23 December
03:00[252]
RSM-56 Bulava[253] RFS Dmitry Donskoi[254] VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test23 DecemberLaunch failure
Self-destruct system activated after missile went off course[254]
25 December
10:43[255]
Proton-M/DM-2 Enhanced Baikonur Site 81/24 RVSN
Kosmos 2447 (GLONASS) VKS Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2448 (GLONASS) VKS Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2449 (GLONASS) VKS Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
First flight of Proton-M Enhanced with DM-2 upper stage, last orbital launch from Baikonur to be conducted by the Russian military

Deep Space Rendezvous

Date (GMT) Spacecraft Event Remarks
5 JanuaryCassini40th flyby of TitanClosest approach: 1,010 kilometres (630 mi)
14 JanuaryMESSENGER1st flyby of MercuryClosest approach: 200 kilometres (120 mi) at 19:04 GMT[256]
22 FebruaryCassini41st flyby of TitanClosest approach: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
12 MarchCassini3rd flyby of EnceladusClosest approach: 52 kilometres (32 mi)
25 MarchCassini42nd flyby of TitanClosest approach: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
12 MayCassini43rd flyby of TitanClosest approach: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
25 MayPhoenixLanding on MarsRegion D, Arctic area - Green Valley, near the Heimdal crater: 68°N, 236°E. Touchdown at 23:38 GMT. Successful[257]
28 MayCassini44th flyby of TitanClosest approach: 1,400 kilometres (870 mi)
31 JulyCassini45th flyby of TitanClosest approach: 1,613 kilometres (1,002 mi)
11 AugustCassini4th flyby of EnceladusClosest approach: 54 kilometres (34 mi)
5 SeptemberRosettaFlyby of 2867 Šteins

Closest approach: 800 kilometres (500 mi)

6 OctoberMESSENGER2nd flyby of Mercury
9 OctoberCassini5th flyby of EnceladusClosest approach: 25 kilometres (16 mi)
31 OctoberCassini6th flyby of EnceladusClosest approach: 200 kilometres (120 mi)
3 NovemberCassini46th flyby of TitanClosest approach: 1,100 kilometres (680 mi)
8 NovemberChandrayaan-1Injection into Selenocentric orbitPeriselene: 504 kilometres (313 mi), Aposelene: 7,502 kilometres (4,662 mi)[258]
14 NovemberMIPLanding on the MoonLunar Impactor
19 NovemberCassini47th flyby of TitanClosest approach: 1,023 kilometres (636 mi)
5 DecemberCassini48th flyby of TitanClosest approach: 960 kilometres (600 mi)
21 DecemberCassini49th flyby of TitanClosest approach: 970 kilometres (600 mi)
Distant, non-targeted flybys of Dione, Enceladus, Mimas, Tethys and Titan by Cassini occurred throughout the year.

EVAs

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Function Remarks
30 January
09:56[259]
7 hours
10 minutes
17:06[260] Expedition 16
(ISS Quest)
Peggy Whitson
Daniel M. Tani
Replace motor and bearing in solar array joint
11 February
14:13[261]
7 hours
58 minutes
22:11[261] STS-122
(ISS Quest)
Rex J. Walheim
Stanley G. Love
Install Power Data Grapple Fixture on Columbus Originally to have been conducted by Walheim and Hans Schlegel, Love replaced Schlegel on medical grounds.[262]
13 February
14:27[263]
6 hours
45 minutes
21:12[263] STS-122
(ISS Quest)
Rex J. Walheim
Hans Schlegel
Replace depleted nitrogen tank
15 February
12:07[263]
7 hours
25 minutes
20:32[263] STS-122
(ISS Quest)
Rex J. Walheim
Stanley G. Love
Install experiments on Columbus, load failed gyroscope onto Shuttle for return to Earth
14 March
01:18[264]
7 hours
1 minute
08:19[264] STS-123
(ISS Quest)
Richard M. Linnehan
Garrett Reisman
Install Kibo ELM-PS and start Dextre assembly
15 March
23:49[265]
7 hours
8 minutes
16 March
06:57[265]
STS-123
(ISS Quest)
Richard M. Linnehan
Michael Foreman
Dextre assembly
17 March
22:52[265]
6 hours
53 minutes
18 March
05:44[265]
STS-123
(ISS Quest)
Richard M. Linnehan
Robert L. Behnken
Dextre assembly, install MISSE-6 experiment, and store spare parts outside the ISS MISSE installation failed[265]
20 March
22:04[265]
6 hours
24 minutes
21 March
04:08[265]
STS-123
(ISS Quest)
Robert L. Behnken
Michael Foreman
Test heat shield repair techniques
22 March
20:34[265]
6 hours
2 minutes
23 March
02:36[265]
STS-123
(ISS Quest)
Robert L. Behnken
Michael Foreman
Store OBSS on ISS, retry MISSE-6 installation[266]
3 June
16:22[267]
6 hours
48 minutes[93]
23:10[93] STS-124
(ISS Quest)
Mike Fossum
Ron Garan
Install JEM Pressurised Module, Inspect SARJ, retrieve OBSS.[267]
5 June
15:04[93]
7 hours
11 minutes[93]
22:15[93] STS-124
(ISS Quest)
Mike Fossum
Ron Garan
Adjust covers on JEM, Inspect SARJ.[268]
8 June
13:55[93]
6 hours
33 minutes[93]
20:28[93] STS-124
(ISS Quest)
Mike Fossum
Ron Garan
Replace nitrogen tank, inspect SARJ.[269]
10 July
18:48[270]
6 hours
18 minutes[270]
11 July
01:06[270]
Expedition 17
(ISS Pirs)[270]
Sergei Volkov
Oleg Kononenko
Remove pyrotechnic bolt from Soyuz TMA-12 for inspection.[271]
15 July
17:08[270]
5 hours
54 minutes[270]
23:02[270] Expedition 17
(ISS Pirs)[270]
Sergei Volkov
Oleg Kononenko
Install docking targeting equipment, rotate exposed experiments[272]
27 September
08:38
22 minutes 09:00 Shenzhou 7 Zhai Zhigang (full)
Liu Boming (stand-up)
Test spacesuit, collect experiment First Chinese EVA
18 November
18:09
6 hours
52 minutes
19 November
01:01
STS-126
(ISS Quest)
Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper
Stephen G. Bowen
Transferred an empty nitrogen tank assembly from ESP3 to the shuttle's cargo bay, transferred a new flex hose rotary coupler to ESP3 for future use, removed an insulation cover on the Kibo Exposed Facility berthing mechanism, began cleaning and lubrication of the starboard SARJ, and replacement of its 11 trundle bearing assemblies.[273][274]
20 November
17:58
6 hours
45 minutes
21 November
00:43
STS-126
(ISS Quest)
Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper
Robert S. Kimbrough
Relocated the two CETA carts from the starboard side of the Mobile Transporter to the port side, lubricated the station robotic arm's latching end effector A snare bearings, continued cleaning and lubrication of the starboard SARJ[275][276][277] Conducted on tenth anniversary of the launch of the ISS[275]
22 November
18:01
6 hours
57 minutes
23 November
00:58
STS-126
(ISS Quest)
Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper
Stephen G. Bowen
Completed cleaning and lubrication of all but one of the trundle bearing assemblies (TBA) on the starboard SARJ.[278][279]
24 November
18:24
6 hours
7 minutes
25 November
00:31
STS-126
(ISS Quest)
Stephen G. Bowen
Robert S. Kimbrough
Completed replacement of trundle bearing assemblies on starboard SARJ, lubricated the port SARJ, installed a video camera, re‐installed insulation covers on the Kibo External Facility berthing mechanism, performed Kibo robotic arm grounding tab maintenance, installed spacewalk handrails on Kibo, installed Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) antennae on Kibo, photographed radiators, and photographed trailing umbilical system cables.[280]
23 December
00:51
5 hours
38 minutes
06:29 Expedition 18
(ISS Pirs)
Michael Fincke
Yuri Lonchakov
Install Langmuir probe, EXPOSE-R and IPI-SM experiments.[281] EXPOSE-R installation failed[281]

Orbital launch statistics

By country

Country Launches Successes Failures Partial
failures
Remarks
 China111100
 Europe6600
 India3300
International6600Sea Launch / Land Launch
 Iran1010First orbital launch attempt[150]
 Japan1100
 Russia /
 CIS
262501
 United States151410
World696621

By rocket

By family

Family Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Ariane Europe6600
Atlas United States2200
Delta United States5500
H-II Japan1100
Falcon United States2110
Long March People's Republic of China111100
Pegasus United States2200
PSLV India3300
R-7 Russia101000
R-14 Russia3300
R-36 Ukraine2200
Safir Iran1010Maiden flight
Space Shuttle United States4400
Universal Rocket Russia111001
Zenit Ukraine /  Russia6600

By type

Rocket Country Family Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Ariane 5 EuropeAriane6600
Atlas V United StatesAtlas2200
Delta II United StatesDelta5500
Dnepr UkraineR-362200
H-IIA JapanH-II1100
Falcon 1 United StatesFalcon2110
Kosmos RussiaR-12/R-143300
Long March 2 People's Republic of ChinaLong March4400
Long March 3 People's Republic of ChinaLong March4400
Long March 4 People's Republic of ChinaLong March3300
Molniya RussiaR-71100
Pegasus United StatesPegasus2200
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle IndiaPSLV3300
Proton RussiaUniversal Rocket10901
Safir IranSafir1010Maiden flight
Soyuz RussiaR-78800
Soyuz-2 RussiaR-71100
Space Shuttle United StatesSpace Shuttle4400
UR-100 RussiaUniversal Rocket1100
Zenit Ukraine /  RussiaZenit6600

By configuration

By launch site

Site Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Baikonur Kazakhstan191801
Cape Canaveral United States3300
Dombarovsky Russia1100
Jiuquan People's Republic of China3300
Kapustin Yar Russia1100
Kennedy United States4400
Kwajalein Atoll Marshall Islands4310Two launches used Stargazer aircraft
Kourou France6600
Ocean Odyssey International5500
Plesetsk Russia6600
Satish Dhawan India3300
Semnan Iran1010First orbital launch attempt
Taiyuan People's Republic of China4400
Tanegashima Japan1100
Vandenberg United States4400
Xichang People's Republic of China4400

By orbit

Orbital regime Launches Successes Failures Accidentally
Achieved
Remarks
Low Earth orbit 36 34 2 0 11 to ISS
Medium Earth orbit 4 4 0 1
Geosynchronous/transfer 25 24 1 0
High Earth orbit 4 4 0 0 Including lunar transfer and Molniya orbits

See also

References

  • Bergin, Chris. "NASASpaceFlight.com".
  • Clark, Stephen. "Spaceflight Now".
  • Kelso, T.S. "Satellite Catalog (SATCAT)". CelesTrak.
  • Krebs, Gunter. "Chronology of Space Launches".
  • Kyle, Ed. "Space Launch Report".
  • McDowell, Jonathan. "Jonathan's Space Report".
  • Pietrobon, Steven. "Steven Pietrobon's Space Archive".
  • Wade, Mark. "Encyclopedia Astronautica".
  • Webb, Brian. "Southwest Space Archive".
  • Zak, Anatoly. "Russian Space Web".
  • "ISS Calendar". Spaceflight 101.
  • "NSSDCA Master Catalog". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • "Space Calendar". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  • "Space Information Center". JAXA.
  • "Хроника освоения космоса" [Chronicle of space exploration]. CosmoWorld (in Russian).
Generic references:

Footnotes

  1. "36.243 UG McCandliss/Johns Hopkins University". NASA Sounding Rockets Office. 11 January 2008. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  2. McDowell, Dr. Jonathan (14 March 2008). "Issue 593". Jonathan's Space Report. Archived from the original on 30 October 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  3. Krebs, Gunter (15 March 2008). "Orbital Launches of 2008". Gunter's Space Page. Archived from the original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2008.
  4. Baldwin, Emily (8 October 2008). "Cassini prepares for double flyby of Enceladus". Astronomy Now. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
  5. "NASA Phoenix Mars Lander Confirms Frozen Water". NASA. 20 June 2008. Archived from the original on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
  6. "Ulysses". Science and Technology. ESA. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
  7. Harwood, William (2 May 2008). "Whitson describes rough Soyuz entry and landing". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
  8. Clark, Stephen (27 September 2008). "China accomplishes its first spacewalk". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
  9. Pearlman, Robert Z. "The 100th Soyuz flight that (maybe) isn't". collectSPACE. Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
  10. Slimmer, Fran (14 March 2008). "ILS Declares Proton Launch Anomaly". International Launch Services. Archived from the original on 18 March 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  11. "Boeing Patent Shuts Down AMC-14 Lunar Flyby Salvage Attempt". Space-Travel.com. 10 April 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2008.
  12. "Participants". The Explorers Flight. Celestis. Archived from the original on 31 January 2009. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
  13. "Iran says it has put first dummy satellite in orbit, sparks U.S. concern". www.hurriyet.com.tr. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  14. Karimi, Nasser (17 August 2008). "Iran tests rocket for future launch of satellite". Fox News. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
  15. Tennant, Diane (22 August 2008). "NASA destroys rocket shortly after launch at Wallops Island". Virginian Pilot. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  16. "U.S. to launch missile at broken satellite". NBC News. 14 February 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  17. "US Missile hits 'toxic satellite'". BBC News. 21 February 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  18. Halvorson, Todd (2 January 2008). "Lofty Launch Goals Set for 2008". Space.com. Archived from the original on 15 December 2008. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
  19. "Israel test-fires ballistic missile after Iran warning". SpaceWar.com. 17 January 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  20. "40.021 UE Kintner/Cornell University". NASA Sounding Rockets Office. 18 January 2008. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  21. "Outside View: Pakistan tests its IRBM". SpaceWar.com. 28 January 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  22. "HotPay2 Soars into the Skies Above Andøya". Andøya Rocket Range. 31 January 2008. Archived from the original on 8 June 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  23. "Iranians inaugurate space project". BBC News. 4 February 2008. Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  24. Bergin, Chris (8 April 2008). "Soyuz TMA-12 launches Expedition 17 and first South Korean". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 8 April 2008.
  25. "Sounding Rockets". JAXA. 6 February 2008. Archived from the original on 26 August 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  26. "List of all launches". Swedish Space Corporation. 21 February 2008. Archived from the original on 19 August 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  27. Bergin, Chris (7 February 2008). "STS-122: Atlantis home after perfect re-entry and landing". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  28. "Navy Hits Satellite With Heat-Seeking Missile". Space.com. 21 February 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  29. 超高速インターネット衛星「きずな」(WINDS)の運用終了について (in Japanese). JAXA. 1 March 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  30. "India successfully tests undersea missile". The Indian. 27 February 2008. Archived from the original on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 15 November 2008.
  31. Ray, Justin (26 March 2008). "STS-123 Mission Status Center (Landing)". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
  32. "Space shuttle to return pallet full of history". collectSPACE. 18 March 2008. Archived from the original on 25 March 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2008.
  33. Krebs, Gunter (13 March 2008). "Trumpet F/O". Gunter's Space Page. Archived from the original on 20 February 2008. Retrieved 17 March 2008.
  34. ILS Communications Team (17 March 2008). "We Have Lift Off". International Launch Services. Archived from the original on 18 March 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2008.
  35. "Starts Main" (in Russian). Roskosmos. 14 March 2008. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2008.
  36. Roberts, Mark (11 April 2008). "SES AMERICOM Declares AMC-14 Satellite A Total Loss". SES Americom. Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2008.
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