1969 in spaceflight

1969 saw humanity step onto another world for the first time. On 21 July 1969, the Apollo 11 Lunar Module, Eagle, landed on the moon's surface with two astronauts aboard. Days later the crew of three returned safely to Earth, satisfying U.S. President John F. Kennedy's 1962 challenge of 25 May 1961, that "this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth."[1][2]

1969 in spaceflight
Humanity's first manned lunar landing
National firsts
Satellite
Rockets
Maiden flights
Retirements
Crewed flights
Orbital9
Total travellers22

There were four Apollo missions in total in 1969, three of which traveled to the moon, with Apollo 12 also landing on the surface. The success of the Apollo program was a testament to the efforts of over 500,000 American engineers, scientists and technicians.

In 1969, the Soviet Union's space program had success with the docking of two manned spacecraft as well as the success of their Venus and Lunar probes. The Soviets, however, suffered severe blows to their manned Lunar aspirations when their N1 rocket failed twice during two 1969 launches.

Orbital launches

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January

5 January
06:28[3]
Molniya-M/Blok VL Baikonur Site 1/5
Venera 5 Heliocentric Venus lander16 May 1969Successful
Lander operated for 53 minutes in the atmosphere of Venus.
10 January
05:51[3]
Molniya-M/Blok-VL Baikonur Site 1/5
Venera 6 Heliocentric Venus lander17 May 1969Successful
Lander operated for 51 minutes in the atmosphere of Venus.
12 January
12:10[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 263 (Zenit-2) Low Earth Optical imaging20 January 1969[5]Successful
14 January
07:30
Soyuz Baikonur LC-31 RVSN
Soyuz 4 RVSN Low Earth Manned orbital flight17 January 1969Successful
First docking between two manned spacecraft (with Soyuz 5)
14 January
07:04
Soyuz Baikonur LC-1/5 RVSN
Soyuz 5 RVSN Low Earth Manned orbital flightIn orbitSuccessful
First docking between two manned spacecraft (with Soyuz 4)
20 January
04:14[6]
Proton-K/D Baikonur Site 81/23
Soyuz 7K-L1 (Zond-1969A) Selenocentric Test flight20 January 1969Failure
One of the RD-0210 engines in the second stage failed, resulting in automatic shutdown of the vehicle. Capsule was successfully recovered after successful launch abort.
22 January
16:48[7]
Delta C1 Cape Canaveral SLC-17
OSO 5 NASA Low Earth Astronomy2 April 1984[5]Successful
22 January
16:48[8]
Titan IIIB Vandenberg SLC-4W
OPS 7585 (GAMBIT-3 4319) NRO Low Earth Optical imaging3 February 1969[5]Partial failure
Apogee was too high as the Agena rocket stage failed to switch off at a correct time.[9]
23 January
09:15[6]
Voskhod Baikonur Site 1/5
Kosmos 264 (Zenit-4M) Low Earth Optical imaging5 February 1969[5]Successful
23 January
09:15[6]
Tsyklon-2A Baikonur Site 90/19
Kosmos 265 (US-AO No.5) Low Earth Naval surveillance23 January 1969Failure
30 January
06:46[8]
Delta E1 Vandenberg SLC-2E
ISIS 1 CSA Medium Earth ScienceIn orbitSuccessful

February

1 February
12:11[4]
Vostok-2M Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 265 (Meteor-1) RVSN Low Earth Meteorology1 February 1969Failure
5 February
06:46[8]
Thorad-SLV2G-Agena-D Vandenberg SLC-3W
KH-4B 6 (OPS 3890) CIA Low Earth Optical imaging24 February 1969[5]Successful
P-801 2 (OPS 2644) USAF Low Earth ReconnaissanceIn orbitSuccessful
6 February
00:39[7]
Delta M Cape Canaveral SLC-17A NASA
Intelsat III F-3 Intelsat Geostationary CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
7 February
13:59[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk Site 133/1
Kosmos 265 (DS-P1-Yu No.21) RVSN Low Earth Radar calibration1 May 1969[5]Successful
9 February
21:09[7]
Titan IIIC Cape Canaveral SLC-41
TACSAT-1 (OPS 0757) USAF Geostationary CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
19 February
06:48[6]
Proton-K/D Baikonur Site 81/24
Luna 15a + Lunokhod 1A (Ye-8 №201) Selenocentric Lunar lander and rover19 February 1969Failure
Engine failure in the first stage, rocket crashed 15 km from the pad.
21 February
09:18
N1/L3 Baikonur LC-110/38 RVSN
Zond L1S-1 RVSN Selenocentric Test flight21 FebruaryFailure
Dummy LK RVSN Selenocentric Mass simulator21 FebruaryFailure
25 February
01:29[7]
Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D Cape Canaveral LC-36
Mariner 6 NASA Heliocentric Mars flybyIn orbitSuccessful
25 February
10:20[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 266 (Zenit-2) Low Earth Optical imaging5 March 1969[5]Successful
26 February
07:47[7]
Delta E1 Cape Canaveral LC-17B
ESSA-9 ESSA Low Earth (SSO) MeteorologyIn orbitSuccessful
26 February
08:30[6]
Voskhod Baikonur Site 31/6
Kosmos 267 (Zenit-4) Low Earth Optical imaging6 March 1969[5]Successful

March

3 March
16:00
Saturn V KSC LC-39A NASA
Apollo 9 CSM Gumdrop NASA Low Earth Manned orbital flight13 March 1969Successful
Apollo 9 LM Spider NASA Low Earth Test flight13 March 1969Successful
First manned orbital test of lunar module
4 March
16:48[8]
Titan IIIB Vandenberg SLC-4W
KH-8 Gambit 3 (OPS 4248) USAF Low Earth Optical imaging18 March 1969[5]Successful
Apogee was too high as the Agena rocket stage failed to switch off at a correct time.[9]
5 March
13:04[10]
Kosmos-2I Kapustin Yar Site 86/4
Kosmos 268 (DS-P1-Yu No.18) Low Earth Radar calibration9 May 1970[5]Successful
5 March
17:25[4]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132/2
Kosmos 269 (Tselina-O-4) Low Earth ELINT21 October 1978[5]Successful
6 March
12:15[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 270 (Zenit-4 No.52) Low Earth Optical imaging14 March 1969[5]Successful
15 March
12:15[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 271 (Zenit-4 No.53) Low Earth Optical imaging23 March 1969[5]Successful
17 March
17:25[4]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132/2
Kosmos 272 (Sfera No.4) Low Earth GeodesyIn orbitSuccessful
18 March
07:40[8]
Atlas F-OV1 Vandenberg ABRES-A2
OV1-17 USAF Low Earth Technology demonstration5 March 1970[5]Successful
OV1-17A ORBISCAL USAF Low Earth Technology demonstration24 March 1969[5]Successful
OV1-18 USAF Low Earth Technology demonstration28 August 1972[5]Successful
OV1-19 USAF Low Earth Technology demonstrationIn orbitSuccessful
19 March
21:38[8]
Thorad-SLV2G-Agena-D Vandenberg SLC-3W
KH-4A 50 (OPS 3722) CIA Low Earth Optical imaging24 March 1969[5]Successful
P-11 (OPS 2285) USAF Low Earth Reconnaissance6 December 1971[5]Successful
22 March
12:15[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 273 (Zenit-2 No.72) Low Earth Optical imaging30 March 1969[5]Successful
24 March
10:10[6]
Voskhod Baikonur Site 31/6
Kosmos 274 (Zenit-4 No.54) Low Earth Optical imaging1 April 1969[5]Successful
26 March
12:30[4]
Vostok-2M Plesetsk Site 41/1
Meteor-1 1 Low Earth Meteorology26 March 2012Successful
27 March
10:40[6]
Proton-K/D Baikonur Site 81/23
Mars 2M No.521 Areocentric Mars orbiter27 March 1969Failure
Payload fairing failed at T+51. Third stage failed to ignite.
27 March
22:22[7]
Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D Cape Canaveral LC-36A
Mariner 7 NASA Heliocentric Mars flybyIn orbitSuccessful
28 March
16:00[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk Site 133/1
Kosmos 275 (DS-P1-I No.5) RVSN Low Earth Radar calibration7 February 1970[5]Successful

April

2 April
10:33[6]
Proton-K/D Baikonur Site 81/24
Mars 2M No.522 Areocentric Mars orbiter and lander2 April 1969Failure
Rocket crashed near pad after 1st stage engine failure.
4 April
10:20[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 276 (Zenit-4 No.55) Low Earth Optical imaging11 April 1969[5]Successful
4 April
13:00[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk Site 133/1
Kosmos 277 (DS-P1-Yu No.20) Low Earth Radar calibration6 July 1969[5]Successful
9 April
13:00[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 278 (Zenit-2 No.73) Low Earth Optical imaging17 April 1969[5]Successful
11 April
02:30[6]
Molniya-M/Blok ML Baikonur Site 1/5
Molniya-1 No.11 Molniya Communications17 April 1974Successful
13 April
02:24[7]
Atlas-SLV3A Agena-D Cape Canaveral LC-13
Canyon 2 (OPS 3148) NRO Geostationary ReconnaissanceIn orbitSuccessful
14 April
07:54[8]
Thorad-SLV2G-Agena-D Vandenberg SLC-2E
Nimbus 3 NASA, NOAA Low Earth MeteorologyIn orbitSuccessful
SECOR-13 US Army Low Earth GeodesyIn orbitSuccessful
15 April
08:14[6]
Voskhod Baikonur Site 31/6
Kosmos 279 (Zenit-4 No.56) Low Earth Optical imaging23 April 1969[5]Successful
15 April
17:30[8]
Titan IIIB Vandenberg SLC-4W
KH-8 Gambit 3 (OPS 5310) USAF Low Earth Optical imaging30 April 1969[5]Successful
23 April
09:55[6]
Voskhod Baikonur Site 1/5
Kosmos 280 (Zenit-4M No.3) Low Earth Optical imaging6 May 1969[5]Successful

May

2 May
01:46[8]
Thorad-SLV2G-Agena-D Vandenberg SLC-3W
KH-4A 51 (OPS 1101) CIA Low Earth Optical imaging23 May 1969[5]Successful
P-11 (OPS 1721) USAF Low Earth Reconnaissance16 February 1970[5]Successful
13 May
09:15[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 281 (Zenit-2 No.74) Low Earth Optical imaging21 May 1969[5]Successful
18 May
16:49
Saturn V KSC LC-39B NASA
Apollo 10 CSM Charlie Brown NASA Selenocentric Manned Lunar orbital flight26 May 1969Successful
Apollo 10 LM Snoopy NASA Selenocentric Test flightIn orbitSuccessful
First test of lunar module in lunar orbit. "Dress rehearsal" of Apollo 11 landing.
20 May
08:40[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 282 (Zenit-4 No.57) Low Earth Optical imaging28 May 1969[5]Successful
22 May
02:00[7]
Delta M Cape Canaveral LC-17A NASA
Intelsat III F-4 Intelsat Geostationary CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
23 May
07:57[7]
Titan IIIC Cape Canaveral SLC-41
Vela 9, 10 USAF High Earth Nuclear detectionIn orbitSuccessful
OV5 5, 6, 9 USAF High Earth Technology demonstrationIn orbitSuccessful
27 May
12:59[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk Site 133/1
Kosmos 283 (DS-P1-Yu No.21) Low Earth Radar calibration10 December 1969[5]Successful
29 May
06:59[6]
Voskhod Baikonur Site 31/6
Kosmos 284 (Zenit-4 No.58) Low Earth Optical imaging6 June 1969[5]Successful

June

3 June
12:57[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk Site 133/1
Kosmos 285 (DS-P1-Yu No.22) Low Earth Radar calibration7 October 1969[5]Successful
3 June
16:49[8]
Titan IIIB Vandenberg SLC-4W
KH-8 Gambit 3 (OPS 1077) USAF Low Earth Optical imaging14 June 1969[5]Successful
5 June
14:42[8]
Thorad-SLV2H Agena-D Vandenberg SLC-3W
OGO 6 NASA Low Earth Research12 October 1979[5]Successful
14 June
04:00[6]
Proton-K/D Baikonur Site 81/24
Luna E-8-5 No. 402 Selenocentric Lunar sample return14 June 1969Failure
Blok D upper stage failed to ignite, thus leaving the payload on a suborbital trajectory.
15 June
08:59[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 286 (Zenit-4 No.59) Low Earth Optical imaging23 June 1969[5]Successful
21 June
08:47[8]
Delta E1 Vandenberg SLC-2W
Explorer 41 (IMP-G) NASA Highly elliptical Magnetospheric researchIn orbitSuccessful
24 June
06:50[6]
Voskhod Baikonur Site 31/6
Kosmos 287 (Zenit-2 No.75) Low Earth Optical imaging2 July 1969[5]Successful
27 June
06:59[6]
Voskhod Baikonur Site 1/5
Kosmos 288 (Zenit-4 No.60) Low Earth Optical imaging5 July 1969[5]Successful
29 June
03:15[7]
Delta N Cape Canaveral LC-17A
Biosat 3 NASA Low Earth Life science7 July 1969[5]Successful

July

2 July
07:04
Europa-1 Woomera LA-6A ELDO
STV-2 ELDO Test flight2 July 1969Failure
3 July
20:18
N1/L3 Baikonur LC-110/38
Zond L1S-2 Selenocentric Test flight3 July 1969Failure
Dummy LK Selenocentric Mass simulator3 July 1969Failure
Exploded due to faulty engines and a bolt that was sucked into a fuel pump.
10 July
09:00[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 289 (Zenit-4 No.61) Low Earth Optical imaging15 July 1969[5]Successful
13 July
02:54[6]
Proton-K/D Baikonur Site 81/24
Luna 15 (Ye-8-5 №401) Selenocentric Lunar sample return20 July 1969Success
Lander crashed to the surface of the Moon in an attempted landing.
16 July
13:32
Saturn V KSC LC-39A NASA
Apollo 11 CSM Columbia NASA Selenocentric Manned Lunar orbital flight24 July 1969Successful
Apollo 11 LM Eagle NASA Selenocentric Manned Lunar landingIn orbitSuccessful
First manned Moon landing.
22 July
12:30[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 290 (Zenit-2 No.76) Low Earth Optical imaging30 July 1969[5]Successful
22 July
12:55[6]
Molniya-M/Blok ML Baikonur Site 1/5
Molniya-1 No.12 Molniya Communications18 June 1971[5]Successful
23 July
04:39[8]
Thor-LV2F Burner-2 Vandenberg SLC-10W
DSAP-4B F3 (OPS 1127) USAF, NRO Low Earth MeteorologyIn orbitSuccessful
23 July
09:00[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk Site 133/1
DS-P1-Yu No.23 Low Earth Radar calibration23 July 1969Failure
Second stage failed at T+267 seconds.
24 July
01:30[8]
Thorad-SLV2H-Agena-D Vandenberg SLC-3W
KH-4B 7 (OPS 3654) CIA Low Earth Optical imaging23 August 1969[5]Successful
26 July
02:06[7]
Delta M Cape Canaveral LC-17A
Intelsat III F-5 Intelsat Geostationary Communications14 October 1988[5]Failure
Third stage failure left the spacecraft in an unusable orbit.
31 July
10:19[8]
Thorad-SLV2G-Agena-D Vandenberg SLC-1W
Strawman-2 (OPS 8285) USAF Low Earth ELINT4 January 1973[5]Successful

August

6 August
05:40[6]
Tsyklon-2 Baikonur Site 90/19
Kosmos 291 (IS-GVM) Low Earth Mass simulator8 September 1969Successful
First test flight of Tsyklon-2 booster. Flew with a dummy payload planned to be used as an ASAT target but the ASAT interceptor test flight was later cancelled.
7 August
23:48[6]
Proton-K/D Baikonur Site 81/23
Zond 7 High Earth Lunar flyby13 August 1969Successful
The only successful test flight of Soyuz 7K-L1 spacecraft. Circumlunar flight, perilune 1,984 km.
9 August
07:52[7]
Delta N Cape Canaveral LC-17A
OSO 6 NASA Low Earth Solar observatory7 March 1981[5]Successful
PAC 1 NASA Low Earth Technology demonstration28 April 1977[5]Successful
12 August
11:01[7]
Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D Cape Canaveral LC-36A
ATS-5 NASA Geosynchronous CommunicationsIn orbitSuccessful
13 August
22:00[4]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132/2
Kosmos 292 (Zaliv No.3) Low Earth NavigationIn orbitSuccessful
16 August
11:59[6]
Voskhod Baikonur Site 31/6
Kosmos 293 (Zenit-2M No.4) / Nauka 5KS L.1 Low Earth Optical imaging28 August 1969[5]Successful
19 August
13:00[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 294 (Zenit-4 No.62) Low Earth Optical imaging27 August 1969[5]Successful
22 August
14:14[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk Site 133/1
Kosmos 295 (DS-P1-Yu No.24) Low Earth Radar calibration1 December 1969[5]Successful
23 August
16:00[8]
Titan IIIB Vandenberg SLC-4W
KH-8 Gambit 3 (OPS 7807) USAF Low Earth Optical imaging7 September 1969[5]Successful
27 August
21:59[7]
Delta L Cape Canaveral LC-17A
Pioneer E NASA Heliocentric Solar orbiter27 August 1969Failure
TETR 3 NASA Low Earth orbit Technology demonstration27 August 1969Failure
First flight of Delta L rocket. First stage hydraulics failure threw the second stage far off course and the vehicle was destroyed by range safety at T+383 seconds.
29 August
09:05[6]
Voskhod Baikonur Site 31/6
Kosmos 296 (Zenit-4 No.63) Low Earth Optical imaging6 September 1969[5]Successful

September

2 September
11:00[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 297 (Zenit-4 No.64) Low Earth Optical imaging10 September 1969[5]Successful
15 September
08:40[6]
R-36O Baikonur Site 191/66
Kosmos 298 (OGCh No.21) Low Earth Weapon test15 September 1969[5]Successful
18 September
08:40[6]
Voskhod Baikonur Site 31/6
Kosmos 299 (Zenit-4 No.65) Low Earth Optical imaging22 September 1969[5]Successful
22 September
02:10[11]
Lambda 4S Kagoshima L ISAS
Ōsumi-4 ISAS Low Earth Test flight22 September 1969Failure
22 September
21:11[8]
Thorad-SLV2G-Agena-D Vandenberg SLC-3W
KH-4A 52 (OPS 3531) CIA Low Earth Optical imaging13 October 1969[5]Successful
P-11 (OPS 4710) USAF Low Earth Reconnaissance16 May 1971[5]Successful
23 September
14:07[6]
Proton-K/D Baikonur Site 81/24
Kosmos 300 (Luna 16a, Ye-8-5 №403) Selenocentric Lunar sample return27 September 1969[5]Failure
Blok D stage failed due to valve defect and the probe failed to leave Earth orbit.
24 September
12:15[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 301 (Zenit-2 No.77) Low Earth Optical imaging2 October 1969[5]Successful
30 September
13:40[8]
Thorad-SLV2G-Agena-D Vandenberg SLC-3W
Poppy 8A-D (NRL-PL 161-164) NRL/US Navy Low Earth ELINTIn orbitSuccessful
NRL-PL 165 NRL/US Navy Low Earth Technology demonstrationIn orbitSuccessful
Timation-2 NRL/US Navy Low Earth NavigationIn orbitSuccessful
Tempsat 2 NRL Low Earth CalibrationIn orbitSuccessful
SOICAL Cone & Cylinder USAF Low Earth CalibrationIn orbitSuccessful
P-11 (OPS 7613) USAF Low Earth ReconnaissanceIn orbitSuccessful

October

1 October
22:29[8]
Scout-B Vandenberg SLC-5
ESRO 1B ESRO Low Earth ResearchIn orbitPartial failure
Orbit was lower than planned.
6 October
01:45[4]
Vostok-2M Plesetsk Site 41/1
Meteor-1 2 Low Earth Meteorology20 August 2002[5]Successful
11 October
11:10
Soyuz Baikonur LC-31/6 RVSN
Soyuz 6 RVSN Low Earth Manned orbital flight16 October 1969Partial failure
Rendezvous with Soyuz 7 and 8 unsuccessful due to electronic failure.
12 October
10:44
Soyuz Baikonur LC-1/5 RVSN
Soyuz 7 RVSN Low Earth Manned orbital flight16 October 1969Partial failure
Rendezvous with Soyuz 6 and 8 unsuccessful due to electronic failure.
13 October
10:19
Soyuz Baikonur LC-31/6 RVSN
Soyuz 8 RVSN Low Earth Manned orbital flight16 October 1969Partial failure
Rendezvous with Soyuz 6 and 7 unsuccessful due to electronic failure.
14 October[12] Kosmos-2I Plesetsk Site 133/1
Interkosmos 1 (DS-U3-IK No.1) Interkosmos Low Earth Solar research2 January 1970[5]Successful
17 October
11:45[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 302 (Zenit-4 No.66) Low Earth Optical imaging25 October 1969[5]Successful
18 October
10:00[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk Site 133/1
Kosmos 303 (DS-P1-Yu No.25) Low Earth Radar calibration23 January 1970[5]Successful
21 October
12:49[4]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132
Kosmos 304 (Zaliv No.4) Low Earth NavigationIn orbitSuccessful
22 October
14:09[6]
Proton-K/D Baikonur Site 81/24
Kosmos 305 (Luna 16b, Ye-8-5 №404) Selenocentric Lunar sample returnIn orbitFailure
Control system of the Blok D stage failed and the probe failed to leave Earth orbit.
24 October
09:40[6]
Voskhod Baikonur Site 1/5
Kosmos 306 (Zenit-2M No.5) Low Earth Optical imaging5 November 1969[5]Successful
24 October
13:01[10]
Kosmos-2I Kapustin Yar Site 86/4
Kosmos 307 (DS-P1-Yu No.26) Low Earth Radar calibration30 December 1970[5]Successful
24 October
18:10[8]
Titan IIIB Vandenberg SLC-4W
KH-8 Gambit 3 (OPS 8455) USAF Low Earth Optical imaging8 November 1969[5]Successful

November

4 November
11:59[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk Site 133/1
Kosmos 308 (DS-P1-I No.6) Low Earth Radar calibration4 January 1970[5]Successful
8 November
01:52[8]
Scout-B Vandenberg SLC-5
Azur BMWF/DLR Medium Earth Ionospheric researchIn orbitSuccessful
12 November
11:30[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 309 (Zenit-2 No.78) / Nauka 3KS L.1 Low Earth Optical imaging20 November 1969[5]Successful
14 November
16:22
Saturn V KSC LC-39A NASA
Apollo 12 CSM Yankee Clipper NASA Selenocentric Manned Lunar orbital flight24 November 1969Successful
Apollo 12 LM Intrepid NASA Selenocentric Manned Lunar landing20 November 1969Successful
Second manned Moon landing.
15 November
08:30[6]
Voskhod Baikonur Site 31/6
Kosmos 310 (Zenit-4 No.67) Low Earth Optical imaging23 November 1969[5]Successful
22 November
02:00[7]
Delta M Cape Canaveral LC-17A
Skynet 1A MoD Geostationary Communications (military)In orbitSuccessful
24 November
11:00[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk Site 133/1
Kosmos 311 (DS-P1-Yu No.27) Low Earth Radar calibration10 March 1970[5]Successful
24 November
16:49[4]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132
Kosmos 312 (Sfera No.5) Low Earth GeodesyIn orbitSuccessful
28 November
09:00[6]
Proton-K/D Baikonur Site 81/23
Soyuz 7K-L1E Medium Earth Flight testIn orbitFailure
First stage failure

December

3 December
13:20[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 313 (Zenit-2M No.6) / Gektor No.6 Low Earth Optical imaging15 December 1969[5]Successful
4 December
21:37[8]
Thorad-SLV2H-Agena-D Vandenberg SLC-3W
KH-4B 8 (OPS 6617) CIA Low Earth Optical imaging10 January 1970[5]Successful
11 December
12:58[4]
Kosmos-2I Plesetsk Site 133/1
Kosmos 314 (DS-P1-Yu No.28) Low Earth Radar calibration22 March 1970[5]Successful
20 December
03:26[4]
Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132
Kosmos 315 (Tselina-O No.5) Low Earth ELINT25 March 1979[5]Successful
23 December
09:25[6]
Tsyklon-2 Baikonur Site 90/19
Kosmos 316 (I2P No.3) Low Earth Dummy ASAT warhead28 August 1970[5]Successful
23 December
13:50[4]
Voskhod Plesetsk Site 41/1
Kosmos 317 (Zenit-4MK No.1 / Germes No.1) Low Earth Optical imaging5 January 1970[5]Successful
25 December
09:59[10]
Kosmos-2I Kapustin Yar Site 86/4
Interkosmos 2 (DS-U1-IK No.1) Interkosmos Low Earth Ionosphere research7 June 1970[5]Successful
27 December[4] Kosmos-3M Plesetsk Site 132
Ionosfernaya No.1 Low Earth Ionosphere researchIn orbitFailure

Suborbital flights

Deep-space rendezvous

Date (GMT) Spacecraft Event Remarks
16 May Venera 5 Atmospheric entry in Venus Atmospheric probe worked for 53 min in the Venerian atmosphere
17 May Venera 6 Atmospheric entry in Venus Atmospheric probe worked for 51 min in the Venerian atmosphere
21 May Apollo 10 31 orbits around the Moon Altitude ~15,4 km
20 July Apollo 11 Moon landing 22 kg from Mare Tranquillitatis (sample return mission)
21 July Luna 15 Moon impact Impacted at Mare Crisium (sample return mission). Primary mission failed.
5 August Mariner 6 Flyby of Mars Periapsis: 3,412 km. 25 close-up pictures.
5 August Mariner 7 Flyby of Mars Periapsis: 3,543 km. 33 close-up pictures.
11 August Zond 7 Circumlunar flight Periapsis: 1,984 km.
19 November Apollo 12 Moon landing 34 kg from Oceanus Procellarum (sample return mission)

Extravehicular activities (EVAs)

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Remarks

Orbital launch statistics

By country

Country Launches Successes Failures Partial
failures
Remarks
 Europe1010
 Japan1010
 Soviet Union8268140
 United States413722
World125105182

By rocket

By family

Family Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Atlas United States5500
Blue Streak Europe1010
Kosmos Soviet Union222020
Lambda Japan1010
N-1 Soviet Union2020First flight
R-7 Soviet Union444310
R-36 Soviet Union4310
Saturn United States4400
Scout United States2101
Thor United States222020
Titan United States8701
Universal Rocket Soviet Union10280

By type

Rocket Country Family Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Atlas-Agena United StatesAtlas1100
Atlas-Centaur United StatesAtlas3300
Atlas E/F United StatesAtlas1100
Delta United StatesThor11920
Europa EuropeBlue Streak1010
Kosmos-2 Soviet UnionKosmos151410
Kosmos-3 Soviet UnionKosmos7610
Lambda 4 JapanLambda1010
Molniya Soviet UnionR-74400
N-1 Soviet UnionN-12020First flight
Proton Soviet UnionUniversal Rocket10280
R-36 Soviet UnionR-361100
Saturn V United StatesSaturn4400
Scout United StatesScout2101
Soyuz Soviet UnionR-7373700
Thor-Burner United StatesThor1100
Thorad-Agena United StatesThor101000
Titan III United StatesTitan8701
Tsyklon Soviet UnionR-363210
Vostok Soviet UnionR-73210

By configuration

By spaceport

Site Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Baikonur Soviet Union3827110
Cape Canaveral United States151320
Kapustin Yar Soviet Union3300
Kennedy United States4400
Plesetsk Soviet Union413830
Kagoshima Japan1010
Vandenberg United States222002
Woomera Australia1010

By orbit

Orbital regime Launches Achieved Not Achieved Accidentally
Achieved
Remarks
Low Earth858131
Geosynchronous / transfer7610
Medium Earth3210
High Earth14770including highly elliptical and Molniya orbits and Trans Lunar trajectories
Heliocentric7430

Notes

    References

    1. Howard E. McCurdy, et al. "Helpful Lessons From The Space Race." Issues In Science & Technology 27.4 (2011): 19-22. Academic Search Premier. Web. 23 Oct. 2013.
    2. "Excerpt from the 'Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs'" NASA. 24 May 2004. 24 May 2015. <https://www.nasa.gov/vision/space/features/jfk_speech_text.html#.VWIGJ0_tmkp>.
    3. Wade, Mark. "Venera". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    4. Wade, Mark. "Plesetsk". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    5. McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    6. Wade, Mark. "Baikonur". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    7. Wade, Mark. "Cape Canaveral". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    8. Wade, Mark. "Vandenberg". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    9. Krebs, Gunter. "KH-8 Gambit-3 (Block 1)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    10. Wade, Mark. "Kapustin Yar". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    11. Wade, Mark. "Lambda 4S". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    12. Krebs, Gunter. "Interkosmos 1, 4, 7, 11, (14) 16 (DS-U3-IK)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
    13. Wade, Mark. "Kiruna". Retrieved 29 October 2017.
    14. Wade, Mark. "Woomera". Retrieved 29 October 2017.
    15. Wade, Mark. "Veronique". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    16. Wade, Mark. "Andoya". Retrieved 29 October 2017.
    17. Wade, Mark. "Terrier Sandhawk". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    18. Wade, Mark. "Rigel". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    19. Wade, Mark. "Sandhawk Tomahawk". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    20. Wade, Mark. "Terrier Tomahawk". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    21. Wade, Mark. "Black Arrow". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    22. Wade, Mark. "Salto di Quirra". Retrieved 29 October 2017.
    23. Wade, Mark. "HAD". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    24. Wade, Mark. "Aero High". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    25. Wade, Mark. "Vesta". Retrieved 19 October 2017.
    Generic references:


    Preceded by
    1968
    Timeline of spaceflight
    1969
    Succeeded by
    1970
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