1996 in spaceflight

This article outlines notable events occurring in 1996 in spaceflight, including major launches and EVAs.

1996 in spaceflight
The first Long March 3B, carrying Intelsat 708, goes off-course immediately after launch. The rocket later came down over a village, reportedly killing several to hundred on the ground
Orbital launches
First11 January
Last24 December
Total77
Successes69
Failures4
Partial failures4
Catalogued73
National firsts
Satellite Malaysia
Rockets
Maiden flightsAriane 5G
J-I
Long March 3B
Crewed flights
Orbital9
Total travellers49

Launches

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January

10 January DF-21 Taiyuan
Suborbital Missile test10 JanuarySuccessful
11 January
09:41
Space Shuttle Endeavour Kennedy LC-39B United Space Alliance
STS-72 NASA Low Earth Satellite retrieval20 January
07:41
Successful
OAST-Flyer NASA Low Earth Technology development
Manned orbital flight with six astronauts
Retrieved Space Flyer Unit
12 January
23:10
Ariane 4 (44L) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
PAS-3R PanAmSat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Measat-1 Binariang Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Measat-1 is the first Malaysian satellite
14 January
11:10
Delta II 7925 Cape Canaveral LC-17B Boeing IDS
Koreasat-2 Korea Telecom Current: Graveyard
Operational: Geosynchronous
CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Koreasat-2 retired on 8 April 2000
16 January
15:33
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132/1
Kosmos 2327 (Parus) MO RF Low Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
25 January
09:56
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 200/39
Gorizont 31 MOM Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
27 January Prithvi II Balasore DRDO
DRDO Suborbital Missile test27 JanuarySuccessful
Maiden flight of Prithvi II missile

February

1 February
01:15
Atlas IIAS Cape Canaveral LC-36B International Launch Services
Palapa C1 Telkom Indonesia Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
5 February
07:19
Ariane 4 (44P) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
N-STAR b NTT Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
11 February
23:00
S-310 Uchinoura LA-K ISAS
NTV-1 ISAS Suborbital Aeronomy research11 FebruarySuccessful
11 February
23:00
J-I Tanegashima LA-N NASDA
HYFLEX NASDA Suborbital Test flight11 FebruarySuccessful
Only flight of J-I
14 February
19:01
Long March 3B Taiyuan LC-2 CASC
Intelsat 708 Intelsat Intended: Geosynchronous Communications+22 secondsLaunch Failure
Maiden flight of Long March 3B
Loss of control at T+2 seconds, exploded 20 seconds later; Six to hundred fatalities on the ground
17 February
20:43
Delta II 7925-8 Cape Canaveral LC-17B Boeing IDS
NEAR NASA Erosian
via Heliocentric
Asteroid probe12 February 2001
20:01
Successful
Flyby of 253 Mathilde, entered orbit around and landed on 433 Eros; First probe to orbit and land on an asteroid
Final contact received on 28 February 2001, and unsuccessfully attempted on 10 December 2002
19 February
00:58
Tsyklon-3 Plesetsk Site 32
Gonets-D1 Roskosmos Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Gonets-D1 Roskosmos Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Gonets-D1 Roskosmos Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2328 (Strela-3) MO RF Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2329 (Strela-3) MO RF Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2330 (Strela-3) MO RF Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
19 February
08:19
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 200/39
Raduga 44L MOM Intended: Geosynchronous
Actual: Geosynchronous transfer
CommunicationsIn orbitLaunch Failure
Upper stage failed to ignite for second burn due to blocked valve
21 February
12:34
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Soyuz TM-23 Roskosmos Low Earth (Mir) Mir EO-212 September
07:41
Successful
Manned orbital flight with two cosmonauts
22 February
20:18
Space Shuttle Columbia Kennedy LC-39B United Space Alliance
STS-75 NASA Low Earth USMP-39 March
13:58
Successful
TSS-1R NASA Low Earth Tether satellite19 MarchFailure
EDO Pallet NASA Low Earth (Columbia) Cryogenic mission extension pallet9 March
13:58
Successful
Manned orbital flight with seven astronauts
TSS-1R tether snapped during deployment; Intended to be returned to Earth by Columbia, but could not be recovered
23 February
19:17
Black Brant IX White Sands LC-36 NASA
NASA Suborbital Technology development23 FebruarySuccessful
23 February
19:44
Black Brant IX White Sands LC-36 NASA
NASA Suborbital Ionosphere research23 FebruarySuccessful
24 February
11:24
Delta II 7925-10 Vandenberg SLC-2W Boeing IDS
Polar NASA High Earth (elliptical) Auroral researchIn orbitSuccessful
Mission concluded in April 2008

March

2 March
10:00
Skylark 7 Esrange Area S DLR
TEXUS 34 DASA Suborbital Microgravity research2 MarchSuccessful
6 March
03:35
Black Brant IX White Sands NASA
NASA Suborbital Astronomy6 MarchSuccessful
6 March
20:01
LGM-30G Minuteman III Vandenberg LF-09 US Air Force
FOT GT161GM US Air Force Suborbital Missile test6 MarchSuccessful
9 March
01:53
Pegasus-XL Stargazer, Vandenberg Orbital Sciences
REX 2 US Air Force Low Earth Ionosphere researchIn orbitOperational
14 March
07:11
Ariane 4 (44LP) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
Intelsat 707 Intelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
14 March
17:40
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 43/4
Kosmos 2331 (Yantar-4K1) MOM Low Earth Reconnaissance11 JuneSuccessful
21 March
04:53
PSLV Sriharikota FLP ISRO
IRS-P3 ISRO Sun-synchronous Remote sensingIn orbitSuccessful
22 March Hera White Sands LC-94 US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital ABM target22 MarchSuccessful
22 March THAAD White Sands US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital ABM Test22 MarchSuccessful
22 March
08:13
Space Shuttle Atlantis Kennedy LC-39B United Space Alliance
STS-76 NASA Low Earth (Mir) Shuttle-Mir flight31 March
13:28
Successful
SpaceHab LSM NASA/SpaceHab Low Earth (Atlantis) Logistics
Manned orbital flight with six astronauts
28 March
00:21
Delta II 7925-9.5 Cape Canaveral LC-17B Boeing IDS
USA-117 (GPS IIA-16) US Air Force Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational

April

3 April
15:59
Black Brant 9CM1 White Sands LC-36 NASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy and microgravity research3 AprilSuccessful
3 April
23:01
Atlas IIA Cape Canaveral LC-36A International Launch Services
Inmarsat 3F1 Inmarsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
8 April
23:09
Proton-K/DM-2M Baikonur Site 81/23 International Launch Services
Astra 1F SES Astra Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
17 April
07:00
RT-2PM Topol Plesetsk Site 158 RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test17 AprilSuccessful
20 April
22:36
Ariane 4 (42P) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
MSAT-1 TMI Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
21 April UGM-133 Trident II Submarine, Eastern Range US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test21 AprilSuccessful
21 April UGM-133 Trident II Submarine, Eastern Range US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test21 AprilSuccessful
21 April
11:48
Proton-K Baikonur Site 81/23 Roskosmos
Priroda Roskosmos Low Earth (Mir) Mir module23 March 2001
05:50
Successful
24 April
12:27
Delta II 7920-10 Vandenberg SLC-2W Boeing IDS
MSX BMDO Sun-synchronous Infrared astronomyIn orbitSuccessful
Member of the Space Surveillance Network
24 April
13:00
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132/1
Kosmos 2332 (Taifun) MO RF Low Earth Radar calibration28 January 2005Successful
24 April
23:37
Titan IVA (401)/Centaur Cape Canaveral LC-41 Lockheed Martin
USA-118 (Mercury-2) NRO Geosynchronous ELINTIn orbitOperational
30 April
04:31
Atlas I Cape Canaveral LC-36B International Launch Services
BeppoSAX ASI Low Earth X-ray astronomy30 April 2003Successful

May

3 May
04:16
Skylark 7 Esrange Area S DLR
MASER 7 SSC Suborbital Microgravity research3 MaySuccessful
5 May
07:04
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Progress M-31 Roskosmos Low Earth (Mir) Logistics1 August
20:33
Successful
8 May
08:01
LGM-118 Peacekeeper Vandenberg LF-05 US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital Missile test8 MaySuccessful
12 May
21:32
Titan IVA (403) Vandenberg SLC-4E Lockheed Martin
USA-119 (NOSS 2–3) NRO Low Earth SIGINTIn orbitOperational
USA-120 (NOSS 2–3) NRO Low Earth SIGINTIn orbitOperational
USA-121 (NOSS 2–3) NRO Low Earth SIGINTIn orbitOperational
USA-122 (NOSS 2–3) NRO Low Earth SIGINTIn orbitOperational
USA-123 (TiPS) NRL Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
USA-124 (TiPS) NRL Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
14 May
08:55
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 31/6
Yantar-1KFT VKS Intended: Low Earth Reconnaissance+ 49 secondsLaunch Failure
Payload fairing disintegrated
16 May UGM-96 Trident I Submarine, Eastern Range US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test16 MaySuccessful
16 May UGM-96 Trident I Submarine, Eastern Range US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test16 MaySuccessful
16 May UGM-96 Trident I Submarine, Eastern Range US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test16 MaySuccessful
16 May UGM-96 Trident I Submarine, Eastern Range US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test16 MaySuccessful
16 May
01:56
Ariane 4 (44L) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
Palapa C2 Telkom Indonesia Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
AMOS 1 Spacecom Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
17 May
02:44
Pegasus-H Stargazer, Vandenberg Orbital Sciences
MSTI-3 BMDO Low Earth Technology development11 December 1997Successful
19 May
10:30
Space Shuttle Endeavour Kennedy LC-39B United Space Alliance
STS-77 NASA Low Earth Microgravity research29 May
11:10
Successful
SpaceHab LSM NASA/SpaceHab Low Earth (Endeavour) Scientific experiments
SPARTAN-207 NASA Low Earth Technology demonstration
IAE NASA Low Earth Technology demonstration22 MaySuccessful
PAMS NASA Low Earth Technology demonstration26 OctoberSuccessful
Manned orbital flight with six astronauts
SPARTAN used to deploy the IAE satellite on 20 May; PAMS deployed on 22 May
24 May
01:09
Delta II 7925 Cape Canaveral LC-17B Boeing IDS
Galaxy 9 PanAmSat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
25 May
02:05
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 200/39
Gorizont 32 MOM Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
30 May
08:01
LGM-118 Peacekeeper Vandenberg LF-02 US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital Missile test30 MaySuccessful

June

4 June
05:06
Black Brant VIIIC White Sands NASA
XQC NASA Suborbital X-ray astronomy4 JuneSuccessful
4 June
12:34
Ariane 5G Kourou ELA-3 Arianespace
Cluster F1 ESA Intended: High Earth (elliptical) Magnetosphere research+37 secondsLaunch Failure
Cluster F2 ESA Intended: High Earth (elliptical) Magnetosphere research
Cluster F3 ESA Intended: High Earth (elliptical) Magnetosphere research
Cluster F4 ESA Intended: High Earth (elliptical) Magnetosphere research
Maiden flight of Ariane 5G; Ariane 5 Flight 501
Programming error led to rocket going off course
6 June UR-100N Baikonur RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test6 JuneSuccessful
6 June RT-2PM Topol Plesetsk Site 158 RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test6 JuneSuccessful
15 June
06:55
Ariane 4 (44P) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
Intelsat 709 Intelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
17 June
05:50
Black Brant IX White Sands LC-36 NASA
NASA Suborbital Radio astronomy17 JuneSuccessful
20 June
14:40
Black Brant IX White Sands LC-36 NASA
NASA Suborbital Test rocket20 JuneSuccessful
20 June
14:49
Space Shuttle Columbia Kennedy LC-39B United Space Alliance
STS-78 NASA Low Earth Microgravity research7 July
12:36
Successful
Spacelab Long Module 2 NASA Low Earth (Columbia) Spacelab LMS-1
EDO Pallet NASA Low Earth (Columbia) Cryogenic mission extension pallet
Manned orbital flight with seven astronauts
20 June
18:45
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 16/2
Yantar-4K1 VKS Intended: Low Earth Reconnaissance+50 secondsLaunch Failure
Payload fairing disintegrated
26 June
12:17
LGM-30G Minuteman III Vandenberg LF-10 US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital Missile test26 JuneSuccessful
26 June
14:59
LGM-30G Minuteman III Vandenberg LF-04 US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital Missile test26 JuneSuccessful
26 June
19:00
Black Brant IX White Sands LC-36 NASA
NASA Suborbital Solar observation26 JuneSuccessful
28 June R-29 Vysota Submarine, Sea of Okhotsk Russian Navy
Russian Navy Suborbital Missile test28 JuneSuccessful
28 June R-29 Vysota Submarine, Sea of Okhotsk Russian Navy
Russian Navy Suborbital Missile test28 JuneSuccessful
28 June R-29 Vysota Submarine, Sea of Okhotsk Russian Navy
Russian Navy Suborbital Missile test28 JuneSuccessful

July

2 July
07:48
Pegasus-XL Stargazer, Vandenberg Orbital Sciences
TOMS-EP NASA Low Earth Ozone mappingIn orbitOperational
3 July
00:31
Titan IVA (405) Cape Canaveral LC-40 Lockheed Martin
USA-125 (SDS 2–4) US Air Force High Earth (elliptical) CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
3 July
10:47
Long March 3 Xichang LC-1
Apstar 1A APT Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
9 July Aries Wallops Island US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital Tracking demonstration9 JulySuccessful
9 July
22:24
Ariane 4 (44L) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
Arabsat 2A Arabsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Turksat 1C Turksat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
14 July
07:15
Black Brant 9CM1 White Sands LC-36 NASA
NUVIEWS 1 NASA Suborbital Ultraviolet astronomy14 JulySuccessful
15 July R-29 Vysota Submarine, Barents Sea Russian Navy
Russian Navy Suborbital Missile test15 JulySuccessful
15 July R-29 Vysota Submarine, Barents Sea Russian Navy
Russian Navy Suborbital Missile test15 JulySuccessful
15 July
11:28
Hera White Sands LC-94 US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital ABM Target15 JulySuccessful
15 July
11:31
THAAD White Sands US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital ABM test15 JulySuccessful
15 July
18:21
Castor 4B Wake Island Orbital Sciences
Orbital Sciences Suborbital Re-entry test15 JulySuccessful
16 July
00:50
Delta II 7925-9.5 Cape Canaveral LC-17A Boeing IDS
USA-126 (GPS IIA-17) US Air Force Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
19 July UGM-133 Trident II Submarine, Eastern Range US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test19 JulySuccessful
19 July UGM-133 Trident II Submarine, Eastern Range US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test19 JulySuccessful
25 July RT-2PM Topol Plesetsk Site 158 RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test25 JulySuccessful
25 July
12:42
Atlas II Cape Canaveral LC-36A
USA-127 (UHF F/O F7) US Air Force Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
26 July
09:40
Black Brant 9CM1 White Sands LC-36 NASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy26 JulySuccessful
31 July
20:00
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Progress M-32 Roskosmos Low Earth (Mir) Logistics20 November
22:42
Successful

August

8 August
22:49
Ariane 4 (44L) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
Italsat F2 ASI Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Telecom 2D France Télécom Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
12 August
18:58
Nike Orion White Sands NASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy12 AugustSuccessful
14 August
22:20
Molniya-M Plesetsk Site 43/3
Molniya 1-89 MOM Molniya Communications7 April 2012Successful
17 August
01:58
H-II Tanegashima LA-Y1 NASDA
ADEOS (Midori) NASDA Low Earth Atmospheric researchIn orbitOperational
JAS-2 (Fuji-2) JARL Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
17 August
13:18
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Soyuz TM-24 Roskosmos Low Earth (Mir) Mir EO-222 March 1997
06:44
Successful
Manned orbital flight with three cosmonauts
18 August
10:27
Long March 3 Xichang LC-1
Chinasat 7 Chinasat Intended: Geosynchronous
Actual: High Earth (elliptical)
CommunicationsIn orbitLaunch Failure
Third stage failure left satellite in useless orbit
20 August
15:30
S-310 Uchinoura Area K ISAS
SEEK ISAS Suborbital Plasma research20 AugustSuccessful
20 August
16:00
Black Brant 9CM1 White Sands LC-36 NASA
NASA Suborbital Solar research20 AugustSuccessful
21 August
09:47
Pegasus-XL Stargazer, Vandenberg Orbital Sciences
FAST NASA Low Earth Magnetosphere researchIn orbitOperational
26 August
14:00
S-310 Uchinoura Area K ISAS
SEEK ISAS Suborbital Plasma research26 AugustSuccessful
29 August Black Brant VC Wallops Island US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital Test rocket29 AugustSuccessful
29 August
05:22
Molniya-M Plesetsk Site 43/3
MUSAT CONAE Molniya Magnetosphere research12 November 1999Successful
Interbol 2 Roskosmos Molniya Auroral researchIn orbitOperational
Magion 5 Molniya Auroral researchIn orbitSuccessful
31 August
15:41
STARS Barking Sands US Air Force
ODES/MSX MDT-2 US Air Force Suborbital Target31 AugustSuccessful

September

4 September
09:01
Zenit-2 Baikonur Site 45/1
Kosmos 2333 (Tselina-2) MO RF Low Earth ELINTIn orbitOperational
5 September
12:47
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132/1
Kosmos 2334 (Parus) MO RF Low Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
Oscar 30 UNAMSAT Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
6 September
17:37
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 81/23 International Launch Services
Inmarsat 3F2 Inmarsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
8 September
21:49
Atlas IIA Cape Canaveral LC-36B International Launch Services
GE 1 GE Americom Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
11 September
00:00
Ariane 4 (42P) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
Echostar II EchoStar Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Retired after malfunction on 14 July 2008[1]
11 September
08:01
LGM-118 Peacekeeper Vandenberg LF-05 US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital Missile test11 SeptemberSuccessful
12 September
08:49
Delta II 7925-9.5 Cape Canaveral LC-17A Boeing IDS
USA-128 (GPS IIA-18) US Air Force Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
16 September
08:54
Space Shuttle Atlantis Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-79 NASA Low Earth Shuttle-Mir flight26 September
12:13
Successful
SpaceHab LDM NASA/SpaceHab Low Earth (Atlantis) Logistics
Manned orbital flight with six astronauts
24 September
22:00
TR-1 Tanegashima LA-T NASDA
NASDA Suborbital Microgravity research24 SeptemberSuccessful
26 September
17:50
Proton-K/DM-2M Baikonur Site 200/39
Ekspress-6 RSCSC Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
27 September
16:51
LGM-30F Minuteman II Vandenberg LF-03 US Air force
US Air Force Suborbital Target27 SeptemberSuccessful

October

2 October UGM-96 Trident I Submarine, Eastern Range US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test2 OctoberSuccessful
3 October RT-2PM Topol Plesetsk Site 158 RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test3 OctoberSuccessful
3 October R-29 Vysota Submarine, Barents Sea Russian Navy
Russian Navy Suborbital Missile test3 OctoberSuccessful
9 October Hera White Sands LC-94 US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital ABM target9 OctoberSuccessful
9 October THAAD White Sands US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital ABM test9 OctoberSuccessful
16 October
10:41
LCLV Wallops Island US Air Force
Red Tigress 3 US Air Force Suborbital Target16 OctoberSuccessful
16 October
16:02
Black Brant IX White Sands LC-36 NASA
NASA Suborbital Technology development16 OctoberSuccessful
20 October
07:20
Long March 2D Jiuquan
FSW-2-3 CASC Low Earth Reconnaissance4 NovemberSuccessful
21 October
03:00
Black Brant IX White Sands LC-36 NASA
NASA Suborbital Astronomy21 OctoberSuccessful
24 October
11:37
Molniya-M Plesetsk Site 43/4
Molniya 3–48 MOM Molniya Communications18 October 2007
03:51
Successful
28 October UGM-133 Trident II Submarine, Eastern Range US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test28 OctoberSuccessful
28 October UGM-133 Trident II Submarine, Eastern Range US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test28 OctoberSuccessful
29 October
03:30
Black Brant IX White Sands LC-36 NASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy29 OctoberSuccessful

November

4 November
17:08
Pegasus-XL Stargazer, Wallops Island Orbital Sciences
HETE NASA Low Earth Astronomy7 April 2002Launch Failure
SAC-B CONAE Low Earth Technology development
Both payloads failed to separate from the launch vehicle and each other
6 November
13:06
LGM-118 Peacekeeper Vandenberg LF-02 US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital Missile test6 NovemberSuccessful
7 November
17:00
Delta II 7925 Cape Canaveral LC-17A Boeing IDS
Mars Global Surveyor NASA Areocentric Mars orbiterIn orbitSuccessful
Contact lost on 2 November 2006 and mission declared complete on 10 January 2007 after numerous troubleshooting attempts to regain contact.
9 November
08:50
RT-2PM Topol Plesetsk Site 158 RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test9 NovemberSuccessful
13 November
18:30
Black Brant IX White Sands LC-36 NASA
SERTS-96 NASA Suborbital Solar observation13 NovemberSuccessful
13 November
22:40
Ariane 4 (44L) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
Arabsat 2B Arabsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Measat-2 Binariang Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
16 November
20:48
Proton-K/D-2 Baikonur Site 200/39 VKS
Mars 96 (Mars-8) VKS Intended: Areocentric
Actual: Low Earth
Mars orbiter17 NovemberFailure
Upper stage failed to re-ignite for Earth orbit departure; re-entered the following day
17 November
13:30
Terrier-Orion White Sands LC-36 NASA
NASA Suborbital Test rocket17 NovemberSuccessful
19 November
19:55
Space Shuttle Columbia Kennedy LC-39B United Space Alliance
STS-80 NASA Low Earth Microgravity research7 December
11:49
Successful
ORFEUS-SPAS NASA Low Earth Ultraviolet astronomy
Wake Shield Facility NASA Low Earth Materials research
EDO Pallet NASA Low Earth (Columbia) Cryogenic mission extension pallet
Manned orbital flight with five astronauts; All EVAs cancelled due to airlock malfunction; Longest-duration Space Shuttle flight in history[2]
Story Musgrave becomes the only American astronaut to fly on all five Space Shuttle orbiters[3]
ORFEUS-SPAS deployed on 20 November and retrieved on 4 December; WSF deployed on 22 November and retrieved on 26 November
19 November
23:20
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 1/5 Roskosmos
Progress M-33 Roskosmos Low Earth (Mir) Logistics12 March 1997
03:23
Partial Failure
Failed to redock after free-flight in February–March 1997
21 November
20:47
Atlas IIA Cape Canaveral LC-36A International Launch Services
Hot Bird 2 Eutelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
24 November
11:05
Skylark 7 Esrange Area S DLR
TEXUS 35 DASA Suborbital Microgravity research24 NovemberSuccessful
29 November RT-2PU Topol Plesetsk Site 158 RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test29 NovemberSuccessful

December

4 December
06:58
Delta II 7925 Cape Canaveral LC-17B Boeing IDS
Mars Pathfinder NASA Heliocentric Mars lander4 July 1997
16:57
Successful
Sojourner NASA Heliocentric Mars rover
First Mars rover; landing site: Ares Vallis
Final contact with Sojourner received on 27 September 1997 and the mission was terminated on 10 March 1998
11 December
12:00
Tsyklon-2 Baikonur Site 90/20
Kosmos 2335 (EORSAT) MO RF Low Earth Reconnaissance1 January 1999Successful
18 December
01:57
Atlas IIA Cape Canaveral LC-36B International Launch Services
Inmarsat 3F3 Inmarsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
20 December
06:43
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132/1
Kosmos 2336 (Parus) MO RF Low Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
20 December
18:04
Titan IVA (404) Vandenberg SLC-4E Lockheed Martin
USA-129 (KH-12) NRO Low Earth ReconnaissanceIn orbitOperational
NRO Launch 2
24 December
13:50
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 43/4 Roskosmos
Bion 11 Roskosmos Low Earth Biological research7 January 1997Successful
28 December DF-21 Taiyuan
Suborbital Missile test28 DecemberSuccessful

Deep-space rendezvous

Date (GMT) Spacecraft Event Remarks
27 JuneGalileo1st flyby of Ganymede
6 SeptemberGalileo2nd flyby of Ganymede
4 NovemberGalileo1st flyby of Callisto
19 DecemberGalileo1st flyby of Europa

EVAs

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Remarks
15 January
05:35
6 hours
9 minutes
11:44 STS-72
Endeavour
Leroy Chiao
Daniel T. Barry
Practiced construction techniques for the upcoming International Space Station. The activities included installing a cable tray, hooking up cables and fluid lines, handling small screws and bolts in the screw, and grappling large objects at the end of the robotic arm.[4]
17 January
05:40
6 hours
54 minutes
12:34 STS-72
Endeavour
Leroy Chiao
Winston E. Scott
Continued testing of construction techniques with utility boxes, slidewires and a portable work stanchion attached to the robotic arm. Scott also tested the heating capabilities of his spacesuit by riding the robotic arm into a cold night zone while Endeavour's payload bay was oriented toward space.[5]
8 February
14:03
3 hours
5 minutes
17:08 Mir EO-20
Kvant-2
Thomas Reiter
Yuri Gidzenko
Moved a YMK maneuvering unit from the Kvant-2 airlock and secured it on the module exterior. Then collected experiments deployed earlier on the ESEF. The team was unable to remove an antenna from Kristall when they were unable to loosen some bolts on the antenna.
15 March
01:04
5 hours
51 minutes
06:55 Mir EO-21
Kvant-2
Yury Onufriyenko
Yury Usachov
To improve access to the outside of the Kristall module, Onufriyenko and Usachev installed a second Strela boom on the Mir base block. Also prepared cables and connectors for the future installation of the Mir Cooperative Solar Array.
27 March
06:34
6 hours
2 minutes
12:36 STS-76
Mir Atlantis
Michael R. Clifford
Linda M. Godwin
Added four canisters of experiments, called the Mir Environmental Effects Payload (MEEP), to the outside of docking module. Also tested new tethers and foot restraints for future use on Mir and the upcoming ISS assembly. First Shuttle-Mir EVA and EVA performed from a Space Shuttle docked at a space station.
20 May
22:50
6 hours
20 minutes
21 May
04:10
Mir EO-21
Kvant-2
Yury Onufriyenko
Yury Usachov
Moved the Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) from its stowage position on Kristal to a final location on Kvant-1, and prepared the array for complete deployment. Also released a balloon shaped like a large Pepsi can, and filmed it for a television commercial.
24 May
20:47
6 hours
43 minutes
25 May
02:30
Mir EO-21
Kvant-2
Yury Onufriyenko
Yury Usachov
Completed deployment of the Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) on the Kvant-1 module.
30 May
18:20
4 hours
20 minutes
22:40 Mir EO-21
Kvant-2
Yury Onufriyenko
Yury Usachov
Installed the German made Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner (MOMS) camera to the exterior of the Priroda module. Also installed a new handrail on the exterior of Kvant-2 to aid future spacewalks.
6 June
16:56
3 hours
34 minutes
20:30 Mir EO-21
Kvant-2
Yury Onufriyenko
Yury Usachov
Installed two American micrometeoroid detector experiments to the exterior of Kvant-2. Also replaced a cassette for the Komza experiment of the surface of Spektr.
13 June
12:45
5 hours
42 minutes
18:27 Mir EO-21
Kvant-2
Yury Onufriyenko
Yury Usachov
Installed the Rapana girder to the exterior of Kvant-1 in anticipation of mounting future experiments to the girder. Also manually deployed the Travers radar on the surface of Priroda.
2 December
15:54
5 hours
58 minutes
21:52 Mir EO-22
Kvant-2
Valery Korzun
Aleksandr Kaleri
Successfully connected electrical cables to the solar panels on surface installed on Kvant-1.[6]
9 December
13:50
6 hours
38 minutes
20:28 Mir EO-22
Kvant-2
Valery Korzun
Aleksandr Kaleri
Completed the construction of the Rapana truss structure and the installed the Kurs docking antenna. Also fixed an amateur radio antenna that had loosened.[7]

References

  • Bergin, Chris. "NASASpaceFlight.com".
  • Clark, Stephen. "Spaceflight Now".
  • Kelso, T.S. "Satellite Catalog (SATCAT)". CelesTrak.
  • Krebs, Gunter. "Chronology of Space Launches".
  • Kyle, Ed. "Space Launch Report".
  • McDowell, Jonathan. "Jonathan's Space Report".
  • Pietrobon, Steven. "Steven Pietrobon's Space Archive".
  • Wade, Mark. "Encyclopedia Astronautica".
  • Webb, Brian. "Southwest Space Archive".
  • Zak, Anatoly. "Russian Space Web".
  • "ISS Calendar". Spaceflight 101.
  • "NSSDCA Master Catalog". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • "Space Calendar". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  • "Space Information Center". JAXA.
  • "Хроника освоения космоса" [Chronicle of space exploration]. CosmoWorld (in Russian).
Generic references:

Footnotes

  1. Bergin, Chris (16 July 2008). "Sea Launch lofts EchoStar 11 – EchoStar 2 dies on orbit". NASASpaceflight.com. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2008.
  2. "CNN Student News One-Sheet: Space Shuttle Facts". CNN. 11 March 2008. Archived from the original on 3 June 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
  3. Story Musgrave 6-time Space Shuttle Astronaut simulates Space Flight | Hubble Space Telescope | Space Exploration | Space Story Archived 30 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  4. Dumoulin, Jim (2001). "STS-72 Day 5 Highlights". NASA Space Shuttle Launch Archive. NASA. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2009.
  5. Dumoulin, Jim (2001). "STS-72 Day 7 Highlights". NASA Space Shuttle Launch Archive. NASA. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2009.
  6. van der Berg, Chris (3 December 1996). "MIRNEWS 3 DECEMBER 1996 (337)". MirNews. SpaceOnLine. Archived from the original on 8 March 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2009.
  7. van der Berg, Chris (10 December 1996). "MIRNEWS 10 DECEMBER 1996 (338)". MirNews. SpaceOnLine. Archived from the original on 8 March 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2009.


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