1990 United States Census

The Twenty-first United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, was the first census to be directed by a woman, Barbara Everitt Bryant. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9.8 percent over the 226,545,805 persons enumerated during the 1980 Census.[1]

Twenty-first Census
of the United States
U.S. Census Bureau Seal
Census Logo
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenApril 1, 1990
Total population248,709,873
Percent change 9.8%
Most populous stateCalifornia
29,760,021
Least populous stateWyoming
453,588

Approximately 16 percent of households received a "long form" of the 1990 census, which contained over 100 questions. Full documentation on the 1990 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.

It was the first census to designate "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander" as a racial group separate from Asians.

To increase black participation in the 1990 United States Census, the bureau recruited Bill Cosby, Magic Johnson, Alfre Woodard, and Miss America Debbye Turner as spokespeople.[2] The Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Personally identifiable information will be available in 2062.[3]

This was the first census since 1890 in which Chicago was not the second-largest city, having been overtaken by Los Angeles. As of the 2020 Census, Los Angeles is expected to remain the nation's second-largest city.

State rankings

Rank
State
Population as of
1980 Census
Population as of
1990 Census
Change
Percent
change
1  California 23,667,902 29,760,021 6,092,119 25.7%
2  New York 17,558,072 17,990,455 432,383 2.5%
3  Texas 14,229,191 16,986,510 2,757,319 19.4%
4  Florida 9,746,324 12,937,926 3,191,602 32.7%
5  Pennsylvania 11,863,895 11,881,643 17,748 0.15%
6  Illinois 11,426,518 11,430,602 4,084 0.0%
7  Ohio 10,797,630 10,847,115 49,485 0.4%
8  Michigan 9,262,078 9,295,297 33,219 0.4%
9  New Jersey 7,364,823 7,730,188 365,365 4.96%
10  North Carolina 5,881,766 6,628,637 746,871 12.7%
11  Georgia 5,463,105 6,478,216 1,015,111 18.6%
12  Virginia 5,346,818 6,187,358 840,540 15.7%
13  Massachusetts 5,737,037 6,016,425 279,388 4.87%
14  Indiana 5,490,224 5,544,159 53,935 0.98%
15  Missouri 4,916,686 5,117,073 200,387 4.1%
16  Wisconsin 4,705,767 4,891,769 186,002 3.9%
17  Tennessee 4,591,120 4,877,185 286,065 6.2%
18  Washington 4,132,156 4,866,692 734,536 17.8%
19  Maryland 4,216,975 4,781,468 564,493 13.4%
20  Minnesota 4,075,970 4,375,099 299,129 7.3%
21  Louisiana 4,205,900 4,219,973 14,073 0.3%
22  Alabama 3,893,888 4,040,587 146,699 3.8%
23  Kentucky 3,660,777 3,685,296 24,519 0.67%
24  Arizona 2,718,215 3,665,228 947,013 34.8%
25  South Carolina 3,121,820 3,486,703 364,883 11.7%
26  Colorado 2,889,964 3,294,394 404,430 14.0%
27  Connecticut 3,107,576 3,287,116 179,540 5.8%
28  Oklahoma 3,025,290 3,145,585 120,295 4.0%
29  Oregon 2,633,105 2,842,321 209,216 7.9%
30  Iowa 2,913,808 2,776,755 -137,053 -4.7%
31  Mississippi 2,520,638 2,573,216 52,578 2.1%
32  Kansas 2,363,679 2,477,574 113,895 4.8%
33  Arkansas 2,286,435 2,350,725 64,290 2.8%
34  West Virginia 1,949,644 1,793,477 -156,167 -8.0%
35  Utah 1,461,037 1,722,850 261,813 17.9%
36  Nebraska 1,569,825 1,578,385 8,560 0.54%
37  New Mexico 1,302,894 1,515,069 212,175 16.3%
38  Maine 1,124,660 1,227,928 103,268 9.2%
39  Nevada 800,493 1,201,833 401,340 50.1%
40  New Hampshire 920,610 1,109,252 188,642 20.5%
41  Hawaii 964,691 1,108,229 143,538 14.8%
42  Idaho 943,935 1,006,749 62,814 6.65%
43  Rhode Island 947,154 1,003,464 56,310 5.9%
44  Montana 786,690 799,065 12,375 1.6%
45  South Dakota 690,768 696,004 5,236 0.76%
46  Delaware 594,338 666,168 71,830 12.1%
47  North Dakota 652,717 638,800 -13,917 -2.1%
 District of Columbia 638,333 606,900 -31,433 -4.9%
48  Vermont 511,456 562,758 51,302 10.0%
49  Alaska 401,851 550,043 148,192 36.8%
50  Wyoming 469,557 453,588 -15,969 -3.4%
   United States 226,545,805 248,709,873 22,164,068 9.8%

Reapportionment

The results of the 1990 census determined the number of seats that each state receives in the United States House of Representatives starting with the 1992 elections. Consequently, this affected the number of votes each state has in the Electoral College for the 1992 presidential election.

Because of population changes, twenty-one states had changes in their number of seats. Eight states gained at least one seat, and thirteen states lost at least one seat. The final result involved 19 seats being switched.[4]

Gained seven seatsGained four seatsGained three seatsGained one seatLost one seatLost two seatsLost three seats
California Florida Texas Arizona
Georgia
North Carolina
Virginia
Washington
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Massachusetts
Montana
New Jersey
West Virginia
Illinois
Michigan
Ohio
Pennsylvania
New York

City rankings

Top five

Rank
City
Population as of
1980 Census
Population as of
1990 Census
Change
Percent
change
1  New York, NY 7,071,639 7,322,564 250,925 3.5%
2  Los Angeles, CA 2,966,850 3,485,398 518,548 17.5%
3  Chicago, IL 3,005,072 2,783,726 -221,346 -7.4%
4  Houston, TX 1,595,138 1,630,553 35,415 2.2%
5  Philadelphia, PA 1,688,210 1,585,577 -102,633 -6.1%

Top 100

RankCityStatePopulation[5]Region (2016)[6]
01New YorkNew York7,322,564Northeast
02Los AngelesCalifornia3,485,398West
03ChicagoIllinois2,783,726Midwest
04HoustonTexas1,630,553South
05PhiladelphiaPennsylvania1,585,577Northeast
06San DiegoCalifornia1,110,549West
07DetroitMichigan1,027,974Midwest
08DallasTexas1,006,877South
09PhoenixArizona983,403West
10San AntonioTexas935,933South
11San JoseCalifornia782,248West
12BaltimoreMaryland736,014South
13IndianapolisIndiana731,327Midwest
14San FranciscoCalifornia723,959West
15JacksonvilleFlorida635,230South
16ColumbusOhio632,910Midwest
17MilwaukeeWisconsin628,088Midwest
18MemphisTennessee610,337South
19WashingtonDistrict of Columbia606,900South
20BostonMassachusetts574,283Northeast
21SeattleWashington516,259West
22El PasoTexas515,342South
23ClevelandOhio505,616Midwest
24New OrleansLouisiana496,938South
25Nashville-DavidsonTennessee488,374South
26DenverColorado467,610West
27AustinTexas465,622South
28Fort WorthTexas447,619South
29Oklahoma CityOklahoma444,719South
30PortlandOregon437,319West
31Kansas CityMissouri435,146Midwest
32Long BeachCalifornia429,433West
33TucsonArizona405,390West
34St. LouisMissouri396,685Midwest
35CharlotteNorth Carolina395,934South
36AtlantaGeorgia394,017South
37Virginia BeachVirginia393,069South
38AlbuquerqueNew Mexico384,736West
39OaklandCalifornia372,242West
40PittsburghPennsylvania369,879Northeast
41SacramentoCalifornia369,365West
42MinneapolisMinnesota368,383Midwest
43TulsaOklahoma367,302South
44HonoluluHawaii365,272West
45CincinnatiOhio364,040Midwest
46MiamiFlorida358,548South
47FresnoCalifornia354,202West
48OmahaNebraska335,795Midwest
49ToledoOhio332,943Midwest
50BuffaloNew York328,123Northeast
51WichitaKansas304,011Midwest
52Santa AnaCalifornia293,742West
53MesaArizona288,091West
54Colorado SpringsColorado281,140West
55TampaFlorida280,015South
56NewarkNew Jersey275,221Northeast
57Saint PaulMinnesota272,235Midwest
58LouisvilleKentucky269,063South
59AnaheimCalifornia266,406West
60BirminghamAlabama265,968South
61ArlingtonTexas261,721South
62NorfolkVirginia261,229South
63Las VegasNevada258,295West
64Corpus ChristiTexas257,453South
65St. PetersburgFlorida238,629South
66RochesterNew York231,636Northeast
67Jersey CityNew Jersey228,537Northeast
68RiversideCalifornia226,505West
69AnchorageAlaska226,338West
70Lexington-FayetteKentucky225,366South
71AkronOhio223,019Midwest
72AuroraColorado222,103West
73Baton RougeLouisiana219,531South
74StocktonCalifornia210,943West
75RaleighNorth Carolina207,951South
76RichmondVirginia203,056South
77ShreveportLouisiana198,525South
78JacksonMississippi196,637South
79MobileAlabama196,278South
80Des MoinesIowa193,187Midwest
81LincolnNebraska191,972Midwest
82MadisonWisconsin191,262Midwest
83Grand RapidsMichigan189,126Midwest
84YonkersNew York188,082Northeast
85HialeahFlorida188,004South
86MontgomeryAlabama187,106South
87LubbockTexas186,206South
88GreensboroNorth Carolina183,521South
89DaytonOhio182,044Midwest
90Huntington BeachCalifornia181,519West
91GarlandTexas180,650South
92GlendaleCalifornia180,038West
93ColumbusGeorgia178,681South
94SpokaneWashington177,196West
95TacomaWashington176,664West
96Little RockArkansas175,795South
97BakersfieldCalifornia174,820West
98FremontCalifornia173,339West
99Fort WayneIndiana173,072Midwest
100ArlingtonVirginia170,936South

References

  1. "Population and Area (Historical Censuses)" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2008. Retrieved June 20, 2008.
  2. Brown, Frank Dexter (February 1990). "The 1990 Census: Will Blacks Be Counted Out?". Black Enterprise. Earl G. Graves, Ltd. 20 (7): 195. ISSN 0006-4165. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
  3. "The "72-Year Rule" – History". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
  4. "1990 Apportionment Results". US Census Bureau. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  5. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  6. "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
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