1891 in Australia
- Governor of New South Wales – Victor Child Villiers, 7th Earl of Jersey
- Governor of Queensland – Henry Wylie Norman
- Governor of South Australia – Algernon Keith-Falconer, 9th Earl of Kintore
- Governor of Tasmania – Robert Hamilton
- Governor of Victoria – John Hope, 1st Marquess of Linlithgow
- Governor of Western Australia – William C. F. Robinson
- 5 January - The 1891 Australian shearers' strike begins, which leads to the formation of the Australian Labor Party.
- 13 April - Howard Moffat founds newspaper Daily Commercial News, which runs for 108 years before merging with Lloyd's List Australia Weekly to form Lloyd's List DCN.
- 17 June - The Labor party first entered the New South Wales Legislative Assembly with 35 members elected.
- 9 October - The ceremonial mace is stolen from Victoria's Parliament House, Melbourne.
- Malvolio wins the Melbourne Cup