1860 United States Census

The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States starting June 1, 1860, and lasting five months. It determined the population of the United States to be 31,443,322, in 33 states and 10 organized territories. This was an increase of 35.4 percent over the 23,191,876 persons enumerated during the 1850 Census. The total population included 3,953,762 slaves.

1860 United States Census
1860 US Census from the state of New York
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenJune 1, 1860 (1860-06-01)
Total population31,443,321
Percent change 35.4%

By the time the 1860 census returns were ready for tabulation, the nation was sinking into the American Civil War. As a result, Census Superintendent Joseph C. G. Kennedy and his staff produced only an abbreviated set of public reports, without graphic or cartographic representations. The statistics did allow the Census staff to produce a cartographic display, including preparing maps of Southern states, for Union field commanders. These maps displayed militarily vital topics, including the white population, slave population, predominant agricultural products (by county), and rail and post road transportation routes.

This census saw Philadelphia regain its position as a second-most populous American city, which it had lost to Baltimore in 1820. Philadelphia would in turn permanently lose the position to Chicago in 1890.

Census questions

The 1860 census Schedule 1 (Free Inhabitants) was one of two schedules that counted the population of the United States; the other was Schedule 2 (Slave Inhabitants). Schedule 1 collected the following information:[1]

Column Title Notes
1Dwelling-houses—numbered in the order of visitation.
2Families numbered in the order of visitation
3The name of every person whose usual place of abode on the first date of June 1860, was in this family.
4Description: Age.
5Description: Sex.M or F
6Description: Color, (White, black, or mulatto).W, B or M
7Profession, Occupation, or Trade of each person, male and female, over 15 years of age.
8Value of Estate Owned: Value of Real Estate.
9Value of Estate Owned: Value of Personal Estate.
10Place of Birth, Naming the State, Territory, or Country.
11Married within the year.Marked with '/'
12Attended School within the year.Marked with '/'
13Persons over 20 years of age who can not read and write.Marked with '/'
14Whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane, idiotic, pauper, or convict.

Data availability

Full documentation for the 1860 population census, including microdata, census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS). Aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.

Common occupations

National data reveals that farmers (owners and tenants) made up nearly 10% of utilized occupations. Farm laborers (wage workers) represent the next highest percent with 3.2%, followed by general laborers at 3.0%.[2]

More localized data shows that other occupations were common. In the town of Essex, Massachusetts, a large section of the women in the labor force were devoted to shoe-binding, while for men the common occupations were farming and shoe-making.[3] This heavy demand of shoe-related labor reinforces the high demand for rigorous physical laborers in the economy, as supported by the data of very large amounts of farm related work as compared to most other labor options.

IPUMS' data also notes that the share of the population that had been enrolled in school or marked as "Student" stood at 0.2%. This demonstrates a small rate of growth, if any, in the proficiency of the human capital of the timethe skill set a worker has to apply to the labor force, which can increase total output through increased efficiency.

The census of 1860 was the last in which much of Southern wealth was held as slavesstill legally considered property. Analogous to today where wealth can fluctuate with value changes in stocks, factories, and other forms of property, the South suffered a huge loss of total wealth and assets when the American Civil War ended and slaves were no longer counted as physical property.

Population of US States and Territories

Population of the US States and Territories[4][5][6]
RankNamePopulationFree PopulationSlave Population
01New York3,880,7353,880,7350
02Pennsylvania2,906,2152,906,2150
03Ohio2,339,5112,339,5110
04Illinois1,711,9511,711,9510
05Virginia1,596,3181,105,453490,865
06Indiana1,350,4281,350,4280
07Massachusetts1,231,0661,231,0660
08Missouri1,182,0121,067,081114,931
09Kentucky1,155,684930,201225,483
10Tennessee1,109,801834,082275,719
11Georgia1,057,286595,088462,198
12North Carolina992,622661,563331,059
13Alabama964,201529,121435,080
14Mississippi791,305354,674436,631
15Wisconsin775,881775,8810
16Michigan749,113749,1130
17Louisiana708,002376,276331,726
18South Carolina703,708301,302402,406
19Maryland687,049599,86087,189
20Iowa674,913674,9130
21New Jersey672,035672,0350
22Maine628,279628,2790
23Texas604,215421,649182,566
24Connecticut460,147460,1470
25Arkansas435,450324,335111,115
26California379,994379,9940
27New Hampshire326,064326,0730
28Vermont315,098315,0980
29Rhode Island174,620174,6200
30Minnesota172,023172,0230
31Florida140,42478,67961,745
32Delaware112,216110,4181,798
33Oregon52,46552,4650
XKansas Territory[7]107,206107,2042
XNew Mexico Territory93,51493,5140[8]
XDistrict of Columbia75,08071,9853,185
XUtah Territory40,27340,18489
XColorado Territory34,27734,2770
XNebraska Territory28,84128,82615
XWashington Territory11,59411,5940
XNevada Territory6,8486,8570
XDakota Territory4,8374,8370

City rankings

RankCityStatePopulation[9]Region (2016)[10]
01New YorkNew York813,669Northeast
02PhiladelphiaPennsylvania565,529Northeast
03BrooklynNew York266,661Northeast
04BaltimoreMaryland212,418South
05BostonMassachusetts177,840Northeast
06New OrleansLouisiana168,675South
07CincinnatiOhio161,044Midwest
08St. LouisMissouri160,773Midwest
09ChicagoIllinois112,172Midwest
10BuffaloNew York81,129Northeast
11NewarkNew Jersey71,941Northeast
12LouisvilleKentucky68,033South
13AlbanyNew York62,367Northeast
14WashingtonDistrict of Columbia61,122South
15San FranciscoCalifornia56,802West
16ProvidenceRhode Island50,666Northeast
17PittsburghPennsylvania49,221Northeast
18RochesterNew York48,204Northeast
19DetroitMichigan45,619Midwest
20MilwaukeeWisconsin45,246Midwest
21ClevelandOhio43,417Midwest
22CharlestonSouth Carolina40,522South
23New HavenConnecticut39,267Northeast
24TroyNew York39,235Northeast
25RichmondVirginia37,910South
26LowellMassachusetts36,827Northeast
27MobileAlabama29,258South
28Jersey CityNew Jersey29,226Northeast
29AlleghenyPennsylvania28,702Northeast
30SyracuseNew York28,119Northeast
31HartfordConnecticut26,917Northeast
32PortlandMaine26,341Northeast
33CambridgeMassachusetts26,060Northeast
34RoxburyMassachusetts25,137Northeast
35CharlestownMassachusetts25,065Northeast
36WorcesterMassachusetts24,960Northeast
37ReadingPennsylvania23,162Northeast
38MemphisTennessee22,623South
39UticaNew York22,529Northeast
40New BedfordMassachusetts22,300Northeast
41SavannahGeorgia22,292South
42SalemMassachusetts22,252Northeast
43WilmingtonDelaware21,258South
44ManchesterNew Hampshire20,107Northeast
45DaytonOhio20,081Midwest
46PatersonNew Jersey19,586Northeast
47LynnMassachusetts19,083Northeast
48IndianapolisIndiana18,611Midwest
49ColumbusOhio18,554Midwest
50PetersburgVirginia18,266South
51LawrenceMassachusetts17,639Northeast
52LancasterPennsylvania17,603Northeast
53TrentonNew Jersey17,228Northeast
54NashvilleTennessee16,988South
55OswegoNew York16,816Northeast
56CovingtonKentucky16,471South
57BangorMaine16,407Northeast
58TauntonMassachusetts15,376Northeast
59SpringfieldMassachusetts15,199Northeast
60PoughkeepsieNew York14,726Northeast
61NorfolkVirginia14,620South
62CamdenNew Jersey14,358Northeast
63WheelingVirginia14,083South
64NorwichConnecticut14,048Northeast
65PeoriaIllinois14,045Midwest
66Fall RiverMassachusetts14,026Northeast
67SacramentoCalifornia13,785West
68ToledoOhio13,768Midwest
69QuincyIllinois13,718Midwest
70HarrisburgPennsylvania13,405Northeast
71NewburyportMassachusetts13,401Northeast
72ChelseaMassachusetts13,395Northeast
73DubuqueIowa13,000Midwest
74AlexandriaVirginia12,652South
75New AlbanyIndiana12,647Midwest
76NewburghNew York12,578Northeast
77AugustaGeorgia12,493South
78BridgeportConnecticut12,106Northeast
79North ProvidenceRhode Island11,818Northeast
80ElizabethNew Jersey11,567Northeast
81EvansvilleIndiana11,484Midwest
82DavenportIowa11,267Midwest
83New BrunswickNew Jersey11,256Northeast
84AuburnNew York10,986Northeast
85GloucesterMassachusetts10,904Northeast
86ConcordNew Hampshire10,896Northeast
87LockportNew York10,871Northeast
88NewportRhode Island10,508Northeast
89Saint PaulMinnesota10,401Midwest
90New LondonConnecticut10,115Northeast
91NashuaNew Hampshire10,065Northeast
92NewportKentucky10,046South
93WaterburyConnecticut10,004Northeast
94HaverhillMassachusetts9,995Northeast
95DorchesterMassachusetts9,769Northeast
96HobokenNew Jersey9,662Northeast
97ColumbusGeorgia9,621South
98SchenectadyNew York9,579Northeast
99AtlantaGeorgia9,554South
100WilmingtonNorth Carolina9,552South

See also

Notes

  1. "1860 Census Questionnaire" (PDF). US Census Bureau. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
  2. "IPUMS 1860 Census Data". IPUMS Data Collection. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
  3. Wilhelm, Kurt. "Essex, MA Census 1860". 1860 Federal Census. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved February 27, 2011.
  4. Data tabulated by "1860 Census Results". The Civil War Home Page. Retrieved October 7, 2019.
  5. Population figures checked against "1860 Census: Population of the United States". Random Acts of Geneological Kindness. Retrieved October 7, 2019.
  6. "1860 Census: Population of the United States". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 7, 2019. Used as a source for slavery figures for territories (which were not included in the original source.
  7. Kansas is admitted as a state in 1861, prior to the publication of the 1860 Census in 1864, and therefore listed as a state not a territory in the 1860 Census.
  8. Slavery was banned in New Mexico in 1862. No data for slavery in 1860 is provided in the 1860 Census, which was published in 1864.
  9. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  10. "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
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