1985 in spaceflight

The following is an outline of 1985 in spaceflight.

1985 in spaceflight
National firsts
Space traveller Mexico
 Saudi Arabia
Rockets
Maiden flightsSpace Shuttle Atlantis
M-3SII
Crewed flights
Orbital11
Total travellers63

Launches

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January

24 January
19:50
Space Shuttle Discovery Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-51-C NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment27 January
21:23
Successful
USA-8 (Magnum 1) NRO Geosynchronous ELINTIn orbitSuccessful
Manned orbital flight with five astronauts

February

8 February
06:10
Titan 34B Vandenberg SLC-4W
USA-9 (SDS) US Air force Molniya CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
8 February
23:22
Ariane 3 Kourou ELA Arianespace
Arabsat-1A Arabsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Brasilsat-A1 Embratel Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Arabsat 1A failed in March 1992

March

13 March
02:00
Atlas E/OIS Vandenberg SLC-3W
Geosat US Navy Sun-synchronous Earth observationIn orbitSuccessful
Mission ended in January 1990
22 March
23:55
Atlas G Cape Canaveral LC-36B
Intelsat 510 Intelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful

April

12 April
13:59
Space Shuttle Discovery Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-51-D NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment19 April
13:54
Successful
Anik C1 Telesat Canada Current: Graveyard
Operational: Geosynchronous
CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Leasat 3 US Navy Current: Graveyard
Operational: Geosynchronous
CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Manned orbital flight with seven astronauts including the first sitting member of the United States Congress to fly in space (Senator Jake Garn).
Anik C1 was retired on 5 May 2003.
Leasat 3 failed to maneuver to geosynchronous orbit and was re-captured by mission STS-51-I in August, repaired and subsequently maneuvered to geosynchronous orbit.
Discovery suffered extensive brake and tyre damage upon landing at Kennedy Space Center.
29 April
16:02
Space Shuttle Challenger Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-51-B NASA Low Earth Microgravity research6 May
16:11
Successful
Spacelab Long Module 1 NASA/ESRO Low Earth (Challenger) Microgravity researchSuccessful
GLOMAR Intended: Low Earth Getaway SpecialDeployment failure
NUSAT Low Earth Getaway Special15 DecemberSuccessful
Manned orbital flight with seven astronauts; GLOMAR failed to deploy from its GAS canister

May

8 May
01:15
Ariane 3 Kourou ELA Arianespace
GStar 1 GTE Spacenet Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Telecom 1B France Télécom Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful

June

6 June
06:39
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
Soyuz T-13 Low Earth (Salyut 7) Salyut 7 EO-426 September
09:51
Successful
Manned orbital flight with two cosmonauts
17 June
11:33
Space Shuttle Discovery Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-51-G NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment24 June
13:11
Successful
Morelos 1 Morelos Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Arabsat-1B Arabsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Telstar 303 AT&T Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Spartan 101 NASA Low Earth Astronomy24 June
13:11
Successful
Manned orbital flight with seven astronauts including the first Saudi Arabian space traveller and member of royalty to fly in space (Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud)
Arabsat 1B retired in 1993.
21 June
00:39
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 1/5
Progress 24 Low Earth (Salyut 7) Logistics15 July
22:33
Successful
30 June
00:44
Atlas G Cape Canaveral LC-36B
Intelsat 511 Intelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful

July

2 July
11:23
Ariane 1 Kourou ELA Arianespace
Giotto ESA Heliocentric Flyby of Halley's CometIn orbitSuccessful
Closest approach of Halley's Comet (596 kilometres (370 mi)) achieved on 13 March 1986
Closest approach of 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup (200 kilometres (120 mi)) achieved on 10 July 1992
19 July
13:05
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 1/5
Kosmos 1669 (Progress) Low Earth (Salyut 7) Logistics30 August
01:20
Successful
29 July
21:00
Space Shuttle Challenger Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-51-F NASA Low Earth Astronomical experiments6 August
19:45
Successful
PDP NASA Low Earth Plasma researchSuccessful
Spacelab 2 (three pallets) NASA/ESRO Low Earth (Challenger) AstronomySuccessful
Manned orbital flight with seven astronauts; A main engine shut-down during ascent caused an Abort to Orbit, the first (and only) abort of the Space Shuttle program.

August

27 August
10:58
Space Shuttle Discovery Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-51-I NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment and repair3 September
13:15
Successful
Aussat 1 Aussat Pty Ltd Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
ASC-1 ASC Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Leasat 4 US Navy Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSpacecraft failure
Manned orbital flight with five astronauts
Leasat 4 failed in orbit after becoming operational for a short period
Retrieved Leasat 3, deployed by STS-51-D in April and repaired the malfunctioning perigee motor to allow the satellite to reach geosynchronous orbit.
28 August
21:20
Titan 34D Vandenberg SLC-4E
KH-11-7 NRO Intended: Sun-synchronous Reconnaissance28 AugustLaunch Failure
First stage propellant feed malfunction

September

12 September
23:26
Ariane 3 Kourou ELA Arianespace
Eutelsat 1F3 Eutelsat Intended: Geosynchronous Communications12 SeptemberLaunch Failure
Spacenet F3 Spacenet Intended: Geosynchronous Communications
Third stage failed to ignite
13 September ASM-135 ASAT Celestial Eagle, Vandenberg US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital Anti-satellite weapon13 SeptemberSuccessful
Successful intercept and destruction of Solwind P78-1.
17 September
12:38
Soyuz-U2 Baikonur Site 1/5
Soyuz T-14 Low Earth (Salyut 7) Salyut 7 EP-521 November
10:31
Successful
Manned orbital flight with three cosmonauts
27 September
08:41
Proton-K Baikonur Site 200/39
Kosmos 1686 (TKS) Low Earth (Salyut 7) Logistics7 February 1991Successful
TKS-4; remained docked with Salyut 7 through that station's re-entry
28 September
23:17
Atlas G Cape Canaveral LC-36B
Intelsat 512 Intelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful

October

3 October
15:15
Space Shuttle Atlantis Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-51-J NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment7 October
17:00
Successful
USA-11 (DSCS-III) US Air Force Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
USA-12 (DSCS-III) US Air Force Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Manned orbital flight with five astronauts; Maiden flight of Space Shuttle Atlantis
9 October
02:53
Atlas E/SGS-2 Vandenberg SLC-3W
USA-10 (GPS-11) US Air Force Medium Earth NavigationIn orbitSuccessful
30 October
17:00
Space Shuttle Challenger Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-61-A NASA Low Earth Microgravity research6 November
17:44
Successful
Spacelab Long Module 2 NASA Low Earth (Challenger) Spacelab D1Successful
GLOMAR DLR Low Earth Getaway Special26 December 1986Successful
Manned orbital flight with eight astronauts
Maiden flight of Spacelab Long Module #2

November

27 November
00:29
Space Shuttle Atlantis Kennedy LC-39A United Space Alliance
STS-61-B NASA Low Earth Satellite deployment2 December
21:33
Successful
Morelos 2 Morelos Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Aussat A2 Aussat Pty Ltd Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Satcom K2 RCA Americom Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
OEX Target NASA Low Earth 2 March 1987Successful
EASE/ACCESS NASA Low Earth (Atlantis) Structure assembly experiment2 December
21:33
Successful
Manned orbital flight with seven astronauts including the first Mexican space traveller.

Deep Space Rendezvous

Date (GMT) Spacecraft Event Remarks
11 JuneVega 1delivered lander and balloon on Venus
15 JuneVega 2delivered lander and balloon on Venus
11 SeptemberISEE-3/ICEFlyby of 21P/Giacobini-Zinner

EVAs

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Remarks
16 April 3 hours
6 minutes
STS-51-D
Discovery
Jeffrey A. Hoffman
S. David Griggs
Installed an improvised switch-pulling tool, called the Flyswatter, on the RMS robotic arm. The Flyswatter was used in an effort to push the sequencer start lever on the Leasat-3 in the proper position for deployment.[1] This attempted repair was the first unplanned spacewalk in NASA history.[2]
2 August
07:15
5 hours 12:15 Salyut 7 EO-4 Vladimir Dzhanibekov
Viktor Savinykh
Installed a third pair of solar arrays on exterior of Salyut 7.
31 August 7 hours
20 minutes
STS-51-I
Discovery
William Fisher
James van Hoften
Van Hoften rode the RMS to capture the Leasat 3 satellite and pulled it into payload bay. Fisher and Van Hoften secured and started repairs on the satellite in the payload bay. The retrieval was complicated by a malfunction of the RMS that made operation of the arm more complicated.[3]
1 September 4 hours
26 minutes
STS-51-I
Discovery
William Fisher
James van Hoften
Completed repairs on the Leasat 3 satellite. Then Van Hoften, riding the RMS, heaved the satellite out of the payload bay, imparting the required spin needed to fire the perigee motor.[3]
29 November 5 hours
32 minutes
STS-61-B
Atlantis
Jerry L. Ross
Sherwood C. Spring
Practiced construction techniques in the payload bay and assembled and disassembled the two experimental EASE/ACCESS structures.[4]
1 December 6 hours
41 minutes
STS-61-B
Atlantis
Jerry L. Ross
Sherwood C. Spring
Conducted supplementary experiments on the EASE and ACCESS structures, including a test of the RMS to aid in the construction experiments.[4]

References

  • Bergin, Chris. "NASASpaceFlight.com".
  • Clark, Stephen. "Spaceflight Now".
  • Kelso, T.S. "Satellite Catalog (SATCAT)". CelesTrak.
  • Krebs, Gunter. "Chronology of Space Launches".
  • Kyle, Ed. "Space Launch Report".
  • McDowell, Jonathan. "Jonathan's Space Report".
  • Pietrobon, Steven. "Steven Pietrobon's Space Archive".
  • Wade, Mark. "Encyclopedia Astronautica".
  • Webb, Brian. "Southwest Space Archive".
  • Zak, Anatoly. "Russian Space Web".
  • "ISS Calendar". Spaceflight 101.
  • "NSSDCA Master Catalog". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • "Space Calendar". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  • "Space Information Center". JAXA.
  • "Хроника освоения космоса" [Chronicle of space exploration]. CosmoWorld (in Russian).
Generic references:

Footnotes

  1. "Space Shuttle Mission Archives". NASA. 2007. Archived from the original on 2 March 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2009.
  2. Becker, Joachim; Janssen, Heinz Hermann (2009). "Human Spaceflights - STS-51D". Space Facts. Retrieved 20 February 2009.
  3. "Space Shuttle Flight 20 (STS-51A)". Space Shuttle Video Library. National Space Society. July 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
  4. Rumerman, Judith; Gamble, Chris; Okolski, Gabriel (2007). "Human Spaceflight" (PDF). NASA History Division. p. 45. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 23 February 2009.


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