1975 in spaceflight

In 1975 several notable events happened in spaceflight such as the launch to Mars of the Viking orbiter/landers missions, the joint Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, launch of satellite Aryabhatta, and the Venera 9 Venus mission.

  • Viking 1 was launched on 20 August 1975 and Viking 2 was launched 9 September 1975. This orbiter/lander mission was to photograph Mars in detail and to find water and life on the surface.
  • The Apollo-Soyuz saw an end to the space race with the US and USSR. The mission was launched between 15 July 1975 and 17 July 1975.
  • The Venera 9 mission was launched 8 June 1975 was another successful orbiter/lander mission.
  • On 19 April India launched its first satellite, Aryabhatta with success.

1975 in spaceflight
Artist's impression of the ASTP docking
Orbital launches
First10 January
Last27 December
Total132
Catalogued125
National firsts
Satellite India
Rockets
Maiden flightsAtlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1AR
Delta 3000
Diamant-BP4
Long March 2C
N-I
Scout F-1
Titan III(34)B
RetirementsAtlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1A
Delta 1000
Diamant-BP4
Saturn IB
Scout F-1
Crewed flights
Orbital4
Suborbital1
Total travellers9

Launches

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January

10 January
21:43:37
Soyuz Baikonur Site 1/5
Soyuz 17 Low Earth (Salyut 4) Salyut expedition19 February
11:03
Successful
Manned flight with two cosmonauts, first mission to Salyut 4

February

March

April

5 April
11:04:54
Soyuz Baikonur Site 1/5
Soyuz 7K-T #39 Intended: Low Earth (Salyut 4) Salyut expedition11:26Launch failure
Manned flight with two cosmonauts, first and second core stages failed to separate, flight aborted and crew returned on suborbital trajectory
9 April
23:58:02
Delta 1410 Vandenberg SLC-2W NASA
GEOS-3 NASA Low Earth GeodesyIn orbitSuccessful
19 April Kosmos-3M Kapustin Yar Soviet Interkosmos programme
Aryabhatta ISRO Low Earth X-ray astronomy, aeronomics, and solar physics studies11 February 1992Launch success, payload partial failure
First Indian satellite; payload failed 4–5 days after launch

May

24 May
14:58:10
Soyuz Baikonur Site 1/5
Soyuz 18 Low Earth (Salyut 4) Salyut expedition26 July
14:18
Successful
Manned flight with two cosmonauts, final mission to Salyut 4

June

July

15 July
14:58:10
Soyuz-U Baikonur Site 1/5
Soyuz 19 Low Earth (Apollo) International docking21 July
10:50
Successful
Manned flight with two cosmonauts, Soviet contribution to the Apollo Soyuz Test Project
15 July
19:50:01
Saturn IB Kennedy LC-39B NASA
Apollo NASA Low Earth (Soyuz 19) International docking24 July
21:18
Successful
DM-2 NASA Low Earth (Apollo) Docking adaptor2 AugustSuccessful
Manned flight with three astronauts, American contribution to the Apollo Soyuz Test Project, final flight of the Apollo programme and the Saturn rocket

August

20 August
21:22:00
Titan IIIE Cape Canaveral LC-41
Viking 1 Orbiter NASA Areocentric Mars orbiterIn orbitSuccessful
Viking 1 Lander NASA Areocentric Mars lander20 July 1976
11:53:06
Successful
Lander landed in Chryse Planitia, becoming the first US spacecraft to land on Mars. It operated until 11 November 1982 when communications were lost due to an erroneous command being sent to the spacecraft. Orbiter was deactivated on 17 August 1980.

September

9 September
18:39:00
Titan IIIE Cape Canaveral LC-41
Viking 2 Orbiter NASA Areocentric Mars orbiterIn orbitSuccessful
Viking 2 Lander NASA Areocentric Mars lander3 September 1976
22:58:20
Successful
Lander landed in Utopia Planitia and operated until its batteries failed on 11 April 1980. Orbiter was deactivated on 25 July 1978.

October

16 October
22:40:00
Delta 2914 Cape Canaveral SLC-17B NASA
GOES 1 NOAA Geostationary MeteorologyIn orbitSuccessful
First operational geostationary weather satellite. Deactivated on March 7, 1985

November

December

Deep space rendezvous

Date Spacecraft Event Remarks
16 MarchMariner 103rd flyby of MercuryClosest approach: 327 kilometres (203 mi)
20 OctoberVenera 9Cytherocentric orbit insertionFirst orbiter of Venus
22 OctoberVenera 9 landerVenerian landingLanded at 05:13 UTC; ; first images from Venus surface
23 OctoberVenera 10Cytherocentric orbit insertion
25 OctoberVenera 10 landerVenerian landingLanded at 05:17 UTC

EVAs

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Remarks

References

  • Bergin, Chris. "NASASpaceFlight.com".
  • Clark, Stephen. "Spaceflight Now".
  • Kelso, T.S. "Satellite Catalog (SATCAT)". CelesTrak.
  • Krebs, Gunter. "Chronology of Space Launches".
  • Kyle, Ed. "Space Launch Report".
  • McDowell, Jonathan. "Jonathan's Space Report".
  • Pietrobon, Steven. "Steven Pietrobon's Space Archive".
  • Wade, Mark. "Encyclopedia Astronautica".
  • Webb, Brian. "Southwest Space Archive".
  • Zak, Anatoly. "Russian Space Web".
  • "ISS Calendar". Spaceflight 101.
  • "NSSDCA Master Catalog". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • "Space Calendar". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  • "Space Information Center". JAXA.
  • "Хроника освоения космоса" [Chronicle of space exploration]. CosmoWorld (in Russian).
Generic references:

Footnotes


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