1823 in Australia
- Monarch - George IV
- The British Government, with the New South Wales Judicature Act, establishes the first Legislative Council in Australia, an advisory body of five appointed citizens. The Governor, Thomas Brisbane, has power of veto.
- 15 February – Surveyor James McBrien at the Fish River near Bathurst discovers gold. It is the first known report of gold, though it is not made public, the Australian gold rushes do not begin until 1851.
- 11 December – Richmond Bridge, the oldest bridge in Australia still in use, had its foundation stone laid.
Exploration and settlement
Arts and literature
- William Charles Wentworth publishes the first book of Australian verse, Australasia: A Poem, in London.
- Cameron, Angus, ed. (1985). "Part One: Facts and Figures: An Australian Historical Chronology". The Australian Almanac: 800 Pages Crammed with Australian and World Facts: Politics, the Arts, Geography, History and Much More. North Ryde, NSW: Angus & Robertson. p. 8. ISBN 0-207-15108-3.
- Munday, Rosemary, ed. (1991). "How Australia Began: Significant Dates in Australian History". The Bulletin Australian Almanac & Book of Facts 1992. Sydney: Australian Consolidated Press. p. 2. ISSN 1038-054X.