1979 in spaceflight

The following is an outline of 1979 in spaceflight.

1979 in spaceflight
The Skylab space station, which decayed from orbit on 11 July
Orbital launches
First11 January
Last28 December
Total110
Catalogued106
National firsts
Orbital launch Europe
Space traveller Bulgaria
Rockets
Maiden flightsAriane 1
Scout G-1
SLV
RetirementsDelta 2000
Mu-3C
Scout D-1
Crewed flights
Orbital2
Total travellers4

Launches

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January

11 January
15:07[1]
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/3
Kosmos 1070 Low Earth (62.8 degrees inclination) Reconnaissance20 January 1979Successful
Military payload (5500 kg)
13 January
15:30
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Kosmos 1071 Low Earth (62.8 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)
16 January
17:37
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1072 Low Earth (82.9 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (810 kg)
18 January
15:42
Molniya-M Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Molniya 3-11 Extremely elliptical orbit (64.1 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (1750 kg)
25 January
05:43
Vostok-M Baikonur Cosmodrome unknown pad
Meteor-prigoda 2 (Meteor 1-29) SSO unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (1100 kg)
30 January
15:15
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Kosmos 1073 Low Earth (62.8 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)
30 January
21:42
Delta 2914 Cape Canaveral pad LC 17B McDonnell Douglas
SCATHA USAF Extremely Elliptical Orbit (4.9 degrees inclination) Communications
Technology demo
In orbitSuccessful
Experimental military payload (360 kg)
31 January
09:00:00
Soyuz-U Baikonur Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1074 Low Earth (51.6 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (7000 kg)

February

6 February
08:46
N-I Tanegashima, Osaki launch complex
Ayame 1 (ECS A) Extremely Elliptical Orbit (0.7 degrees inclination) unknownSpacecraft has failed 9 February 1979 during apogee kick motor burn after recontact with 3rd stage
Civilian payload (260 kg)
8 February
10:00
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1075 Low Earth (65.8 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (1080 kg)
12 February
13:00:00
Tsyklon-3(Cyclone-3) Plesetsk Cosmodrome pad LC 32/2
Kosmos 1076 Low Earth (82.5 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (1900 kg)
13 February
21:41
Vostok-M Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Kosmos 1077 Low Earth (81.2 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (2500 kg)
16 February
15:00
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome pad LC 41
Kosmos (number not assigned) no 16 February 1979Failed to reach orbit
Military payload
18 February
18:59:00[2]
Scout D-1 S202C Wallops LA-3A NASA
SAGE NASA Low Earth (54.9 degrees inclination) Earth observation11 April 1989Successful
Civilian payload (148.7 kg)
21 February
05:00
Mu-3C Tanegashima, Mu launch complex
Hakucho (CORSA B) Low Earth (29.9 degrees inclination) 16 April 1985Successful
Civilian payload (100 kg)
21 February
07:49:00
Proton-K/DM Baikonur Cosmodrome, pad LC 200P (pad 40)
Ekran 3 GEO unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (1970 kg)
22 February
12:10
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1078 Low Earth (72.9 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)
24 February
08:20
Atlas F Vandenberg pad SLC 3W
Solwind Low Earth (97.8 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (1331 kg)
25 February
11:53:49
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 31/6
Soyuz 32 Low Earth (Salyut 6) Salyut 6 EO-313 June
16:18:26
Successful
Manned flight launching with two cosmonauts, remained in orbit past design life due to Soyuz 33 failure, returned to Earth unmanned
27 February
15:00
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/3
Kosmos 1079 Low Earth (67.1 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6700 kg)
27 February
17:00
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Cosmodrome pad LC 132/2
Interkosmos 19 Low Earth (74.0 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (1015 kg)

March

1 March
18:45:00
Vostok-M Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Meteor-2-4 Low Earth (81.2 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (1300 kg)
12 March
05:47:28
Soyuz-U Baikonur Cosmodrome pad LC 31
Progress 5 Salyut 6 orbit (Low Earth (51.6 degrees inclination)) unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (7020 kg)
14 March
10:50
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1080 Low Earth (72.8 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6700 kg)
15 March
02:58
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1081–1088 Low Earth (74.0 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (8x61 kg)
16 March
18:30
Titan 3D Vandenberg pad SLC 4E
unknown SSO unknownSuccessful
Military payload (13300 kg to SSO, 60kg to LEO (95.8 degrees))
21 March
04:13
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1089 Low Earth (83.0 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (810 kg)
31 March
10:45
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1090 Low Earth (72.9 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (5500 kg)

April

7 April
06:20
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1091 Low Earth (82.9 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (810 kg)
10 April
17:34:34
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 31/6
Soyuz 33 Low Earth (Intended: Salyut 6) Taxi flight12 April
16:35
Spacecraft failure
Manned flight with two cosmonauts, first Bulgarian in space, main engine failed during rendezvous manoeuvres, docking aborted and spacecraft deorbited using backup engines
11 April
21:51
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1092 Low Earth (82.9 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (810 kg)
12 April
00:28:00
Molniya-M Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Molniya 1-43 Extremely Elliptical Orbit (64.9 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (1600 kg)
14 April
05:27
Vostok-M Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/3
Kosmos 1093 Low Earth (81.3 degrees inclination) ELINT23 March 2000Successful
Military payload (2500 kg)
18 April
12:00
Tsyklon-2(Cyclone-2) Baikonur Cosmodrome pad LC 90
Kosmos 1094 Low Earth (65.0 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (3000 kg)
20 April
11:30
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/3
Kosmos 1095 Low Earth (72.8 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)
25 April
03:44:00
Proton-K/DM Baikonur Cosmodrome, pad LC 200P (pad 40)
Raduga 5 GEO unknownSuccessful
Military payload (1965 kg)
25 April
10:00
Tsyklon-2(Cyclone-2) Baikonur Cosmodrome pad LC 90
Kosmos 1096 Low Earth (65.0 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (4000 kg)
27 April
17:15
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/3
Kosmos 1097 Low Earth (62.7 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6700 kg)

May

4 May
18:57:00
Atlas SLV 3D Cape Canaveral pad LC 36A
Fltsatcom-2 GTO unknownSuccessful
Military payload (1884 kg)
13 May
04:17:10
Soyuz-U Baikonur Cosmodrome pad LC 31
Progress 6 Salyut 6 orbit (51.6 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (7020 kg)
15 May
11:40
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1098 Low Earth (72.9 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)
17 May
07:10
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Kosmos 1099 Low Earth (81.3 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)
22 May
23:00:00
Proton-K Baikonur Cosmodrome, pad LC 81P (pad 24)
Kosmos 1100 Kosmos 1101 Low Earth (51.6 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (2x9000 kg)
25 May
07:00
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome pad LC 41/1
Kosmos 1102 Low Earth (81.3 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (5500 kg)
28 May
18:30
Titan 3B/Agena Vandenberg pad SLC 4W
unknown SSO unknownSuccessful
Military payload (4000 kg)
31 May
16:30
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/3
Kosmos 1103 Low Earth (62.7 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)
31 May
17:58
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1104 Low Earth (82.9 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (810 kg)

June

2 June
23:26
Scout D-1 S198C Wallops LA-3A
Ariel 6 unknown unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload
5 June
23:28
Molniya-M Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Molniya 3-12 Extremely Elliptical Orbit (72.9 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (1750 kg)
6 June
18:12:41
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 31/5
Soyuz 34 Low Earth (Salyut 6) Crew return19 August
12:29
Successful
Launched unmanned to replace Soyuz 32 which had passed the end of its design life, landed with two cosmonauts
6 June
18:22:12
Thor DSV-2U Vandenberg SLC-10W
DMSP-5D1 F4 (AMS-4) US Air Force Low Earth WeatherIn orbitSuccessful
7 June
10:30
Kosmos-3M Kapustin Yar pad LC 107
Bhaskar 1 Low Earth (50.7 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (441 kg)
8 June
07:10
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome pad LC 41/1
Kosmos 1105 Low Earth (81.3 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (5500 kg)
10 June
13:30:00
Titan 3C/Transtage Cape Canaveral pad LC 40
DSP 11 GEO unknownSuccessful
Military payload (1170 kg)
12 June
07:00
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Kosmos 1106 Low Earth (81.4 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (5500 kg)
15 June
10:50
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/3
Kosmos 1107 Low Earth (72.9 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)
22 June
07:00
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Kosmos 1108 Low Earth (81.3 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (5500 kg)
27 June
15:51:59
Atlas F Vandenberg pad SLC 3W
NOAA 6(NOAA A) Low Earth (98.5 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (723 kg)
27 June
18:11:23
Molniya-M Plesetsk Cosmodrome pad LC 41/1
Kosmos 1109 Extremely Elliptical Orbit (62.9 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (1250 kg)
28 June
09:25:11
Soyuz-U Baikonur Cosmodrome pad LC 31
Progress 7 Salyut 6 orbit(51.6 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (1020 kg)
28 June
20:09
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1110 Low Earth (74.0 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (875 kg)
29 June
16:00
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/3
Kosmos 1111 Low Earth (62.8 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)

July

5 July
23:19:00
Proton-K/DM Baikonur Cosmodrome, pad LC 200P (pad 40)
Gorizont 2 GEO unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (2120 kg)
6 July
08:20
Kosmos-3M Kapustin Yar pad LC 107
Kosmos 1112 Low Earth (50.7 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (1190 kg)
10 July
09:00:00
Soyuz-U Baikonur Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1113 Low Earth (65.0 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)
11 July
15:41
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1114 Low Earth (74.0 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (900 kg)
13 July
08:25
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Kosmos 1115 Low Earth (81.3 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (5500 kg)
20 July
11:58
Vostok-M Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Kosmos 1116 Low Earth (81.2 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (2500 kg)
25 July
15:20
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/3
Kosmos 1117 Low Earth (62.8 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)
27 July
07:30
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Kosmos 1118 Low Earth (81.3 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (5500 kg)
27 July
21:28
Feng Bao 1 Jiquan Satellite Launch Center NLC
Shi Jian 2 27 July 1979Failure to reach orbit after 2nd stage malfunction
Civilian payload (770 kg)
31 July
03:56
Molniya-M Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/3
Molniya 1-44 Extremely Elliptical Orbit (64.2 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (1600 kg)

August

3 August
10:45
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/3
Kosmos 1119 Low Earth (81.3 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (5500 kg)
10 August
00:20
Delta 2914 Cape Canaveral pad LC 17A McDonnell Douglas
Westar 3(Westar C) GTO unknownSuccessful
Commercial payload (574 kg)
10 August
02:28
PSLV 3 Satish Dhawan Space Centre pad SLV3
Rohini RS-1 10 August 1979Failed to reach orbit due control valve malfunction in 2nd stage
Civilian payload (30 kg)
11 August
09:15:00
Soyuz-U Baikonur Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1120 Low Earth (70.4 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (5500 kg)
14 August
15:30
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/3
Kosmos 1121 Low Earth (67.2 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6700 kg)
17 August
07:45
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Kosmos 1122 Low Earth (81.3 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (5500 kg)
21 August
11:10
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome pad LC 41/1
Kosmos 1123 Low Earth (81.3 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (5500 kg)
28 August
00:17:04
Molniya-M Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Kosmos 1124 Extremely Elliptical Orbit (68 degrees inclination) unknownLaunch successful. Satellite exploded 9 September 1979 into 8 pieces.
Military payload (1250 kg)
28 August
00:55
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1125 Low Earth (74.0 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (875 kg)
31 August
11:30
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Kosmos 1126 Low Earth (72.8 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)

September

5 September
10:20
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1127 Low Earth (81.3 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)
14 September
15:30
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Kosmos 1128 Low Earth (62.8 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)
20 September
05:28
Atlas SLV 3D Cape Canaveral pad LC 36B
HEAO 3(HEAO C) Low Earth (43.6 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (3150 kg)
25 September
15:30
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome pad LC 41/1
Kosmos 1129 Low Earth (62.8 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)
25 September
21:00
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1130–1137 Low Earth (74.0 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (8x61 kg)
28 September
12:20
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/3
Kosmos 1138 Low Earth (72.8 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)

October

1 October
11:22:00
Titan 3C/Transtage Cape Canaveral pad LC 40
unknown unknown unknownSuccessful
Military payload (820 kg)
3 October
17:12:00
Proton-K/DM Baikonur Cosmodrome, pad LC 200P (pad 40)
Ekran 4 GEO unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (1970 kg)
5 October
11:30
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1139 Low Earth (72.9 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (5500 kg)
11 October
16:36
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1140 Low Earth (74.1 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (875 kg)
12 October
12:30
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/3
Kosmos, number not assigned 12 October 1979Failed to reach orbit
16 October
12:17
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1141 Low Earth (83.0 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (810 kg)
20 October
07:03
Molniya-M Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Molniya 1-45 Extremely Elliptical Orbit (64.7 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (1600 kg)
22 October
12:30
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/3
Kosmos 1142 Low Earth (72.9 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)
26 October
18:12
Vostok-M Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Kosmos 1143 Low Earth (81.2 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (2500 kg)
30 October
14:16
Scout G-1 S203C Vandenberg SLC-5
Magsat Low Earth (96.8 degrees inclination) 11 June 1980Successful
Civilian payload (181 kg)
31 October
09:25:00
Vostok-M Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Meteor 2-5 Low Earth (81.2 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (1300 kg)

November

1 November
08:05
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Cosmodrome pad LC 132/2
Interkosmos 20 Low Earth (74.0 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (1100 kg)
2 November
16:00
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/3
Kosmos 1144 Low Earth (67.1 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6700 kg)
21 November
02:09:36
Titan 3C/Transtage Cape Canaveral pad LC 40
DSCS 2 13, DSCS 2 14 GEO unknownSuccessful
Military payload (2x612 kg)
27 November
09:55
Vostok-M Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/4
Kosmos 1145 Low Earth (81.2 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (2500 kg)

December

5 December
09:00
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Cosmodrome unknown pad
Kosmos 1146 Low Earth (65.9 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (1000 kg)
7 December
01:35
Delta 3914 Cape Canaveral pad LC 17A McDonnell Douglas
Satcom 3(Satcom C) GTO unknownSatellite failed while being on the GTO, has been destroyed
Commercial payload (895 kg)
12 December
12:30
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/3
Kosmos 1147 Low Earth (72.9 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)
16 December
12:29:50
Soyuz-U Baikonur Cosmodrome unknown pad
Soyuz T-1 Salyut 6 orbit (51.6 degrees inclination) 21:47, 25 March 1980Successful
Salyut 6 orbit boost mission completed
24 December
17:14:38
Ariane 1 Kourou ELA-1 ESA
CAT-1 ESA Low Earth Technology27 November 1989Successful
Maiden flight of the Ariane 1, and the Ariane family[3]
28 December
11:51:00
Proton-K/DM Baikonur Cosmodrome, pad LC 200P (pad 40)
Gorizont 3 GEO unknownSuccessful
Civilian payload (2120 kg)
28 December
13:00
Soyuz-U Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC43/3
Kosmos 1148 Low Earth (67.1 degrees inclination) unknownSuccessful
Military payload (6000 kg)

Deep Space Rendezvous

Date (GMT) Spacecraft Event Remarks
5 MarchVoyager 1Flyby of JupiterClosest approach: 280,000 kilometres (170,000 mi)
9 JulyVoyager 2Flyby of JupiterClosest approach: 645,000 kilometres (401,000 mi)
1 SeptemberPioneer 11Flyby of SaturnClosest approach: 20,900 kilometres (13,000 mi)

EVAs

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Remarks
15 August
14:16
1 hour
23 minutes
15:39 Salyut 6
PE-3
Valery Ryumin
Vladimir Lyakhov
Removed the KRT-10 antenna that had failed to separate from Salyut and had fouled the aft docking port target. After disposing of the antenna, Ryumin collected samples of damaged insulation and a retrieved a micrometeroid detector.[4]

References

  • Bergin, Chris. "NASASpaceFlight.com".
  • Clark, Stephen. "Spaceflight Now".
  • Kelso, T.S. "Satellite Catalog (SATCAT)". CelesTrak.
  • Krebs, Gunter. "Chronology of Space Launches".
  • Kyle, Ed. "Space Launch Report".
  • McDowell, Jonathan. "Jonathan's Space Report".
  • Pietrobon, Steven. "Steven Pietrobon's Space Archive".
  • Wade, Mark. "Encyclopedia Astronautica".
  • Webb, Brian. "Southwest Space Archive".
  • Zak, Anatoly. "Russian Space Web".
  • "ISS Calendar". Spaceflight 101.
  • "NSSDCA Master Catalog". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • "Space Calendar". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  • "Space Information Center". JAXA.
  • "Хроника освоения космоса" [Chronicle of space exploration]. CosmoWorld (in Russian).
Generic references:

Footnotes

  1. "Cosmos 1070". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. NASA. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  2. "SAGE". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. NASA. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
  3. Hughes, J. (1996) Larousse Desk Reference Encloypedia London RD Press
  4. Portree, David S. F. (March 1995). "Mir Hardware Heritage" (PDF). NASA. p. 83. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 14 February 2009.


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