1971 in spaceflight

1971 saw the last three known deaths of cosmonauts of the Soviet space program and the only deaths in space. Their mission was to man humanity's first space station. The experimental bay door failed to separate so the first crew failed to dock and second crew were killed on re-entry. 1971 also saw the launch of the first and only British satellite on top of a British rocket after that success the program was cancelled.

1971 in spaceflight
Salyut 1, the first space station and Soyuz 11, the first mission to successfully dock with it, were launched in 1971. The crew were killed during reentry when their spacecraft depressurised
Orbital launches
First12 January
Last29 December
Total133
Successes118
Failures15
Catalogued120
National firsts
Orbital launch United Kingdom
Rockets
Maiden flightsSoyuz-M
Delta M6
Thor LV-2F Burner IIA
Titan III(24)B
Titan III(33)B
Titan IIID
RetirementsBlack Arrow
Delta E1
Delta M
Delta M6
Delta N6
Europa
Long March 1
R-36OM
Soyuz-L
Thor LV-2F Burner II
Thorad SLV-2G Agena-D
Titan III(23)B
Crewed flights
Orbital4
Total travellers12

Launches

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January

12 January
09:30[1]
Voskhod Baikonur 31/6
Kosmos 390 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging25 January[3]Successful
13 January
20:10
Black Brant II Churchill NRC
NRC Suborbital Aeronomy13 JanuarySuccessful
14 January
12:00:00[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk 133/1
Kosmos 391 (DS-P1-I No.10) Low Earth Radar target21 February 1972[3]Successful
20 January
11:24:00[1]
Vostok-2M Plesetsk 41/1
Meteor 1-07 (Meteor-M)[5][6] Sun-synchronous Weather14 July 2005[3]Successful
21 January
02:32
Black Brant VB Churchill NRC
NRC Suborbital Auroral/Ionospheric21 JanuarySuccessful
21 January
08:40[1]
Voskhod Baikonur 31/6
Kosmos 392 (Zenit-2M)[7] Low Earth Optical imaging2 February[3]Successful
21 January
18:20
Titan III(23)B Vandenberg SLC-4W US Air Force
OPS 7776 (Gambit-3 4330) NRO Low Earth Optical imaging9 FebruarySuccessful
OPS 7776 SRV-1 NRO Low Earth Film returnJanuarySuccessful
OPS 7776 SRV-2 NRO Low Earth Film returnFebruarySuccessful
22 January
04:44
Black Brant VB Churchill NRC
NRC Suborbital Auroral/Ionospheric22 JanuarySuccessful
26 January
00:36:03
Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D Cape Kennedy LC-36A
Intelsat IV F-2 Intelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
26 January
12:44:33[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk 133/1
Kosmos 393 (DS-P1-Yu No.34) Low Earth Calibration16 June[3]Successful
26 January
17:23
Black Brant VB Churchill NRC
NRC Suborbital Solar/Ionospheric26 JanuarySuccessful
31 January
21:03
Saturn V Kennedy LC-39A NASA
Apollo 14 CSM NASA Selenocentric Lunar orbiter9 February
21:05
Successful
Apollo 14 LM NASA Selenocentric Lunar lander5 February
09:17
Successful
Manned flight with three astronauts, third manned Lunar landing

February

3 February
01:41:40
Delta M Cape Kennedy LC-17A
NATO-2B NATO Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Final flight of Delta M
5 February
22:46
Black Brant IVB Churchill NRC
NRC Suborbital Auroral/Ionospheric5 FebruarySuccessful
9 February
18:48:48[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/1
Kosmos 394 (DS-P1-M No.2) Low Earth ASAT target25 February
(destroyed)
Successful
Destroyed by Kosmos 397, debris still in orbit
16 February
04:00:00
Mu-3S Kagoshima LA-M ISAS
Tansei 1 ISAS Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitSuccessful
17 February
03:52:05
Thor LV-2F Burner II Vandenberg SLC-10W US Air Force
OPS 5268 (DAPP-5A F-3) US Air Force Low Earth WeatherIn orbitSuccessful
Calsphere 3 (NRL PL-170A) NRL Low Earth Calibration17 October 1989Successful
Calsphere 4 (NRL PL-170B) NRL Low Earth Calibration20 September 1989Successful
Calsphere 5 (NRL PL-170C) NRL Low Earth Calibration7 January 1990Successful
17 February
20:04:30
Thorad SLV-2H Agena-D Vandenberg SLC-3W US Air Force
KH-4B No.1113 NRO Intended: Low Earth Optical imaging+18 secondsLaunch failure
Engine failure due to chain of malfunctions caused by fuel additive loading error
17 February
21:09[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/1
Kosmos 395 (Tselina-OM) Low Earth ELINT6 April 1980Successful
18 February
13:59[1]
Voskhod Plesetsk 43/3
Kosmos 396 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging3 March[3]Successful
20 February
03:33
Black Brant IVA Churchill NRC
NRC Suborbital Auroral/Ionospheric20 FebruarySuccessful
25 February
01:13
Black Brant VB Wallops Island NASA
NASA Suborbital Aeronomy25 FebruarySuccessful
25 February
11:11[9]
Tsyklon-2 Baikonur 90/19
Kosmos 397 (IS-A) Initial: Low Earth
Final: Medium Earth
ASAT testIn orbitSuccessful
Intercepted and destroyed Kosmos 394
26 February
05:06[1]
Soyuz-L Baikonur 31/6
Kosmos 398 (LK T2K No.2) Deployed: Low Earth
Final: Medium Earth
Test flight10 December 1995[3]Successful
28 February
20:10
Black Brant III Churchill NRC
NRC Suborbital Aeronomy28 FebruarySuccessful

March

3 March
06:52
Black Brant IVA Churchill NRC
NRC Suborbital Auroral3 MarchSuccessful
3 March
09:30[1]
Voskhod Baikonur 31/6
Kosmos 399 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging17 March[3]Successful
3 March
12:15[6]
Long March 1 Jiuquan LA-2A
Shijian I Low Earth Technology17 June 1979Successful
5 March
08:15:02[4]
Kosmos-2I Kapustin Yar 86/4
DS-P1-Yu No.39 Intended: Low Earth Calibration+133 secondsLaunch failure
Second stage malfunction, failed to orbit[10]
5 March[1] Voskhod Plesetsk 43/4
Zenit-2M[7] Intended: Low Earth Optical imaging5 March[3]Launch failure
Nauka 2KS No.3[6] Intended: Low Earth
13 March
16:15:00
Delta M6 Cape Kennedy LC-17A
Explorer 43 (IMP-6) NASA Highly elliptical Gamma-ray astronomy2 October 1974Successful
Only flight of Delta M6
18 March
21:45:00[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/1
Kosmos 400 (DS-P1-M No.3) Low Earth ASAT target4 April
(destroyed)
Successful
Destroyed by Kosmos 402, debris still in orbit
20 March
03:24
Black Brant II Churchill NRC
NRC Suborbital Test flight
Auroral/Ionospheric
20 MarchSuccessful
21 March
03:45
Titan III(33)B Vandenberg SLC-4W US Air Force
OPS 4788 (Jumpseat) NRO Molniya ELINTIn orbitSuccessful
Maiden flight of Titan III(33)B, first Jumpseat satellite
24 March
20:10
Black Brant VC Churchill AFCRL
AFCRL Suborbital Auroral/Aeronomy24 MarchSuccessful
24 March
21:05
Thorad SLV-2H Agena-D Vandenberg SLC-3W US Air Force
OPS 5300 (KH-4B No.1115) NRO Low Earth Optical imaging12 April
27 March
10:59[1]
Voskhod Plesetsk 43/3
Kosmos 401 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging9 April[3]Successful

April

1 April
02:57:07
Delta E1 Vandenberg SLC-2E
ISIS 2 CSA/NASA Low Earth IonosphericIn orbitSuccessful
Final flight of Delta E1
1 April
11:29[9]
Tsyklon-2 Baikonur 90/20
Kosmos 402 (US-A) Low Earth Ocean surveillance6 MaySuccessful
2 April
08:20[1]
Voskhod Plesetsk 43/3
Kosmos 403 (Zenit-2M)[7] Low Earth Optical imaging14 April[3]Successful
4 April
14:27[9]
Tsyklon-2 Baikonur 90/19
Kosmos 404 (IS-A) Low Earth ASAT test4 AprilSuccessful
Intercepted and destroyed Kosmos 400
5 April Atlas E/F Vandenberg ABRES A-1 US Air Force
LAR-1 US Air Force Suborbital REV test5 AprilSuccessful
7 April
07:10[1]
Vostok-2M Plesetsk 43/4
Kosmos 405 (Tselina-D)[12] Low Earth ELINTIn orbitSuccessful
14 April
08:00[1]
Voskhod Plesetsk 43/4
Kosmos 406 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging24 April[3]Successful
15 April
09:19
Diamant B Kourou ALD CNES
Tournesol CNES Low Earth Ionospheric28 January 1980Successful
17 April
11:44:58[1]
Vostok-2M Plesetsk 43/4
Meteor 1-08 (Meteor-M)[5][6] Sun-synchronous Weather10 January 1991[3]Successful
19 April
01:40:00[13]
Proton-K Baikonur 81/24
Salyut 1 Low Earth Space station11 October[3]Successful
First space station, visited by two crews. First crew failed to dock, second killed after departure
22 April
15:30
Titan III(23)B Vandenberg SLC-4W US Air Force
OPS 7899 (Gambit-3 4331) NRO Low Earth Optical imaging13 MaySuccessful
OPS 7899 SRV-1 NRO Low Earth Film returnApril/MaySuccessful
OPS 7899 SRV-2 NRO Low Earth Film returnMaySuccessful
Final flight of Titan III(23)B
22 April
23:54:06[1]
Soyuz Baikonur 1/5
Soyuz 10 Low Earth (Salyut 1) Manned24 April
23:40:00[14]
Spacecraft failure
Manned flight with three cosmonauts. First mission to dock with a space station, aborted after spacecraft failed to achieve hard dock with Salyut 1
23 April
11:30[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/1
Kosmos 407 (Strela-2M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
24 April
07:32:29
Scout B San Marco CRS
San Marco 3 CRS/NASA Low Earth Atmospheric29 NovemberSuccessful
24 April
11:15:02[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk 133/1
Kosmos 408 (DS-P1-Yu No.37) Low Earth Calibration29 December[3]Successful
28 April
14:35[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/1
Kosmos 409 (Sfera) Low Earth GeodesyIn orbitSuccessful

May

5 May
07:43:01
Titan III(23)C Cape Kennedy LC-40 US Air Force
OPS 3811 (DSP SVN-3/IMEWS-2) US Air Force Geosynchronous Missile defenceIn orbitSuccessful
6 May
06:20[1]
Voskhod Baikonur 31/6
Kosmos 410 (Zenit-2M)[7] Low Earth Optical imaging18 May[3]Successful
Nauka 8KS No.1[6] Low Earth 25 May[3]Successful
7 May
14:20[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/1
Kosmos 411 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Kosmos 412 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Kosmos 413 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Kosmos 414 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Kosmos 415 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Kosmos 416 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Kosmos 417 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Kosmos 418 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
9 May
01:11:02
Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D Cape Kennedy LC-36A
Mariner 8 NASA Intended: Areocentric Mars orbiter9 MayLaunch failure
Upper stage thrust vectoring failed due to gyroscope malfunction, failed to orbit
10 May
16:58:42[13]
Proton-K/D Baikonur 81/23
Kosmos 419 (Mars 3MS No.170) Intended: Areocentric
Achieved: Low Earth
Mars orbiter12 May[3]Launch failure
Blok D failed to ignite due to programming error; coast phase incorrectly entered in years instead of hours[15]
18 May
08:00[1]
Voskhod Baikonur 31/6
Kosmos 420 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging29 May[3]Successful
19 May
10:20:00[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk 133/1
Kosmos 421 (DS-P1-Yu No.48) Low Earth Calibration8 November[3]Successful
19 May
16:22:44[13]
Proton-K/D Baikonur 81/24
Mars 2 orbiter Areocentric Mars orbiterIn orbitSuccessful
Mars 2 lander Heliocentric Mars lander27 NovemberSpacecraft failure
Lander failed to achieve soft landing, instead impacting the planet[15]
22 May
00:51[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/1
Kosmos 422 (Tsyklon) Low Earth NavigationIn orbitSuccessful
27 May
11:59:55[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk 133/1
Kosmos 423 (DS-P1-Yu No.47) Low Earth Calibration26 November[3]Successful
28 May
10:30[1]
Voskhod Plesetsk 43/4
Kosmos 424 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging10 June[3]Successful
28 May
15:26:30[13]
Proton-K/D Baikonur 81/23
Mars 3 orbiter Areocentric Mars orbiterIn orbitSuccessful
Mars 3 lander Heliocentric Mars lander2 DecemberSpacecraft failure
Lander failed 20 seconds after landing[15]
29 May
03:49[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/1
Kosmos 425 (Tselina-OM) Low Earth ELINT15 January 1980Successful
30 May
22:23:04
Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D Cape Kennedy LC-36B
Mariner 9 NASA Areocentric Mars orbiterIn orbitSuccessful
First spacecraft to orbit Mars upon orbital insertion on 14 November. Deactivated on 27 October 1972

June

4 June
18:10:00[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/2
Kosmos 426 (DS-U2-K No.1) Low Earth Magnetospheric11 May 2002[3]Successful
Ceased operations on 12 January 1972
6 June
04:55:09[1]
Soyuz Baikonur 1/5
Soyuz 11 Low Earth (Salyut 1) Manned29 June
23:16:52[16]
Spacecraft failure
Manned flight with three cosmonauts. First mission to occupy a space station, and only mission to occupy Salyut 1. Crew killed by depressurisation of spacecraft during reentry
7 June
05:26
Black Brant IVA Churchill AFCRL
AFCRL Suborbital Ionospheric7 JuneSuccessful
8 June
14:00:05
Thor LV-2F Burner II Vandenberg SLC-10W US Air Force
SESP-1 (P70-1) US Air Force/STP Low Earth Technology31 January 1982Successful
Final flight of Thor LV-2F Burner II
11 June
10:00[1]
Voskhod Plesetsk 43/4
Kosmos 427 (Zenit-4MK)[17] Low Earth Optical imaging23 June[3]Successful
15 June
18:41
Titan III(23)D Vandenberg SLC-4E US Air Force
OPS 8709 (Hexagon 1201) NRO Low Earth Optical imaging6 AugustSuccessful
OPS 8709 SRV-1 NRO Low Earth Film return20 June[19]Partial spacecraft failure
OPS 8709 SRV-2 NRO Low Earth Film return26 June[20]Successful
OPS 8709 SRV-3 NRO Low Earth Film return10 July[20]Spacecraft failure
OPS 8709 SRV-4 NRO Low Earth Film return15 July[20]Successful
Maiden flight of Titan IIID, first Hexagon satellite. SRV-1 recovered from water, SRV-3 lost due to parachute failure
20 June
22:45
LGM-25C Titan II Vandenberg LC-395C US Air Force
SSTTP M1-17 US Air Force Suborbital Target20 JuneSuccessful
24 June
07:59[1]
Voskhod Baikonur 31/6
Kosmos 428 (Zenit-2M)[7] Low Earth Optical imaging6 July[3]Successful
Nauka 1KS No.4[6] Low Earth 13 July[3]Successful
25 June Voskhod Plesetsk 43/3
Zenit-4M[2] Intended: Low Earth Optical imaging25 June[3]Launch failure
26 June
23:15:08[6]
N1 Baikonur 110/37
Soyuz 7K-LOK mockup Intended: Highly elliptical Test flight+51 secondsLaunch failure
LK mockup Intended: Highly elliptical Test flight
Loss of roll control, vehicle disintegrated at max Q
29 June
10:12
Atlas E/F-Trident Vandenberg ABRES A-3 US Air Force
RVTO-2A-3 US Air Force Suborbital REV test29 JuneSuccessful

July

8 July
22:58:00
Scout B Wallops LA-3A NASA
Explorer 44 (Solrad 10) NASA Low Earth Solar15 December 1979Successful
16 July
01:41:36[1]
Vostok-2M Plesetsk 43/4
Meteor 1-09 (Meteor-M)[5][6] Sun-synchronous Weather27 August 1991[3]Successful
16 July
10:50
Thorad SLV-2H Agena-D Vandenberg SLC-1W US Air Force
OPS 8373 ("Heavy Ferret") NRO Low Earth ELINT31 August 1978Successful
20 July
10:00[1]
Voskhod Baikonur 31/6
Kosmos 429 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging2 August[3]Successful
21 July
16:00
Black Brant VC Wallops Island NASA
NASA Suborbital Test flight21 JulyLaunch failure
22 July Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/2
Tselina-OM Intended: Low Earth ELINT22 JulyLaunch failure
Failed to orbit
23 July
11:00[1]
Voskhod Plesetsk 43/3
Kosmos 430 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging5 August[3]Successful
26 July
13:34
Saturn V Kennedy LC-39A NASA
Apollo 15 CSM NASA Selenocentric Lunar orbiter7 August
20:45:53
Successful
Apollo 15 LM NASA Selenocentric Lunar lander30 July
22:16:29
Successful
PFS-1 NASA Selenocentric Magnetospheric1974Successful
Manned flight with three astronauts, fourth manned lunar landing and first use of Lunar Roving Vehicle, subsatellite deployed on 4 August at 20:13 UTC
28 July
03:29[1]
Molniya-M/ML Plesetsk 43/4
Molniya 1-18[21] Molniya Communications19 July 1977[3]Successful
30 July
08:29[1]
Voskhod Baikonur 31/6
Kosmos 431 (Zenit-2M)[7] Low Earth Optical imaging11 August[3]Successful

August

3 August
11:00:00[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk 133/1
DS-P1-Yu No.33 Intended: Low Earth Calibration+204 secondsLaunch failure
Second stage malfunction, failed to orbit[10]
5 August
10:00[1]
Voskhod Baikonur 31/6
Kosmos 432 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging18 August[3]Successful
7 August
00:11
Atlas E/F-OV1-PM Vandenberg BMRS-A2 US Air Force
OV1-20 US Air Force Low Earth Ionospheric29 AugustSuccessful
OV1-21 US Air Force Low Earth Ionospheric29 AugustSuccessful
LOADS-2 US Air Force Low Earth Air density31 January 1972Successful
RTDS US Air Force Low Earth Air density19 SeptemberSuccessful
LCS 4 US Air Force Low Earth Air densityIn orbitOperational
Gridsphere 1 (P70-2/AVL-802) US Air Force Low Earth Technology2 November 1979Successful
Gridsphere 2 (P70-2/AVL-802) US Air Force Low Earth Technology18 March 1979Successful
Gridsphere B (P70-2/AVL-802) US Air Force Low Earth Technology11 June 1972Successful
Rigidsphere (P70-2/AVL-802) US Air Force Low Earth Air density1 September 1981Successful
Two OV1 satellites deployed by independent upper stages, LOADS-2 shared upper stage with OV1-20, other payloads shared with OV1-21. All payloads passive other than OV1s.
8 August
23:45[9]
R-36OM Baikonur 191/66
Kosmos 433 (OGCh) Low Earth FOBS test9 AugustSuccessful
Final flight of R-36OM, and FOBS programme
12 August
05:30[1]
Soyuz-L Baikonur 31/6
Kosmos 434 (LK T2K No.3) Deployed: Low Earth
Final: Medium Earth
Test flight23 August 1981[3]Successful
Final flight of Soyuz-L
12 August
15:30
Titan III(24)B Vandenberg SLC-4W US Air Force
OPS 8607 (Gambit-3 4332) NRO Low Earth Optical imaging3 SeptemberSuccessful
OPS 8607 SRV-1 NRO Low Earth Film returnAugustSuccessful
OPS 8607 SRV-2 NRO Low Earth Film returnSeptemberSuccessful
Maiden flight of Titan III(24)B
16 August
18:39:00
Scout B-1 Wallops LA-3A NASA
Eole CNES Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Maiden flight of Scout B-1
19 August Voskhod Baikonur 31/6
Zenit-4M[2] Intended: Low Earth Optical imaging19 AugustLaunch failure
Failed to achieve orbit
27 August
10:54:56[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk 133/1
Kosmos 435 (DS-P1-Yu No.41) Low Earth Calibration28 January 1972[3]Successful
28 August
02:22
LGM-25C Titan II Vandenberg LC-395C US Air Force
SSTTP M2-1 US Air Force Suborbital Target28 AugustSuccessful

September

1 September Atlas E/F Vandenberg BMRS A-1 US Air Force
LAR-2 US Air Force Suborbital REV test1 SeptemberSuccessful
2 September
13:40:40[13]
Proton-K/D Baikonur 81/24
Luna 18 Highly elliptical Lunar sample return11 SeptemberSpacecraft failure
Failed to achieve soft landing, instead impacting the moon[22]
4 September
13:52
Black Brant IIIB Resolute Bay NASA
NASA Suborbital Plasma physics4 SeptemberSuccessful
5 September
13:44
Black Brant IIIB Resolute Bay NASA
NASA Suborbital Plasma physics5 SeptemberSuccessful
7 September
01:15[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/2
Kosmos 436 (Tselina-OM) Low Earth ELINT4 January 1980Successful
10 September
03:37[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/2
Kosmos 437 (Tselina-OM) Low Earth ELINT29 March 1980Successful
10 September
21:33
Thorad SLV-2H Agena-D Vandenberg SLC-3W US Air Force
OPS 5454 (KH-4B No.1115) NRO Low Earth Optical imaging5 October
OPS 7681 (EHH-B) NRO Low Earth ELINT3 February 1976
10 September Dongfeng 5 Jiuquan LA-2B
Suborbital Test flight10 SeptemberSuccessful
Maiden flight of Dongfeng 5
14 September
13:00[1]
Voskhod Plesetsk 43/4
Kosmos 438 (Zenit-4MK)[17] Low Earth Optical imaging23 June[3]Successful
21 September
12:00[1]
Voskhod Plesetsk 43/3
Kosmos 439 (Zenit-2M)[7] Low Earth Optical imaging2 October[3]Successful
24 September
10:30:00[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk 133/1
Kosmos 440 (DS-P1-I No.11) Low Earth Radar target29 October 1972[3]Successful
28 September
04:00:00
Mu-3S Kagoshima LA-M ISAS
Shinsei ISAS Low Earth Solar
Ionospheric
In orbitSuccessful
28 September
07:40[1]
Voskhod Baikonur 31/6
Kosmos 441 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging10 October[3]Successful
28 September
10:00:22[13]
Proton-K/D Baikonur 81/24
Luna 19 Selenocentric Lunar orbiterIn orbitSuccessful
29 September
09:45:00
Delta N Cape Kennedy LC-17A
OSO-7 NASA Low Earth Solar9 July 1974Successful
TETR-4 NASA Low Earth Tracking target19 September 1978Successful
29 September
11:30[1]
Voskhod Plesetsk 43/3
Kosmos 442 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging12 October[3]Successful

October

7 October
12:30[1]
Voskhod Plesetsk 43/3
Kosmos 443 (Zenit-2M)[7] Low Earth Optical imaging19 October[3]Successful
Nauka 8KS No.2[6] Low Earth 30 OctoberSuccessful
13 October
13:41[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/2
Kosmos 444 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Kosmos 445 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Kosmos 446 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Kosmos 447 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Kosmos 448 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Kosmos 449 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Kosmos 450 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
Kosmos 451 (Strela-1M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
14 October
07:51:17
Thor LV-2F Burner IIA Vandenberg SLC-10W US Air Force
OPS 4311 (DAPP-5B F-1) US Air Force Low Earth WeatherIn orbitSuccessful
Maiden flight of Thor LV-2F Burner IIA
14 October
09:00[1]
Voskhod Baikonur 31/6
Kosmos 452 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging27 October[3]Successful
17 October
13:36
Thorad SLV-2G Agena-D Vandenberg SLC-1W US Air Force
ASTEX (P71-2) STP Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitSuccessful
19 October
12:40:01[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk 133/1
Kosmos 453 (DS-P1-Yu No.44) Low Earth Calibration19 March 1972[3]Successful
21 October
11:32:00
Delta N6 Vandenberg SLC-2E
ITOS-B NOAA Intended: Low Earth Weather21 OctoberLaunch failure
Final flight of Delta N6, oxidiser leak led to premature second stage cutoff. Debris reached orbit, however payload did not
23 October
17:01
Titan III(24)B Vandenberg SLC-4W US Air Force
OPS 7616 (Gambit-3 4333) NRO Low Earth Optical imaging17 NovemberSuccessful
OPS 7616 SRV-1 NRO Low Earth Film returnOctober/NovemberSuccessful
OPS 7616 SRV-2 NRO Low Earth Film returnNovemberSuccessful
28 October
04:09:29
Black Arrow Woomera LA-5B RAE
Prospero (X-3) RAE Low Earth TechnologyIn orbitSuccessful
First and only successful British orbital launch, final flight of Black Arrow and last orbital launch from Woomera

November

2 November
14:25[1]
Voskhod Plesetsk 41/1
Kosmos 454 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging16 November[3]Successful
3 November
03:09:06
Titan III(23)C Cape Kennedy LC-40 US Air Force
OPS 3431 (DSCS II A1) US Air Force Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
OPS 9432 (DSCS II A2) US Air Force Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbit 
5 November
13:00
Europa II Kourou BEC ELDO
STV-4 ELDO Intended: Geosynchronous transfer Technology5 NovemberLaunch failure
Third stage structural failure. Only flight of Europa II, and final flight of Europa family. Final launch conducted by ELDO, first launch from BEC (later ELA-1 and ELV)
15 November
05:52:00
Scout B San Marco CRS
Explorer 45 (SSS-1) NASA Medium Earth Magnetospheric3 May 1987Successful
Final flight of Scout B
17 November
11:09:48[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk 133/1
Kosmos 455 (DS-P1-Yu No.54) Low Earth Calibration9 April 1972[3]Successful
19 November
12:00[1]
Voskhod Plesetsk 43/3
Kosmos 456 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging2 December[3]Successful
20 November
18:00[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/2
Kosmos 457 (Sfera) Low Earth GeodesyIn orbitSuccessful
24 November
09:30[1]
Molniya-M/ML Plesetsk 43/4
Molniya 2-01[24] Molniya Communications10 May 1976[3]Successful
29 November
10:09:56[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk 133/1
Kosmos 458 (DS-P1-Yu No.53) Low Earth Calibration20 April 1972[3]Successful
29 November
17:30:00[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/1
Kosmos 459 (DS-P1-M No.5) Low Earth ASAT target3 December
(destroyed)
Successful
Destroyed by Kosmos 462
30 November
16:39[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/2
Kosmos 460 (Tselina-OM) Low Earth ELINT5 March 1980Successful

December

2 December
08:25:14[4]
Kosmos-2I Kapustin Yar 86/4
Interkosmos 5 (DS-U2-IK No.2) Low Earth 7 April 1972[3]Successful
2 December
17:30:01[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/1
Kosmos 461 (DS-U2-MT No.1) Low Earth Micrometeoroid detection
gamma-ray astronomy
21 February 1979[3]Successful
Ceased operations on 14 December 1972
3 December
13:19[9]
Tsyklon-2 Baikonur 90/19
Kosmos 462 (IS-A) Low Earth ASAT test4 April 1975Successful
Intercepted and destroyed Kosmos 459
3 December Voskhod Plesetsk 43/4
Zenit-2M[7] Intended: Low Earth Optical imaging3 December[3]Launch failure
Nauka 5KS No.2[6] Intended: Low Earth
4 December
22:33
Atlas SLV-3A Agena-D Cape Kennedy LC-13 US Air Force
Canyon US Air Force Intended: Geosynchronous ELINT4 DecemberLaunch failure
First stage malfunctioned, failed to orbit
5 December
16:20
Diamant B Kourou ALD CNES
Polaire CNES Intended: Low Earth Ionospheric5 DecemberLaunch failure
Second stage malfunction, failed to orbit
6 December
09:50[1]
Voskhod Baikonur 31/6
Kosmos 463 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging11 December[3]Successful
10 December
11:00[1]
Voskhod Plesetsk 43/3
Kosmos 464 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging16 December[3]Successful
11 December
20:47:01
Scout B-1 Vandenberg SLC-5 NASA
Ariel 4 SRC Low Earth Ionospheric12 December 1978Successful
14 December
12:13
Thorad SLV-2G Agena-D Vandenberg SLC-1W US Air Force
OPS 7898 Payload 1 (Poppy) NRO Low Earth ELINTIn orbitSuccessful
OPS 7898 Payload 2 NRO Low Earth ELINTIn orbitSuccessful
OPS 7898 Payload 3 NRO Low Earth ELINTIn orbitSuccessful
OPS 7898 Payload 4 NRO Low Earth ELINTIn orbitSuccessful
Final flight of Thorad SLV-2G Agena-D
15 December
04:31[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/2
Kosmos 465 (Tsyklon) Low Earth NavigationIn orbitSuccessful
16 December
09:39[1]
Voskhod Baikonur 31/6
Kosmos 466 (Zenit-4M)[2] Low Earth Optical imaging18 August[3]Successful
17 December
10:39:58[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk 133/1
Kosmos 467 (DS-P1-Yu No.45) Low Earth Calibration18 April 1972[3]Successful
17 December
13:00[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/2
Kosmos 468 (Strela-2M) Low Earth CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
19 December
22:50[1]
Molniya-M/ML Plesetsk 41/1
Molniya 1-19[21] Molniya Communications13 April 1977[3]Successful
20 December
01:10:04
Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D Cape Kennedy LC-36A
Intelsat IV F-3 Intelsat Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
25 December
11:30[9]
Tsyklon-2 Baikonur 90/20
Kosmos 469 (US-A) Low Earth Ocean surveillance9 February 1972Successful
BES-5 nuclear reactor ejected, and remains in orbit
27 December
14:04[1]
Soyuz-M Plesetsk 43/4
Kosmos 470 (Zenit-4MT) Low Earth Optical imaging6 January 1972[3]Successful
Maiden flight of Soyuz-M
27 December
19:00:00[8]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk 132/2
Oreol 1 (DS-U2-GKA No.1) OKB-586/CNES Medium Earth MagnetosphericIn orbitSuccessful
29 December
10:50:01[1]
Vostok-2M Plesetsk 41/1
Meteor 1-10 (Meteor-MV)[5][6] Sun-synchronous WeatherIn orbitSuccessful

Off-world launches

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks
6 February
18:48
Lunar Module Ascent Stage Fra Mauro (Luna) NASA
Apollo 14 LM NASA Selenocentric (CSM) Manned7 February
00:46
Successful
Carrying two astronauts back to CSM after lunar landing
2 August
17:11
Lunar Module Ascent Stage Hadley-Apennine (Luna) NASA
Apollo 15 LM NASA Selenocentric (CSM) Manned3 August
03:04
Successful
Carrying two astronauts back to CSM after lunar landing

Deep space rendezvous in 1971

Date (UTC) Spacecraft Event Remarks
4 February Apollo 14 Entered selenocentric orbit
5 February
09:18:11
Apollo 14 LM Landing on the Moon Landed in Fra Mauro region, returned 43 kg of rocks
29 July Apollo 15 Entered selenocentric orbit
30 July
22:16:29
Apollo 15 LM Landing on the Moon; first manned lunar rover Landed in Hadley Rille region, returned 77 kg of rocks
11 September Luna 18 Impacted the Moon In Mare Fecunditatis, failed lander
3 October Luna 19 Entered selenocentric orbit
14 November Mariner 9 Entered areocentric orbit First orbiter of Mars and of another planet
27 November Mars 2 orbiter Entered areocentric orbit
Mars 2 lander First Mars impact Failed soft lander
27 November Mars 3 orbiter Entered areocentric orbit
Mars 3 lander First soft landing on Mars

EVAs

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Remarks
5 February
14:42
4 hours
48 minutes[25]
19:30 Apollo 14
Apollo LM-8 "Antares"
Alan Shepard
Edgar Mitchell
Shepard and Mitchell deployed several experiments on the lunar surface near the landing site, such as the Solar Wind Composition Experiment and the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). The crew also took a contingency sample and planted a U.S. flag at the site.[26]
6 February
8:11
4 hours
34 minutes
12:45 Apollo 14
Apollo LM-8 "Antares"
Alan Shepard
Edgar Mitchell
Planned as a traverse to Cone Crater, however the astronauts were unable to find the rim of the crater amid rolling terrain. The crew also took panoramic pictures and set up additional experiments. Shepard famously hit a golf ball on the lunar surface, using a six iron golf club head attached to the handle of an excavation tool.
31 July
00:16
33 minutes 00:49 Apollo 15
Apollo LM-10 "Falcon"
David Scott Scott stood on the lander's ascent engine cover to survey the landing site through the vehicle's docking hatch and take panoramic photography.
31 July
13:13
6 hours
32 minutes[27]
19:45 Apollo 15
Apollo LM-10 "Falcon"
David Scott
James Irwin
Scott and Irwin visited Elbow Crater near the rim of Hadley Rille using the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), marking the first time humans traveled in a wheeled vehicle on another world. The crew also deployed an ALSEP on their return to the landing site.[28]
1 August
11:48
7 hours
12 minutes
19:01 Apollo 15
Apollo LM-10 "Falcon"
David Scott
James Irwin
Scott and Irwin drove the LRV 12.5 miles along the base of the Apennine Mountains, visiting several craters, collecting samples and taking panoramic photography. The crew also took a deep core sample of lunar soil and planted a U.S. flag.
2 August
08:52
4 hours
49 minutes
13:42 Apollo 15
Apollo LM-10 "Falcon"
David Scott
James Irwin
Scott and Irwin traveled to Scarp Crater then northwest along the rille, collecting samples. The crew also retrieved the core sample drilled during the previous EVA.
5 August
15:31
39 minutes 16:10 Apollo 15
Apollo CSM-112 "Endeavour"
Alfred Worden
James Irwin
First spacewalk in deep space, conducted during the return trip to Earth. Worden retrieved exposed film from the Scientific Instrument Module (SIM) bay of the Service Module, while Irwin stood in the hatch.

Orbital launch summary

By country

  China (PRC)
  Europe
  France
  Japan
  Soviet Union
  United Kingdom
  United States
Orbital launch attempts by country in 1971
Country Launches Successes Failures Partial
failures
Remarks
 Europe1010
 France2110
 Japan2200
 People's Republic of China1100
 Soviet Union918290
 United Kingdom1100Last and only successful launch
 United States353140

By rocket

By family

Family Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Atlas United States6420
Black Arrow United Kingdom1100Final flight
Diamant France2110
Europa Europe1010Final flight
Kosmos (R-12/14) Soviet Union343130
Long March People's Republic of China1100
Mu Japan2200
N Soviet Union1010
R-7 Soviet Union444040
R-36 Soviet Union6600
Saturn United States2200
Titan United States8800
Thor United States141220
Scout United States5500
Universal Rocket Soviet Union6510

By type

Rocket Country Family Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Atlas E/F United StatesAtlas1100
Atlas-Agena United StatesAtlas1010
Atlas-Centaur United StatesAtlas4310
Black Arrow United KingdomBlack Arrow1100Final flight
Diamant B FranceDiamant2110
Delta United StatesDelta5410
Europa EuropeEuropa1010Final flight
Kosmos-2 Soviet UnionKosmos141220
Kosmos-3 Soviet UnionKosmos201910
Long March 1 People's Republic of ChinaLong March1100
Molniya Soviet UnionR-73300
Mu-3 JapanMu2200
N1 Soviet UnionN1010
Proton Soviet UnionUniversal Rocket3300
R-36OM Soviet UnionR-361100Final flight
Saturn V United StatesSaturn2200
Scout B United StatesScout5500
Soyuz Soviet UnionR-75500
Thor-Burner United StatesThor3300
Thorad-Agena United StatesThor6510
Titan IIIB United StatesTitan5500
Titan IIIC United StatesTitan2200
Titan IIID United StatesTitan1100Maiden flight
Tsyklon Soviet UnionR-365500
Voskhod Soviet UnionR-7312740
Vostok Soviet UnionR-75500

By configuration

Rocket Country Type Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Atlas E/F-OV1-PM United StatesAtlas E/F1100
Atlas SLV-3A Agena-D United StatesAtlas-Agena1010
Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D United StatesAtlas-Centaur4310
Black Arrow United KingdomBlack Arrow1100Final flight
Diamant B FranceDiamant B2110
Delta E1 United StatesDelta1100Final flight
Delta M United StatesDelta1100Final flight
Delta M6 United StatesDelta1100Only flight
Delta N United StatesDelta1100
Delta N6 United StatesDelta1010Final flight
Europa II EuropeEuropa1010Only flight
Kosmos-2I Soviet UnionKosmos-2141220
Kosmos-3M Soviet UnionKosmos-3201910
Long March 1 People's Republic of ChinaLong March1100Final flight
Molniya-M/ML Soviet UnionMolniya3300
Mu-3S JapanMu-32200
N1 Soviet UnionN11010
Proton-K Soviet UnionProton1100
Proton-K/D Soviet UnionProton5410
R-36OM Soviet UnionR-36O1100Final flight
Saturn V United StatesSaturn V2200
Scout B United StatesScout B3300
Scout B-1 United StatesScout B2200
Soyuz Soviet UnionSoyuz2200
Soyuz-L Soviet UnionSoyuz2200Final flight
Soyuz-M Soviet UnionSoyuz1100Maiden flight
Thor LV-2F Burner II United StatesThor-Burner2200Final flight
Thor LV-2F Burner IIA United StatesThor-Burner1100Maiden flight
Thorad SLV-2G Agena-D United StatesThorad-Agena2200Final flight
Thorad SLV-2H Agena-D United StatesThorad-Agena4310
Titan III(23)B United StatesTitan III2200Final flight
Titan III(24)B United StatesTitan III2200Maiden flight
Titan III(33)B United StatesTitan III1100Maiden flight
Titan III(23)C United StatesTitan III2200
Titan III(23)D United StatesTitan III1100Maiden flight
Tsyklon-2 Soviet UnionTsyklon5500
Voskhod Soviet UnionVoskhod312740
Vostok-2M Soviet UnionVostok5500

By launch site

Site Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Cape Kennedy United States10520
Baikonur Soviet Union312830
Jiuquan People's Republic of China1100
Kapustin Yar Soviet Union2110
Kennedy United States2200
Kagoshima Japan2200
Kourou France3120
Plesetsk Soviet Union585350
San Marco Kenya2200Operated by Italy
Vandenberg United States191720
Wallops United States2200
Woomera Australia1100Final orbital launch

By orbit

Orbital regime Launches Achieved Not Achieved Accidentally
achieved
Remarks
Failed to orbit 0 N/A 0 N/A 0 N/A 12
Low Earth 10910091Two to Salyut 1
Medium Earth 2200
Geosynchronous/transfer 752
High Earth 10910Including highly elliptical and Molniya orbits and trans-lunar trajectories.
Heliocentric 5320

References

  • Bergin, Chris. "NASASpaceFlight.com".
  • Clark, Stephen. "Spaceflight Now".
  • Kelso, T.S. "Satellite Catalog (SATCAT)". CelesTrak.
  • Krebs, Gunter. "Chronology of Space Launches".
  • Kyle, Ed. "Space Launch Report".
  • McDowell, Jonathan. "Jonathan's Space Report".
  • Pietrobon, Steven. "Steven Pietrobon's Space Archive".
  • Wade, Mark. "Encyclopedia Astronautica".
  • Webb, Brian. "Southwest Space Archive".
  • Zak, Anatoly. "Russian Space Web".
  • "ISS Calendar". Spaceflight 101.
  • "NSSDCA Master Catalog". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • "Space Calendar". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  • "Space Information Center". JAXA.
  • "Хроника освоения космоса" [Chronicle of space exploration]. CosmoWorld (in Russian).
Generic references:

Footnotes

  1. McDowell, Jonathan. "R-7". Orbital and Suborbital Launch Database. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  2. Krebs, Gunter. "Zenit-4M (Rotor, 11F691)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  3. McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  4. McDowell, Jonathan. "R-12". Orbital and Suborbital Launch Database. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  5. Krebs, Gunter. "Meteor-1". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  6. McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  7. Krebs, Gunter. "Zenit-2M (Gektor, 11F690)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  8. McDowell, Jonathan. "R-14". Orbital and Suborbital Launch Database. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  9. McDowell, Jonathan. "R-36". Orbital and Suborbital Launch Database. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
  10. Wade, Mark. "Kosmos 11K63". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  11. Krebs, Gunter. "Tselina-D (11F619, Ikar)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  12. Krebs, Gunter. "Tselina-D (11F619, Ikar)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  13. McDowell, Jonathan. "Proton". Orbital and Suborbital Launch Database. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  14. Anikeev, Alexander. "Spacecraft "Soyuz-10"". Manned Astronautics: Figures and Facts. Archived from the original on 4 September 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  15. Wade, Mark. "Mars M-71". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 18 June 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  16. Anikeev, Alexander. "Spacecraft "Soyuz-11"". Manned Astronautics: Figures and Facts. Archived from the original on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  17. Krebs, Gunter. "Voskhod (11A57)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
  18. The Hexagon Story (PDF), US National Reconnaissance Office, archived from the original (PDF) on 1 September 2012, retrieved 4 June 2012
  19. The Hexagon Story (PDF), US National Reconnaissance Office, archived from the original (PDF) on 1 September 2012, retrieved 4 June 2012
  20. Perry, Robert (November 1973), A History of Satellite Reconnaissance (PDF), IIIB, US National Reconnaissance Office, archived from the original (PDF) on 16 September 2012, retrieved 4 June 2012
  21. Wade, Mark. "Molniya-1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  22. Wade, Mark. "Luna Ye-8-5". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  23. Wade, Mark. "Molniya-2". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 2 June 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  24. Wade, Mark. "Molniya-2". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 2 June 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  25. "Apollo 14 Timeline". NASA. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  26. "Apollo 14 Surface Operations Overview". Lunar and Planetary Institute. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  27. "Apollo 15 Timeline". NASA. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  28. "Apollo 15 Surface Operations Overview". Lunar and Planetary Institute. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
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