1854 in Australia
- Governor of New South Wales – Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy
- Governor of South Australia – Sir Henry Young (term ended 20 December)
- Lieutenant-Governor of Van Diemen's Land – Sir William Denison
- Lieutenant-Governor of Victoria – Charles La Trobe (until 5 May), then Sir Charles Hotham (from 22 June)
- Governor of Western Australia as a Crown Colony – Captain Charles Fitzgerald
This was a year of intense political agitation by miners on the Victorian goldfields.
- 3 March – The first telegraph line in the southern hemisphere begins operating in Victoria.
- 4 July – Anti-Chinese riots occur in Victoria.
- 5 July – The Mercury was first published in Hobart.
- 17 October – The Melbourne daily newspaper The Age was first published.
- 29 November – The Eureka Flag was flown for the first time during the Eureka Stockade rebellion in Ballarat.
- 3 December – battle suppressing the rebellion at Eureka Stockade
Exploration and settlement
- 24 March – Henry Lefroy, 11th Premier of Western Australia (died 1930)
- 12 April – William Maloney, politician (died 1940)
- 20 May – George Prendergast, 28th Premier of Victoria (died 1937)
- 25 June – Andrew Lang Petrie, politician (died 1928)
- 18 October – Billy Murdoch, cricketer (died 1911)
- December – Ned Kelly, bushranger (died 1880)
- 12 December – Edward Wittenoom, politician (died 1936)
- McGowan, Samuel Walker (1829–1887), Australian Dictionary of Biography.