1990 in spaceflight

The following is an outline of 1990 in spaceflight.

1990 in spaceflight
Orbital launches
First1 January
Last27 December
Total121
Successes114
Failures5
Partial failures2
National firsts
Satellite Pakistan
Space traveller Japan
Rockets
Maiden flightsAriane 4 40
Ariane 4 42P
Atlas I
Commercial Titan III
Delta II 6920
Delta II 7925
Long March 2E
Pegasus
RetirementsDelta 4925
Long March 4A
Crewed flights
Orbital9
Total travellers39

Launches

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January

1 January
00:07
Commercial Titan III Cape Canaveral LC-40 Martin Marietta
Skynet 4A MoD Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
JCSAT 2 JSAT Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Maiden flight of Commercial Titan III
9 January
12:35
Space Shuttle Columbia Kennedy LC-39A
STS-32 NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment and retrieval20 January
06:35
Successful
Leasat 5 NASA Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Manned orbital flight with 5 astronauts
Long Duration Exposure Facility retrieval mission
Leasat 5 retired in February 1998
17 January
14:38
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2055 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance29 JanuarySuccessful
18 January
12:57
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 133/3
Kosmos 2056 (Strela-2M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
22 January
01:35
Ariane 4 (40) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
SPOT 2 CNES Sun-synchronous Earth observationIn orbitOperational
UOSAT 3 University of Surrey Sun-synchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
UOSAT 4 University of Surrey Sun-synchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSpacecraft failure
PACSAT AMSAT Sun-synchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Microsat 2 AMSAT Sun-synchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Microsat 3 AMSAT Sun-synchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Microsat 4 AMSAT Sun-synchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Maiden flight of Ariane 4 (40)
UOSAT 4 ceased transmitting after 5 hours
23 January
02:52
Molniya-M/ML Plesetsk
Molniya 3-53L Molniya Communications23 June 2003Successful
24 January
11:46
Mu-3S-II Uchinoura ISAS
Hiten ISAS Lunar probe11 April 1993Successful
Hagoromo ISAS Selenocentric Lunar orbiterIn orbitSpacecraft failure
First Japanese lunar mission
Hagoromo suffered a transmitter malfunction prior to selenocentric orbit injection
24 January
22:55
Delta II 6925 Cape Canaveral LC-17A McDonnell Douglas
GPS II-6 (USA-50) US Air Force Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitSuccessful
25 January
17:15
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2057 (Yantar-4K2) Low Earth Reconnaissance19 March 1990Successful
30 January
11:20
Tsyklon-3 Plesetsk Site 32
Kosmos 2058 (Tselina-R) Low Earth ELINTIn orbitOperational

February

4 February
12:27
Long March 3 Xichang LC-1
DFH-2 A-4 Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
6 February
16:30
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132/2
Kosmos 2059 (Taifun-2) Low Earth Radar calibration12 NovemberSuccessful
7 February
01:33
H-I Tanegashima LA-N Mitsubishi
MOS 1B NASDA Low Earth Earth observationIn orbitOperational
DEBUT Low Earth Technology demonstrationIn orbitSuccessful
JAS-1B Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
11 February
06:16
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
Soyuz TM-9 Low Earth (Mir) Mir EO-99 August
07:33
Successful
Manned orbital flight with 2 cosmonauts
14 February
16:15
Delta II 6920-8 Cape Canaveral LC-17B McDonnell Douglas
LACE (USA-51) DoD Low Earth Technology demonstration24 May 2000Successful
RME (USA-52) DoD Low Earth Technology demonstration24 May 1992Successful
Maiden flight of Delta II 6920
15 February
07:52
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 81/23
Raduga 25 Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
22 February
23:17
Ariane 4 (44L) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
Superbird B SCC Intended: Geosynchronous transfer CommunicationsT+ secondsLaunch failure
BS 2X Intended: Geosynchronous transfer Communications
Blocked water line caused rocket explosion
27 February
20:59
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132/2
Nadezhda 2 Low Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
28 February
00:55
Tsyklon-3 Plesetsk Site 32/2
Okean 2 Low Earth Earth scienceIn orbitOperational
28 February
07:50
Space Shuttle Atlantis Kennedy LC-39A
STS-36 NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment4 March
03:08
Successful
USA-53 (Misty-1) NRO Low Earth ReconnaissanceIn orbitOperational
Manned orbital flight with 5 astronauts
28 February
23:10
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
Progress M-3 Low Earth (Mir) Logistics28 April
00:52
Successful

March

14 March
11:52
Commercial Titan III Cape Canaveral LC-40 Martin Marietta
Intelsat 603 Intelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitPartial launch failure
Due to non-separation of second stage Intelsat 603 was released from its perigee motor into a Low Earth orbit. Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-49 attached a new perigee motor which boosted the satellite to geosynchronous orbit.
14 March
15:27
Tsyklon-2 Baikonur Site 90/20
Kosmos 2060 (US-P) Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance1 September 1991Successful
20 March
00:25
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 133/3
Kosmos 2061 (Parus) Low Earth NavigationIn orbitSuccessful
22 March
07:20
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2062 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance28 AprilSuccessful
26 March
02:45
Delta II 6925 Cape Canaveral LC-17A McDonnell Douglas
GPS II-7 (USA-54) US Air Force Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitSpacecraft failure
Signal anomaly on 21 May 1996 made the satellite unusable in the GPS constellation.
27 March
16:40
Molniya-M/2BL Plesetsk
Kosmos 2063 (Oko) Molniya Early warningIn orbitOperational

April

3 April
12:02
Shavit Palmachim
Ofeq-2 Low Earth (retrograde) ReconnaissanceIn orbitOperational
3 April Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 43
Yantar-4K2 Intended: Low Earth Reconnaissance3 AprilLaunch failure
5 April
19:10
Pegasus Balls 8 Edwards Orbital Sciences
Pegsat NASA Low Earth Space Physics14 November 1998Successful
USA-55 (SECS) DoD Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Maiden flight of Pegasus
6 April
03:13
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 133/3
Kosmos 2064 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2065 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2066 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2067 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2068 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2069 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2070 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2071 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
7 April
13:30
Long March 3 Xichang LC-1
AsiaSat 1 AsiaSat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Originally launched as Westar 6 by Space Shuttle Challenger in February 1984 on mission STS-41-B. Was stranded in an incorrect orbit and was recovered in November 1984 by Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-51-A. Westar 6 was refurbished and sold to AsiaSat who renamed it AsiaSat 1.
11 April
15:00
Atlas-E/Altair-3A Vandenberg SLC-3W Lockheed
USA-56 (POGS) DoD Low Earth Technology demonstrationIn orbitSuccessful
USA-57 (TEX) DoD Low Earth Technology demonstrationIn orbitSuccessful
USA-58 (SCE) DoD Low Earth Technology demonstrationIn orbitSuccessful
11 April
17:00
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 43/3
/Foton 6 CNES Low Earth Microgravity research27 April
06:15
Successful
13 April
18:53
Soyuz-U Baikonur
Kosmos 2072 (Yantar-4KS1) Low Earth Reconnaissance22 NovemberSuccessful
13 April
22:28
Delta II 6925-8 Cape Canaveral LC-17B McDonnell Douglas
Palapa B2R Telkom Indonesia Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Originally launched in February 1984 as Palapa B2 by Space Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-41-B. Was stranded in an incorrect orbit and was recovered in November 1984 by Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-51-A.
17 April
08:00
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2073 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance28 AprilSuccessful
20 April
18:41
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 133/3
Kosmos 2074 (Parus) Low Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
24 April
12:33
Space Shuttle Discovery Kennedy LC-39B
STS-31 NASA Low Earth HST deployment29 April
13:49
Successful
/Hubble Space Telescope NASA/ESA Low Earth Space TelescopeIn orbitOperational
Manned orbital flight with 5 astronauts
25 April
13:00
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132/2
Kosmos 2075 (Taifun-2) Low Earth Target20 February 1992Successful
26 April
01:37
Molniya-M/ML Plesetsk
Molniya 1-77 Molniya Communications25 February 2005Successful
28 April
11:37
Molniya-M/2BL Plesetsk
Kosmos 2076 (Oko) Molniya Early warningIn orbitOperational

May

5 May
20:44
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
Progress 42 Low Earth (Mir) Logistics27 May
12:27
Successful
Final flight of baseline Progress spacecraft
7 May
18:39
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2077 (Yantar-4K2) Low Earth Reconnaissance4 JulySuccessful
9 May
17:50
Scout G-1 Vandenberg SLC-5
MacSat 1 DARPA Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
MacSat 2 DARPA Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
15 May
09:55
Soyuz-U Baikonur
Kosmos 2078 (Yantar-1KFT) Low Earth Reconnaissance28 JuneSuccessful
19 May
08:32
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 200/40
Kosmos 2079 (GLONASS) Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2080 (GLONASS) Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2081 (GLONASS) Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
22 May
05:14
Zenit-2 Baikonur Site 45/2
Kosmos 2082 (Tselina-2) Low Earth ELINTIn orbitOperational
First launch from Site 45/2
29 May
07:19
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 43/4
Resurs-F6 Low Earth Reconnaissance14 JuneSuccessful
31 May
10:33
Proton-K Baikonur Site 200/39
Kristall Low Earth (Mir) Mir module23 March 2001
05:50
Successful

June

1 June
21:48
Delta II 6920-10 Cape Canaveral LC-17A McDonnell Douglas
ROSAT Low Earth Astronomy23 October 2011Successful
8 June
05:21
Titan IVA (405) Cape Canaveral LC-41 Martin Marietta
USA-59 (SLDCOM) US Air Force Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
USA-60 (NOSS-2) US Navy Low Earth Naval ReconnaissanceIn orbitOperational
USA-61 (NOSS-2) US Navy Low Earth Naval ReconnaissanceIn orbitOperational
USA-62 (NOSS-2) US Navy Low Earth Naval ReconnaissanceIn orbitOperational
12 June
05:52
Delta 4925 Cape Canaveral LC-17B McDonnell Douglas
INSAT 1D ISRO Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Final flight of Delta 4925
13 June
01:07
Molniya-M/ML Plesetsk
Molniya 3-47L Molniya Communications26 February 2006Successful
19 June
08:45
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2083 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance3 July 1990Successful
20 June
23:36
Proton-K/DM Baikonur Site 200/40
Gorizont 20 Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
21 June
20:45
Molniya-M/2BL Plesetsk Site 43/3
Kosmos 2084 (Oko) Intended: Molniya
Achieved: Low Earth
Early warningIn orbitPartial Failure
Placed in an incorrect orbit and the satellite did not communicate with the ground.
23 June
11:19
Commercial Titan III Cape Canaveral LC-40 Martin Marietta
Intelsat 604 Intelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
27 June
22:30
Tsyklon-3 Plesetsk Site 32
Meteor-2-19 Low Earth Earth SciencesIn orbitSuccessful

July

3 July Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 16/2
Yantar-4K2 Intended: Low Earth Reconnaissance3 JulyLaunch failure
11 July
10:00
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
/Gamma CNES Low Earth Astronomy28 February 1992Successful
16 July
00:40
Long March 2E Xichang LC-2
Badr-1 SUPARCO Low Earth Communications8 DecemberSuccessful
HS-601 Low Earth Boilerplate spacecraftIn orbitSuccessful
Maiden flight of Long March 2E
17 July
09:29
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 43/3
Resurs-F7 Low Earth Reconnaissance16 AugustSuccessful
18 July
21:46
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 200/39
Kosmos 2085 (Geizer 17L) Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
20 July
08:40
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2086 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance3 AugustSuccessful
24 July
22:25
Ariane 4 (44L) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
TDF-2 Telediffusion Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
DFS-2 Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
25 July
18:13
Molniya-M/2BL Plesetsk
Kosmos 2087 (Oko) Molniya Early warningIn orbitOperational
25 July
19:21
Atlas I Cape Canaveral LC-36B
CRRES US Air Force Geosynchronous transfer Space PhysicsIn orbitSuccessful
Maiden flight of Atlas I
Contact with spacecraft lost on 12 October 1991 due to onboard battery failure.
30 July
00:06
Tsyklon-3 Plesetsk Site 32/1
Kosmos 2088 (Geo-IK) Low Earth Earth ScienceIn orbitSuccessful

August

1 August
09:32
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
Soyuz TM-10 Low Earth (Mir) Mir EO-710 December
06:08
Successful
Manned orbital flight with 2 cosmonauts
2 August
05:39
Delta II 6925 Cape Canaveral LC-17A McDonnell Douglas
GPS II-8 (USA-63) US Air Force Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
3 August
19:45
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2089 (Yantar-4K2) Low Earth Reconnaissance1 OctoberSuccessful
8 August
04:15
Tsyklon-3 Plesetsk Site 32
Kosmos 2090 (Strela-3) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2091 (Strela-3) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2092 (Strela-3) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2093 (Strela-3) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2094 (Strela-3) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2095 (Strela-3) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
9 August
20:18
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 200/39
Ekran-M Intended: Geosynchronous Communications9 AugustLaunch failure
10 August
20:18
Molniya-M/ML Plesetsk
Molniya 1-78 Molniya Communications6 July 2007Successful
15 August
04:00
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
Progress M-4 Low Earth (Mir) Logistics20 September
11:42
Successful
16 August
09:54
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 43/4
Resurs-F8 Low Earth Reconnaissance1 SeptemberSuccessful
18 August
00:42
Delta II 6925 Cape Canaveral LC-17B McDonnell Douglas
Marco Polo 2 Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
23 August
16:17
Tsyklon-2 Baikonur Site 90/20
Kosmos 2096 (US-P) Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance30 August 1992Successful
28 August
07:49
Molniya-M/2BL Plesetsk
Kosmos 2097 (Oko) Molniya Early warningIn orbitOperational
28 August
09:05
H-1 Tanegashima LA-N Mitsubishi
BS 3A Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
28 August
15:45
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 133/3
Kosmos 2098 (Taifun-1) Low Earth Earth ScienceIn orbitSuccessful
30 August
22:46
Ariane 4 (44LP) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
Skynet 4C MoD Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Eutelsat 2F1 Eutelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
31 August
08:00
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2099 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance14 SeptemberSuccessful

September

3 September
00:53
Long March 4A Taiyuan LC-1
Feng Yun 1B Sun-synchronous Weather satelliteIn orbitSuccessful
Qi Qiu Weixing 1 Sun-synchronous Atmospheric research11 March 1991Successful
Qi Qiu Weixing 2 Sun-synchronous Atmospheric research24 July 1991Successful
Final flight of Long March 4A
7 September
11:59
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Site 16/2
Resurs-F9 Low Earth Reconnaissance21 SeptemberSuccessful
14 September
05:59
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 133/3
Kosmos 2100 (Parus) Low Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
20 September
20:16
Molniya-M/ML Plesetsk
Molniya 3-54L Molniya CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
27 September
10:37
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
Progress M-5 Low Earth (Mir) Logistics28 November
11:04
Successful
28 September
07:30
Tsyklon-3 Plesetsk Site 32
Meteor-2-20 Low Earth Earth ScienceIn orbitSuccessful

October

1 October
11:00
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
Kosmos 2101 (Ortlets-1) Low Earth Reconnaissance30 NovemberSuccessful
1 October
21:56
Delta II 6925 Cape Canaveral LC-17A McDonnell Douglas
GPS II-9 (USA-64) US Air Force Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitSuccessful
4 October Zenit-2 Baikonur Site 45/2
Tselina-2 Intended: Low Earth ELINTT+5 secondsLaunch failure
First stage engine failure five seconds after launch. Subsequent explosion completely destroyed the launch pad, which was not rebuilt.
5 October
06:14
Long March 2C Jiuquan LA-2B
FSW-1-3 Low Earth Reconnaissance13 October
03:59
Successful
6 October
11:47
Space Shuttle Discovery Kennedy LC-39B
STS-41 NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment10 OctoberSuccessful
/Ulysses ESA/NASA Heliocentric Solar probeIn orbitSuccessful
Manned orbital flight with 5 astronauts
12 October
22:58
Ariane 4 (44L) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
SBS 6 SBS Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Galaxy 6 PanAmSat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
16 October
19:00
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2102 (Yantar-4K2) Low Earth Reconnaissance12 DecemberSuccessful
30 October
23:16
Delta II 6925 Cape Canaveral LC-17B McDonnell Douglas
Inmarsat 2F1 Inmarsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational

November

3 November
14:40
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 81/23
Gorizont 21 Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
13 November
00:37
Titan IVA (402)/IUS Cape Canaveral LC-41 Martin Marietta
USA-65 (DSP-15) US Air Force Geosynchronous Early warningIn orbitOperational
14 November
06:33
Tsyklon-2 Baikonur Site 90/20
Kosmos 2103 (US-P) Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance3 April 1991Successful
15 November
23:48
Space Shuttle Atlantis Kennedy LC-39A
STS-38 NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment20 November
21:42
Successful
USA-67 (SDS-2) NRO Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Prowler NRO Geosynchronous Satellite inspection
Technology
In orbitSuccessful
Manned orbital flight with 5 astronauts
16 November
16:30
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2104 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance4 DecemberSuccessful
20 November
02:33
Molniya-M/2BL Plesetsk
Kosmos 2105 (Oko) Molniya Early warning16 January 2008Successful
20 November
23:11
Ariane 4 (42P) Kourou ELA-2 Arianespace
Satcom C1 GE Americom Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
GStar 4 Spacenet Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Maiden flight of Ariane 4 (42P)
23 November
03:51
Molniya-M/ML Plesetsk
Molniya 1-79 Molniya Communications30 August 2005Successful
23 November
13:22
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 200/39
Gorizont 22 Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
26 November
21:39
Delta II 7925 Cape Canaveral LC-17A McDonnell Douglas
GPS IIA-1 (USA-66) US Air Force Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitSuccessful
Maiden flight of Delta II 7925
28 November
16:33
Tsyklon-3 Plesetsk Site 32
Kosmos 2106 (Tselina-D) Low Earth ELINT7 April 2000Successful

December

1 December
15:57
Atlas-E/Star-37 Vandenberg SLC-3W Lockheed
USA-68 (DMSP-5D2 F10) US Air Force Sun-synchronous Weather satelliteIn orbitSuccessful
2 December
06:49
Space Shuttle Columbia Kennedy LC-39B
STS-35 NASA Low Earth Astronomy10 December
23:54
Successful
Manned orbital flight with 7 astronauts
2 December
08:13
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
Soyuz TM-11 Low Earth (Mir) Mir EO-826 May 1991
10:04
Successful
Manned orbital flight with 3 cosmonauts including the first Japanese space traveler.
4 December
00:48
Tsyklon-2 Baikonur Site 90/20
Kosmos 2107 (US-P) Low Earth Naval Reconnaissance6 April 1992Successful
4 December
18:30
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2108 (Yantar-4K2) Low Earth Reconnaissance28 January 1991Successful
8 December
02:43
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 81/23
Kosmos 2109 (GLONASS) Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2110 (GLONASS) Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2111 (GLONASS) Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitOperational
10 December
07:54
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 133/3
Kosmos 2112 (Strela-2M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
20 December
11:35
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 81/23
Raduga 26 Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
21 December
06:20
Soyuz-U Baikonur
Kosmos 2113 (Yantar-4KS1) Low Earth Reconnaissance11 June 1991Successful
22 December
07:28
Tsyklon-3 Plesetsk Site 32
Kosmos 2114 (Strela-3) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2115 (Strela-3) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2116 (Strela-3) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2117 (Strela-3) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2118 (Strela-3) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
Kosmos 2119 (Strela-3) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitOperational
26 December
11:10
Soyuz-U Plesetsk
Kosmos 2120 (Zenit-8) Low Earth Reconnaissance17 January 1991Successful
27 December
11:08
Proton-K/DM-2 Baikonur Site 200/39
Raduga-1-2 Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitOperational

Deep-space rendezvous

Date (GMT) Spacecraft Event Remarks
10 FebruaryGalileoFlyby of VenusGravity assist; Closest approach: 16,000 kilometres (9,900 mi)
19 MarchHitenFlyby of the Moon
19 MarchHagoromoSelenocentric orbit injection
10 AugustMagellanCytherean orbit injection
8 DecemberGalileo1st flyby of the EarthGravity assist; Closest approach: 960 kilometres (600 mi)

EVAs

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Remarks
8 January
20:23
2 hours
56 minutes
23:19 Mir EO-5 Alexander Viktorenko
Aleksandr Serebrov
Installed new star tracker sensors launched in the Kvant-2 module onto Kvant-1.
11 January
18:01
2 hours
54 minutes
20:55 Mir EO-5 Alexander Viktorenko
Aleksandr Serebrov
Closed out experimental racks, either retrieving for return to earth, or discarding into space. Modified the docking node for the arrival of the Kristall module.
26 January
12:09
3 hours
2 minutes
15:11 Mir EO-5
Kvant-2
Alexander Viktorenko
Aleksandr Serebrov
Tested the new Orlan-DMA spacesuit. This spacewalk team was the first use of the EVA airlock hatch on the Kvant-2 module. During the spacewalk a mooring post was attached outside the airlock, and a Kurs antenna was removed to enable future EVAs.
1 February
08:15
4 hours
59 minutes
13:14 Mir EO-5
Kvant-2
Alexander Viktorenko
Aleksandr Serebrov
Tested the SPK "flying armchair", analogous to NASA's MMU. The SPK did not fly free, but remained tethered to Kvant-2 during the tests.
5 February
06:08
3 hours
45 minutes
09:53 Mir EO-5
Kvant-2
Alexander Viktorenko
Aleksandr Serebrov
Conducted more tests of the SPK. Viktorenko reached as far as 45 metres (148 ft) from Mir.
17 July
13:06
7 hours
15 minutes
20:22 Mir EO-6
Kvant-2
Anatoly Solovyev
Aleksandr Balandin
At the start of their EVA to repair torn insulation on the Soyuz TM-9, Solovyev and Balandin damaged the hatch on Kvant-2 by opening it before the airlock was completely depressurized. The spacewalking team repaired the insulation on Soyuz, but time constraints required returning to Kvant-2 before they collected their tools and ladders. Unable to securely close the damaged hatch, they used the center section of Kvant-2 as a back-up airlock.
26 July
11:15
3 hours
31 minutes
14:46 Mir EO-6
Kvant-2
Anatoly Solovyev
Aleksandr Balandin
Transmitted images of the damaged hatch to TsUP, recovered the ladders and tools left outside earlier and removed debris lodged in the hinge of the airlock hatch, allowing the hatch to close and seal for repressurization.
29 October
21:45
2 hours
45 minutes
30 October
00:30
Mir EO-7
Kvant-2
Gennadi Manakov
Gennady Strekalov
After removing insulation around the damaged Kvant-2 hatch, they found the hatch to be more heavily damaged than previously understood. Although unable to completely repair the hatch, they added hardware to the hatch.

See also

  • Bergin, Chris. "NASASpaceFlight.com".
  • Clark, Stephen. "Spaceflight Now".
  • Kelso, T.S. "Satellite Catalog (SATCAT)". CelesTrak.
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Footnotes

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