1984 United States presidential election

The 1984 United States presidential election was the 50th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 6, 1984. Incumbent Republican President Ronald Reagan defeated former Vice President Walter Mondale, the Democratic candidate in the largest electoral college landslide victory by any president in a United States election.

1984 United States presidential election

November 6, 1984

All 538 electoral votes of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout53.3%[1] 0.7 pp
Nominee Ronald Reagan Walter Mondale
Party Republican Democratic
Home state California Minnesota
Running mate George H. W. Bush Geraldine Ferraro
Electoral vote 525 13
States carried 49 1 + DC
Popular vote 54,455,472 37,577,352
Percentage 58.8% 40.6%

Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Reagan/Bush, blue denotes the state and federal district won by Mondale/Ferraro.

President before election

Ronald Reagan

Elected President

Ronald Reagan

Reagan faced only token opposition in his bid for re-nomination by the Republicans, so he and Vice President George H. W. Bush were easily re-nominated. Mondale defeated Senator Gary Hart and several other candidates in the 1984 Democratic primaries before eventually choosing U.S. Representative Geraldine Ferraro of New York as his running mate, the first woman to be on a major party's presidential ticket.

Reagan touted a strong economic recovery from the 1970s stagflation and the 1981–82 recession, as well as the widespread perception that his presidency had overseen a revival of national confidence and prestige.[2] The Reagan campaign produced effective television advertising and deftly neutralized concerns regarding Reagan's age. Mondale criticized Reagan's supply-side economic policies and budget deficits, and he called for a nuclear freeze and ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment.

Reagan won 58.8% of the popular vote and carried 49 of the 50 states, becoming the oldest person to win a presidential election. Reagan's showing ranks fifth in the share of electoral votes received and fifth in the share of the popular vote won. No candidate since 1984 has equaled Reagan's share of the electoral vote, although his popular vote was eventually surpassed by Bush in 2004 (62 million) and subsequent candidates. Mondale received 40.6% of the popular vote, but carried only the District of Columbia and his home state of Minnesota. Reagan also won the highest number of electoral votes of any president thus far.[3]


Republican Party candidates

Republican Party ticket, 1984
Ronald Reagan George H. W. Bush
for President for Vice President
President of the United States
Vice President of the United States


Ronald Reagan—the incumbent president—was the assured nominee for the Republican Party, with only token opposition. The popular vote from the Republican primaries was as follows:[4]

  • Ronald Reagan (inc.): 6,484,987 (98.78%)
  • Unpledged delegates: 55,458 (0.85%)
  • Harold Stassen: 12,749 (0.19%)
  • Benjamin Fernandez: 202 (0.00%)

Reagan was renominated by a vote of 2,233 delegates (two delegates abstained). For the only time in American history, the vice presidential roll call was taken concurrently with the presidential roll call. Vice President George H. W. Bush was overwhelmingly renominated. This was the last time in the 20th century that the vice presidential candidate of either major party was nominated by roll call vote.

Presidential ballotVice Presidential ballot
Ronald Reagan2,233George H. W. Bush2,231
Jack Kemp1
Jeane Kirkpatrick1

Democratic Party candidates

Democratic Party ticket, 1984
Walter Mondale Geraldine Ferraro
for President for Vice President
Vice President of the United States
U.S. Representative
from New York


Only three Democratic candidates won any state primaries: Mondale, Hart, and Jackson. Initially, Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy, after a failed bid to win the 1980 Democratic nomination for president, was considered the de facto front-runner of the 1984 primary. However, Kennedy announced in December 1982 that he did not intend to run.[6][7] Former Vice-President Mondale was then viewed as the favorite to win the Democratic nomination. Mondale had the largest number of party leaders supporting him, and he had raised more money than any other candidate. However, both Jackson and Hart emerged as surprising, and troublesome, opponents.

South Carolina Senator Ernest Hollings's wit and experience, as well as his call for a budget freeze, won him some positive attention, but his relatively conservative record alienated liberal Democrats, and he was never really noticed in a field dominated by Walter Mondale, John Glenn, and Gary Hart. Hollings dropped out two days after losing badly in New Hampshire, and endorsed Hart a week later. His disdain for his competitors was at times showcased in his comments. He notably referred to Mondale as a "lapdog," and to former astronaut Glenn as "Sky King" who was "confused in his capsule."[8]

California Senator Alan Cranston hoped to galvanize supporters of the nuclear freeze movement that had called on the United States to halt the deployment of existing nuclear weapons and the development of new ones. Glenn and Askew hoped to capture the support of moderate and conservative Democrats. None of them possessed the fundraising ability of Mondale nor the grassroots support of Hart and Jackson, and none won any contests.

Jackson was the second African-American (after Shirley Chisholm) to mount a nationwide campaign for the presidency, and he was the first African-American candidate to be a serious contender. He got 3.5 million votes during the primaries, third behind Hart and Mondale. He won the primaries in Virginia, South Carolina, and Louisiana, and split Mississippi, where there were two separate contests for Democratic delegates. Through the primaries, Jackson helped confirm the black electorate's importance to the Democratic Party in the South at the time. During the campaign, however, Jackson made an off-the-cuff reference to Jews as "Hymies" and New York City as "Hymietown," for which he later apologized. Nonetheless, the remark was widely publicized, and derailed his campaign for the nomination.[9] Jackson ended up winning 21% of the national primary vote but received only 8% of the delegates to the national convention, and he initially charged that his campaign was hurt by the same party rules that allowed Mondale to win. He also poured scorn on Mondale, saying that Hubert Humphrey was the "last significant politician out of the St. Paul-Minneapolis" area.[10]

Hart, from Colorado, was a more serious threat to Mondale, and after winning several early primaries it looked as if he might take the nomination away from Mondale. Hart finished a surprising second in the Iowa caucuses, with 16.5% of the vote. This established him as the main rival to Mondale, effectively eliminating John Glenn, Ernest Hollings and Alan Cranston as alternatives. Hart criticized Mondale as an "old-fashioned" New Deal Democrat who symbolized "failed policies" of the past. Hart positioned himself (just as Bill Clinton would eight years later) as a younger, fresher, and more moderate Democrat who could appeal to younger voters. He emerged as a formidable candidate, winning the key New Hampshire, Ohio, and California primaries as well as several others, especially in the West. However, Hart could not overcome Mondale's financial and organizational advantages, especially among labor union leaders in the Midwest and industrial Northeast.

Hart was also badly hurt in a televised debate with Mondale during the primaries, when the former vice president used a popular television commercial slogan to ridicule Hart's vague "New Ideas" platform. Turning to Hart on camera, Mondale told Hart that whenever he heard Hart talk about his "New Ideas," he was reminded of the Wendy's fast-food slogan "Where's the beef?" The remark drew loud laughter and applause from the viewing audience and caught Hart off-guard. Hart never fully recovered from Mondale's charge that his "New Ideas" were shallow and lacking in specifics.

At a roundtable debate between the three remaining Democratic candidates moderated by Phil Donahue, Mondale and Hart got into such a heated argument over the issue of U.S. policy in Central America that Jackson had to tap his water glass on the table to help get them to stop.

Mondale gradually pulled away from Hart in the delegate count, but, as Time reported in late May, "Mondale ... has a wide lead in total delegates (1,564 to 941) ... because of his victories in the big industrial states, his support from the Democratic Establishment and the arcane provisions of delegate-selection rules that his vanguard helped draft two years ago."[11] After the final primary in California, on June 5, which Hart won, Mondale was about 40 delegates short of the total he needed for the nomination.[12] However, at the Democratic National Convention in San Francisco on July 16, Mondale received the overwhelming support of the unelected superdelegates from the party establishment to win the nomination.

Mondale's nomination marked the second time since the nomination of former Governor of Georgia Jimmy Carter in 1976 and the fourth time since the nomination of former Representative John W. Davis in 1924 that the Democratic Party nominated a private citizen for President (i.e., not serving in an official government role at the time of the nomination and election). Mondale was the last private citizen to be nominated for President by the Democratic Party until former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in 2016.

This race for the Democratic Party presidential nomination was the closest in two generations, and, as of 2017, it was the last occasion that a major party's race for the presidential nomination went all the way to its convention.


Note: These are only those endorsements which occurred during or before the primary race.


This was the convention's nomination tally:

Presidential ballotVice Presidential ballot
Walter F. Mondale2,191Geraldine A. Ferraro3,920
Gary W. Hart1,200.5Shirley Chisholm3
Jesse L. Jackson465.5
Thomas F. Eagleton18
George S. McGovern4
John H. Glenn2
Joe Biden1
Lane Kirkland1

When he made his acceptance speech at the Democratic Convention, Mondale said: "Let's tell the truth. Mr. Reagan will raise taxes, and so will I. He won't tell you. I just did."[50] Although Mondale intended to expose Reagan as hypocritical and position himself as the honest candidate, the choice of raising taxes as a discussion point likely damaged his electoral chances.

Vice presidential nominee

Mondale chose U.S. Rep. Geraldine A. Ferraro from New York as his running mate, making her the first woman nominated for that position by a major party, and the first Italian American on a major party ticket since Al Smith in 1928. Mondale wanted to establish a precedent with his vice presidential candidate; although Tonie Nathan of the Libertarian Party had already figured as an Electoral-College candidate for vice-president (1972), Ferraro would become the first woman to receive votes from all the electors of a state. Another reason for the nominee to "go for broke" instead of balancing the ticket was Reagan's lead in the polls. Mondale hoped to appeal to women, and by 1980, they were the majority of voters. In a "much criticized parade of possible Veep candidates" to his home in Minnesota, Mondale considered San Francisco Mayor Dianne Feinstein and Kentucky Governor Martha Layne Collins, also female; Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley, an African American; and San Antonio Mayor Henry Cisneros, a Hispanic, as other finalists for the nomination. In addition to her sex, Mondale chose Ferraro because he hoped she would attract ethnic voters with her personal background.[10][51] Unsuccessful nomination candidate Jesse Jackson derided Mondale's vice-presidential screening process as a "P.R. parade of personalities," but praised Mondale for his choice, having himself pledged to name a woman to the ticket in the event he was nominated.

Mondale had wanted to choose New York Governor Mario Cuomo as his running mate, but Cuomo declined and recommended Ferraro,[52] his protégée.[53] Mondale might have named Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis as his running mate had he wanted to make a "safe" choice",[51] while others preferred Senator Lloyd Bentsen because he would appeal to more conservative Southern voters. Nomination rival Gary Hart stated before Ferraro's selection that he would accept an invitation to run with Mondale;[51] Hart's supporters claimed he would do better than Mondale against President Reagan, an argument undercut by a June 1984 Gallup poll that showed both men nine points behind the president.

Other parties

National Unity Party nomination


The National Unity Party was an outgrowth of John Anderson's presidential campaign from the 1980 presidential election. Anderson hoped that the party would be able to challenge the "two old parties", which he viewed as being tied to various special interest groups and incapable of responsible fiscal reform. The intention was to organize the new party in California, Oregon, Washington, Illinois, the New England states, and others where his previous candidacy had proven to have experienced the most success. The party was also eligible for $5.8 million in Federal election funds, but its qualification depended on it being on the ballot in at least ten states; however, it remained unclear if National Unity could actually obtain the funds, or if it needed to be Anderson himself.

Anderson initially was against running, hoping that another notable politico would take the party into the 1984 election, and feared that his own candidacy might result in the party being labeled a "personality cult". However, no candidate came forward resulting in Anderson becoming the nominee in waiting. While Anderson had found equal support from the Republicans and Democrats in the 1980 election, the grand majority of the former had since switched back, resulting in the new party being supported principally by those who normally would vote Democratic, which it was feared might make him a spoiler candidate. In light of this, in addition to difficulties in getting on the ballot in his targeted states (Utah and Kentucky were the only two, neither among those he intended to prominently campaign in), Anderson ultimately declined to run. Later he would endorse the Democratic nominee, Walter Mondale.

Anderson had hoped that the party would continue to grow and later field a candidate in 1988 (which he declared would not be him), but it floundered and ultimately dissolved.

Libertarian Party nomination

Burns was the initial frontrunner for the nomination, but withdrew, citing concerns that the party would not be able to properly finance a campaign. The remaining candidates were Bergland; Ravenal, who had worked in the Department of Defense under Robert McNamara and Clark Clifford; and Ruwart. Bergland narrowly won the presidential nomination over Ravenal. His running mate was James A. Lewis. The ticket appeared on 39 state ballots.

Citizens Party nomination

Sonia Johnson ran in the 1984 presidential election, as the presidential candidate of the Citizens Party, Pennsylvania's Consumer Party and California's Peace and Freedom Party. Johnson received 72,161 votes (0.1%) finishing fifth. Her running mate for the Citizens Party was Richard Walton and for the Peace and Freedom Party Emma Wong Mar. One of her campaign managers, Mark Dunlea, later wrote a novel about a first female president, Madame President.

Communist Party nomination

The Communist Party USA ran Gus Hall for president and Angela Davis for vice president.

General election


Mondale ran a liberal campaign, supporting a nuclear freeze and the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). He spoke against what he considered to be unfairness in Reagan's economic policies and the need to reduce federal budget deficits.

While Ferraro's choice was popular among Democratic activists, polls immediately after the announcement showed that only 22% of women were pleased about her selection, versus 18% who agreed that it was a bad idea. 60% of all voters thought that pressure from women's groups had led to Mondale's decision, versus 22% who believed that he had chosen the best available candidate.[51] Some members of the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church criticized the Catholic Ferraro for being pro-choice on abortion. Already fighting an uphill battle with voters, Ferraro also faced a slew of allegations, mid-campaign, directed toward her husband, John Zaccaro. These allegations included Zaccaro's possible past involvement in organized crime, pornography distribution, and campaign contribution violations. Ferraro responded to these allegations against her husband by releasing her family tax returns to the media on August 21, 1984. However, the damage to the campaign was already done.[62]

At a campaign stop in Hammonton, New Jersey, Reagan said, "America's future rests in a thousand dreams inside your hearts. It rests in the message of hope in songs of a man so many young Americans admire, New Jersey's Bruce Springsteen." The Reagan campaign briefly used "Born in the U.S.A.", a song criticizing the treatment of Vietnam War veterans (which they mistakenly thought was devoid of anti-war content and a very jingoistic patriotic rock song), as a campaign song, without permission, until Springsteen, a lifelong Democrat, insisted that they stop.[63]

The Reagan campaign was very skilled at producing effective television advertising. Two of the more memorable ads it produced were commonly known as "Bear in the woods" and "Morning in America".

Reagan was the oldest president to have ever served (he was by this point 73), and there were many questions about his capacity to endure the grueling demands of the presidency, particularly after Reagan had a poor showing in his first debate with Mondale on October 7. He referred to having started going to church "here in Washington", although the debate was in Louisville, Kentucky, referred to military uniforms as "wardrobe", and admitted to being "confused", among other mistakes.[64] In the next debate on October 21, however, in response to a question about his age, Reagan joked, "I will not make age an issue of this campaign. I am not going to exploit, for political purposes, my opponent's youth and inexperience." Mondale himself laughed at the joke,[65] and later admitted that Reagan had effectively neutralized the age issue:

If TV can tell the truth, as you say it can, you'll see that I was smiling. But I think if you come in close, you'll see some tears coming down because I knew he had gotten me there. That was really the end of my campaign that night, I think. [I told my wife] the campaign was over, and it was.[66]

Presidential Debates

There were two presidential debates and one vice presidential debate during the 1984 general election.[67]

No. Date Host Location Panelists Moderator Participants Viewership


P1 Sunday, October 7, 1984 The Kentucky Center Louisville, Kentucky James Wieghart

Diane Sawyer

Fred Barnes

Barbara Walters President Ronald Reagan

Vice President Walter Mondale

VP Thursday, October 11, 1984 Pennsylvania Convention Center Philadelphia, Pennsylvania John Bashek

Jack White

Robert Boyd

Sander Vanocur Vice President George H. W. Bush

Congresswoman Geraldine Ferraro

P2 Sunday, October 21, 1984 Municipal Auditorium (Kansas City, Missouri) Kansas City, Missouri Georgie Anne Geyer

Marvin Kalb

Morton Kondracke

Edwin Newman President Ronald Reagan

Vice President Walter Mondale

67.3 [67]


Reagan was re-elected in the November 6 election in an electoral and popular vote landslide, winning 49 states. He won a record 525 electoral votes total (of 538 possible), and received 58.8% of the popular vote; despite Ferraro's selection, 55% of women who voted did so for Reagan,[62] and his 54 to 61% of the Catholic vote was the highest for a Republican candidate in history.[68] Mondale's 13 electoral college votes (from his home state of Minnesota—which he won by 0.18%—and the District of Columbia) marked the lowest total of any major presidential candidate since Alf Landon's 1936 loss to Franklin D. Roosevelt. Mondale's defeat was also the worst for any Democratic Party candidate in American history in the Electoral College (and his 13 electoral votes the fewest any Democrat has won since Stephen A. Douglas claimed 12 in the 1860 election, when the Democratic vote was divided), though others, including Alton B. Parker, James M. Cox, John W. Davis, and George S. McGovern, did worse in the popular vote.

Psephologists attributed the Republican victory to "Reagan Democrats", millions of Democrats who voted for Reagan, as in 1980. They characterized such Reagan Democrats as southern whites and northern blue collar workers who voted for Reagan because they credited him with the economic recovery, saw Reagan as strong on national security issues, and perceived the Democrats as supporting the poor and minorities at the expense of the middle class. The Democratic National Committee commissioned a study after the election that came to these conclusions, but suppressed the report, afraid that it would offend its key voters.[68]

When Reagan was asked in December 1984 what he wanted for Christmas he joked, "Well, Minnesota would have been nice".[69] Reagan lost Minnesota in both this election and in 1980, making it the only state he failed to win in either election, and also making him the first two-term president not to carry Minnesota since Woodrow Wilson. The same feat would later be duplicated by fellow Republican presidential candidate George W. Bush who won both the 2000, and 2004 United States Presidential Elections without winning Minnesota either time. This is the last election where the Republican candidate achieved any of the following: Win every state in the Northeastern and Pacific regions of the United States; win at least one county in every state; and win any of the following states: Hawaii, Massachusetts, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Washington.[70] It was also the last election where the Republican nominee won Wisconsin until 2016, Iowa until 2004, the last election in which the winning candidate won by a double-digit margin in the percentage of the popular vote, and the last election where the winning candidate won by an eight-digit margin in total popular votes (10 million or more).[70] Finally, despite his narrow loss in Minnesota, Reagan still won in five out of its eight congressional districts (by contrast, Nixon had only carried one Massachusetts district twelve years earlier) thus making Reagan the only U.S. presidential candidate in history to win the popular vote in a majority of congressional districts in every state.


Electoral Results
Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
Running mate
Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote
Ronald Wilson Reagan (Incumbent) Republican California 54,455,472 58.77% 525 George Herbert Walker Bush Texas 525
Walter Frederick Mondale Democratic Minnesota 37,577,352 40.56% 13 Geraldine Anne Ferraro New York 13
David Bergland Libertarian California  228,111 0.25% 0 Jim Lewis Connecticut  0
Lyndon LaRouche Independent Virginia  78,809 0.09% 0 Billy Davis Mississippi  0
Sonia Johnson Citizens Idaho  72,161 0.08% 0 Richard Walton Rhode Island  0
Bob Richards Populist Texas  66,324 0.07% 0 Maureen Salaman California  0
Dennis L. Serrette New Alliance New Jersey  46,853 0.05% 0 Nancy Ross New York  0
Larry Holmes Workers World New York  46,853 0.05% 0 Gloria La Riva California  0
Gus Hall Communist New York  36,386 0.04% 0 Angela Davis California  0
Melvin T. Mason Socialist Workers California  24,699 0.03% 0 Matilde Zimmermann New York  0
Other 49,181 0.05% Other
Total 92,653,233 100% 538 538
Needed to win 270 270

Source for the popular vote: Leip, David. "1984 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 7, 2005. Source for the electoral vote: "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved August 7, 2005.

Popular vote
Electoral vote

Results by state


States won by Reagan/Bush
State/district won by Mondale/Ferraro
Ronald Reagan
Walter Mondale
David Bergland
Margin State Total
State electoral
# % electoral
# % electoral
# % electoral
# % #
Alabama 9 872,849 60.54 9 551,899 38.28 9,504 0.66 320,950 22.26 1,441,713 AL
Alaska 3 138,377 66.65 3 62,007 29.87 6,378 3.07 76,370 36.79 207,605 AK
Arizona 7 681,416 66.42 7 333,854 32.54 10,585 1.03 347,562 33.88 1,025,897 AZ
Arkansas 6 534,774 60.47 6 338,646 38.29 2,221 0.25 196,128 22.18 884,406 AR
California 47 5,467,009 57.51 47 3,922,519 41.27 49,951 0.53 1,544,490 16.25 9,505,423 CA
Colorado 8 821,818 63.44 8 454,974 35.12 11,257 0.87 366,844 28.32 1,295,381 CO
Connecticut 8 890,877 60.73 8 569,597 38.83 321,280 21.90 1,466,900 CT
Delaware 3 152,190 59.78 3 101,656 39.93 268 0.11 50,534 19.85 254,572 DE
D.C. 3 29,009 13.73 180,408 85.38 3 279 0.13 −151,399 −71.66 211,288 DC
Florida 21 2,730,350 65.32 21 1,448,816 34.66 754 0.02 1,281,534 30.66 4,180,051 FL
Georgia 12 1,068,722 60.17 12 706,628 39.79 151 0.01 362,094 20.39 1,776,093 GA
Hawaii 4 185,050 55.10 4 147,154 43.82 2,167 0.65 37,896 11.28 335,846 HI
Idaho 4 297,523 72.36 4 108,510 26.39 2,823 0.69 189,013 45.97 411,144 ID
Illinois 24 2,707,103 56.17 24 2,086,499 43.30 10,086 0.21 620,604 12.88 4,819,088 IL
Indiana 12 1,377,230 61.67 12 841,481 37.68 6,741 0.30 535,749 23.99 2,233,069 IN
Iowa 8 703,088 53.27 8 605,620 45.89 1,844 0.14 97,468 7.39 1,319,805 IA
Kansas 7 677,296 66.27 7 333,149 32.60 3,329 0.33 344,147 33.67 1,021,991 KS
Kentucky 9 822,782 60.04 9 539,589 39.37 283,193 20.66 1,370,461 KY
Louisiana 10 1,037,299 60.77 10 651,586 38.18 1,876 0.11 385,713 22.60 1,706,822 LA
Maine 4 336,500 60.83 4 214,515 38.78 121,985 22.05 553,144 ME
Maryland 10 879,918 52.51 10 787,935 47.02 5,721 0.34 91,983 5.49 1,675,873 MD
Massachusetts 13 1,310,936 51.22 13 1,239,606 48.43 71,330 2.79 2,559,453 MA
Michigan 20 2,251,571 59.23 20 1,529,638 40.24 10,055 0.26 721,933 18.99 3,801,658 MI
Minnesota 10 1,032,603 49.54 1,036,364 49.72 10 2,996 0.14 −3,761 −0.18 2,084,449 MN
Mississippi 7 581,477 61.85 7 352,192 37.46 2,336 0.25 229,285 24.39 940,192 MS
Missouri 11 1,274,188 60.02 11 848,583 39.98 425,605 20.05 2,122,771 MO
Montana 4 232,450 60.47 4 146,742 38.18 5,185 1.35 85,708 22.30 384,377 MT
Nebraska 5 460,054 70.55 5 187,866 28.81 2,079 0.32 272,188 41.74 652,090 NE
Nevada 4 188,770 65.85 4 91,655 31.97 2,292 0.80 97,115 33.88 286,667 NV
New Hampshire 4 267,051 68.66 4 120,395 30.95 735 0.19 146,656 37.71 388,954 NH
New Jersey 16 1,933,630 60.09 16 1,261,323 39.20 6,416 0.20 672,307 20.89 3,217,862 NJ
New Mexico 5 307,101 59.70 5 201,769 39.23 4,459 0.87 105,332 20.48 514,370 NM
New York 36 3,664,763 53.84 36 3,119,609 45.83 11,949 0.18 545,154 8.01 6,806,810 NY
North Carolina 13 1,346,481 61.90 13 824,287 37.89 3,794 0.17 522,194 24.00 2,175,361 NC
North Dakota 3 200,336 64.84 3 104,429 33.80 703 0.23 95,907 31.04 308,971 ND
Ohio 23 2,678,560 58.90 23 1,825,440 40.14 5,886 0.13 853,120 18.76 4,547,619 OH
Oklahoma 8 861,530 68.61 8 385,080 30.67 9,066 0.72 476,450 37.94 1,255,676 OK
Oregon 7 685,700 55.91 7 536,479 43.74 149,221 12.17 1,226,527 OR
Pennsylvania 25 2,584,323 53.34 25 2,228,131 45.99 6,982 0.14 356,192 7.35 4,844,903 PA
Rhode Island 4 212,080 51.66 4 197,106 48.02 277 0.07 14,974 3.65 410,492 RI
South Carolina 8 615,539 63.55 8 344,470 35.57 4,360 0.45 271,069 27.99 968,540 SC
South Dakota 3 200,267 63.00 3 116,113 36.53 84,154 26.47 317,867 SD
Tennessee 11 990,212 57.84 11 711,714 41.57 3,072 0.18 278,498 16.27 1,711,993 TN
Texas 29 3,433,428 63.61 29 1,949,276 36.11 1,484,152 27.50 5,397,571 TX
Utah 5 469,105 74.50 5 155,369 24.68 2,447 0.39 313,736 49.83 629,656 UT
Vermont 3 135,865 57.92 3 95,730 40.81 1,002 0.43 40,135 17.11 234,561 VT
Virginia 12 1,337,078 62.29 12 796,250 37.09 540,828 25.19 2,146,635 VA
Washington 10 1,051,670 55.82 10 807,352 42.86 8,844 0.47 244,318 12.97 1,883,910 WA
West Virginia 6 405,483 55.11 6 328,125 44.60 77,358 10.51 735,742 WV
Wisconsin 11 1,198,800 54.19 11 995,847 45.02 4,884 0.22 202,953 9.18 2,212,016 WI
Wyoming 3 133,241 70.51 3 53,370 28.24 2,357 1.25 79,871 42.27 188,968 WY
TOTALS: 538 54,455,472 58.77 525 37,577,352 40.56 13 228,111 0.25 16,878,120 18.22 92,653,233 US

Close states

Margin of victory less than 1% (10 electoral votes):

  1. Minnesota, 0.18%

Margin of victory less than 5% (17 electoral votes):[72][73]

  1. Massachusetts, 2.79%
  2. Rhode Island, 3.65%

Margin of victory more than 5%, but less than 10% (90 electoral votes):[72][73]

  1. Maryland, 5.49%
  2. Pennsylvania, 7.35%
  3. Iowa, 7.38%
  4. New York, 8.01%
  5. Wisconsin, 9.17%

Voter demographics

The 1984 presidential vote by demographic subgroup
Demographic subgroup Mondale Reagan % of
total vote
Total vote 41 59 100
Liberals 71 29 16
Moderates 46 54 42
Conservatives 18 82 33
Democrats 74 26 38
Republicans 7 93 35
Independents 36 64 26
Men 38 62 47
Women 42 58 53
White 34 66 86
Black 91 9 10
Hispanic 66 34 3
18–24 years old 39 61 11
25–29 years old 43 57 12
30–49 years old 42 58 34
50–64 years old 39 61 23
65 and older 36 64 19
Family income
Under $12,500 54 46 15
$12,500–25,000 42 58 27
$25,000–35,000 40 60 20
$35,000–50,000 32 68 17
Over $50,000 31 69 12
East 47 53 26
Midwest 38 62 30
South 36 64 27
West 38 62 17
Union households
Union 54 46 26

Source: CBS News and The New York Times exit poll from the Roper Center for Public Opinion Research (9,174 surveyed)[74]

Notable expressions and phrases

  • Where's the beef?: A slogan used by Wendy's to suggest that their competitors have smaller portions of meat in their sandwiches, but used in the Democratic primaries by Mondale to criticize Gary Hart's positions as lacking substance.
  • Morning in America: Slogan used by the Reagan campaign.

See also


  1. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  2. Raines, Howell (November 7, 1984). "Reagan Wins By a Landslide, Sweeping at Least 48 States; G.O.P. Gains Strength in House". The New York Times. Retrieved March 21, 2013.
  3. https://www.thoughtco.com/landslide-presidential-elections-by-electoral-votes-3367489
  4. "Ourcampaigns.com". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
  5. "1984 PRESIDENTIAL ANNOUNCEMENT SPEECH OF GEORGE McGOVERN". 4president.org. September 13, 1983. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
  6. https://www.nytimes.com/1982/12/01/us/kennedy-reported-declining-to-seek-presidency-in-1984.html
  7. https://www.newsweek.com/why-kennedy-withdrew-1984-race-207040
  8. Skipper, John C. The Iowa Caucuses: First Tests of Presidential Aspiration, 1972–2008, pg. 72–73
  9. Larry J. Sabato's Feeding Frenzy (July 21, 1998). "Jesse Jackson's 'Hymietown' Remark – 1984". Washington Post. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
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Further reading

  • Jonathan Moore, ed. (1986). Campaign for President: The Managers Look at '84. Dover: Auburn House. ISBN 0-86569-132-0.
  • Ladd, Everett Carll (1985). "On Mandates, Realignments, and the 1984 Presidential Election". Political Science Quarterly. 100 (1): 1–24. doi:10.2307/2150858. JSTOR 2150858.
  • Leuchtenburg, William E. (1986). The 1984 Election in Historical Perspective. Waco: Baylor University Press. ISBN 0-918954-45-2.
  • Morris, Lorenzo (1990). The Social and Political Implications of the 1984 Jesse Jackson Presidential Campaign. New York: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-92785-7.
  • Sandoz, E.; Crabb, C. V., Jr., eds. (1985). Election 84: Landslide Without a Mandate?. New York: New American Library. ISBN 0-451-62424-6.
  • Stempel, Guido H., III; John W. Windhauser (1991). The Media in the 1984 and 1988 Presidential Campaigns. New York: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-26527-5.
  • Richard W. Boyd, Paul R. Mencher, Philip J. Paseltiner, Ezra Paul, Alexander S. Vanda, The 1984 Election as Anthony Downs and Stanley Kelley Might Interpret It, Political Behavior, Vol. 10, No. 3 (Autumn, 1988), pp. 197–213.
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