1999 Malaysian general election

A general election was held on Monday, 29 November 1999 for members of the 10th Parliament of Malaysia. Voting took place in all 193 parliamentary constituencies of Malaysia, each electing one Member of Parliament to the Dewan Rakyat, the dominant house of Parliament. State elections also took place in 394 state constituencies in 11 out of 13 states of Malaysia (except Sabah and Sarawak) on the same day.

1999 Malaysian general election

29 November 1999 (1999-11-29)

All 193 seats to the Dewan Rakyat
97 seats needed for a majority
Turnout6,631,094 (69.3%)
  First party Second party Third party
Leader Mahathir Mohamad Fadzil Noor Joseph Pairin Kitingan
Party BN Barisan Alternatif PBS
Leader since 28 June 1981 24 October 1999 (1999-10-24) 5 March 1985
Leader's seat Kubang Pasu Pendang Keningau
Last election 162 seats, 65.2% 30 seats, 32.8%[1] 8 seats, 3.33%
Seats won 148 45 3
Seat change 14 15 5
Popular vote 3,748,511 2,667,818 143,342
Percentage 56.53% 40.23% 2.16%
Swing 8.7% 7.4% 1.17%

Prime Minister before election

Mahathir Mohamad

Prime Minister-designate

Mahathir Mohamad


Dewan Rakyat

6,631,094 out of 9,564,071 registered voters cast their vote in this election. Although Barisan Nasional maintained its majority in Parliament, its overall popular vote dropped to roughly 56%. The parliamentary results are as follows:

 Summary of the 29 November 1999 Malaysian Dewan Rakyat election results
Party Vote Seats
Votes % Won % +/–
National Front[lower-alpha 1]BN3,748,51156.5314876.6814
United Malays National OrganisationUMNO7237.3117
Malaysian Chinese AssociationMCA2915.031
United Traditional Bumiputera PartyPBB100,062115.701
Malaysian Indian CongressMIC73.63
Sarawak United People's PartySUPP129,35673.63
Malaysian People's Movement PartyGerakan63.111
Parti Bansa Dayak SarawakPBDS51,65963.111
Sarawak National PartySNAP45,51942.071
United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut OrganisationUPKO31.55New
Sabah Progressive PartySAPP21.04
Liberal Democratic PartyLDP10.52
Barisan Nasional Direct Candidate11,3270.1810.52
People's Progressive PartyPPP00.00
People's Justice FrontAKAR00.00
United Sabah People's PartyPBRS00.00
Parties in the informal coalition, Alternative FrontBA2,667,81840.234221.7626
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party[lower-alpha 2]PAS994,27914.992713.9920
Democratic Action Party[lower-alpha 2]DAP830,87012.53105.181
National Justice Party[lower-alpha 2]KeADILan773,67911.6752.59New
United Sabah PartyPBS143,3422.1631.555
Malaysian People's Party[lower-alpha 2]PRM68,9901.0400.00
State Reform PartySTAR23,3540.3500.00New
Malaysian Democratic PartyMDP8,0010.1200.00New
Pan-Malaysian Islamic FrontBERJASA4090.0100.00New
Malaysian People's Justice FrontAKIM2740.0000.00
Valid votes6,455,714
Invalid/blank votes175,380
Total votes (voter turnout: 69.3%)6,631,094100.00193 100.00+1
Did not vote2,932,977
Registered voters9,564,071
Voting age population (aged 21 years and above)13,411,519
Malaysian population22,549,627

Source: Nohlen et al.

  1. Contested using dacing election symbol on the ballot papers.
  2. Parties in the informal coalition, Alternatif Front (Barisan Alternatif). Contested using separate election symbol on the ballot papers.

Results by state

State Assemblies

The opposition won a total of 113 state assembly seats, 98 of which went to the PAS, 11 to the DAP and 4 for Keadilan.[2] In the states of Kelantan and Terengganu, the PAS won by a huge margin41-2 against Barisan Nasional out of a total of 43 seats and 28-4 out of a total of 32 seats respectively, hence allowing them to form the state governments in these states. In addition, PAS also captured one-third of the state seats in Kedah, with the remaining two-thirds going to Barisan Nasional (UMNO won 16 seats, MCA 2 seats in Kedah).

The election results were seen as a great gain for PAS, who previously had no state seats in Kedah and capturing only one seat in Terengganu in the 1995 General Elections. Observers attributed this to the neglect by the Federal Administration in the states of Terengganu and Kelantan.[3]


  • Chin, James (2000). "A New Balance: The Chinese Vote in the 1999 Malaysian General Election". South East Asia Research. 8 (3): 281–299. doi:10.5367/000000000101297299.
  • "Malaysia unlikely to go fundamentalist: Lee Kuan Yew". (Dec. 13, 1999). Agence France Presse.
  1. The previous election was contested under separate parties, mainly PAS and DAP
  2. "PILIHAN RAYA UMUM 1999 - DEWAN UNDANGAN NEGERI". Archived from the original on 2017-10-09. Retrieved 2008-09-05.
  3. Swee-Hock Saw, K. Kesavapany (2006). Malaysia recent trends and challenges. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 97–8. ISBN 981-230-339-1.
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