1810 United States Census

The United States Census of 1810 was the third Census conducted in the United States. It was conducted on August 6, 1810. It showed that 7,239,881 people were living in the United States, of which 1,191,362 were slaves.

1810 United States Census
A page of the 1810 United States Census
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenAugust 6, 1810 (1810-08-06)
Total population7,239,881

The 1810 Census included one new state: Ohio. The original census returns for the District of Columbia, Georgia, Mississippi, New Jersey, and Ohio were lost or destroyed over the years.[1] Most of Tennessee's original forms were also lost, other than Grainger and Rutherford counties.[2]

This was the first census in which New York was ranked as the most populous state. It would occupy this spot for the next fifteen censuses, before being overtaken by California in 1970. This would also be the last census until 1860 in which Philadelphia was ranked as the second-most populous city.

Census questions

The 1810 Census form contained the following information (identical to the 1800 census):

  1. City or township
  2. Name of the head of family
  3. Number of free white males under age 10
  4. Number of free white males age 10-15
  5. Number of free white males age 16-25
  6. Number of free white males age 26-44
  7. Number of free white males age 45 and over
  8. Number of free white females under age 10
  9. Number of free white females age 10-15
  10. Number of free white females age 16-25
  11. Number of free white females age 26-44
  12. Number of free white females age 45 and over
  13. Number of all other free persons
  14. Number of slaves

Note to researchers

Census taking was not yet an exact science. Before 1830, enumerators lacked pre-printed forms, and some drew up their own, resulting in pages without headings. Some enumerators did not tally their results. As a result, census records for many towns before 1830 are idiosyncratic. This is not to suggest that they are less reliable than subsequent censuses, but that they may require more work on the part of the researcher.

Data availability

No microdata from the 1810 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.

State rankings

RankStatePopulation
01New York959,049
02Virginia877,683
03Pennsylvania810,091
04North Carolina556,526
05Massachusetts472,040
06South Carolina415,115
07Kentucky406,511
08Maryland380,546
09Connecticut262,042
10Tennessee261,727
11Georgia251,407
12New Jersey245,555
13Ohio230,760
XMaine [3]228,705
14Vermont217,713
15New Hampshire214,360
XWest Virginia [4]105,469
16Rhode Island76,931
XLouisiana76,556
17Delaware72,674
XMississippi31,306
XIndiana24,520
XMissouri19,783
XDistrict of Columbia [5]15,471
XIllinois12,282
XAlabama9,046
XMichigan4,762
XArkansas1,062

City rankings

RankCityStatePopulation[6]Region (2016)[7]
01New YorkNew York96,373Northeast
02PhiladelphiaPennsylvania53,722Northeast
03BaltimoreMaryland46,555South
04BostonMassachusetts33,787Northeast
05CharlestonSouth Carolina24,711South
06Northern LibertiesPennsylvania19,874Northeast
07New OrleansLouisiana17,242South
08SouthwarkPennsylvania13,707Northeast
09SalemMassachusetts12,613Northeast
10AlbanyNew York10,762Northeast
11ProvidenceRhode Island10,071Northeast
12RichmondVirginia9,735South
13NorfolkVirginia9,193South
14WashingtonDistrict of Columbia8,208South
15NewportRhode Island7,907Northeast
16NewburyportMassachusetts7,634Northeast
17AlexandriaDistrict of Columbia7,227South
18PortlandMaine7,169Northeast
19PortsmouthNew Hampshire6,934Northeast
20NantucketMassachusetts6,807Northeast
21GloucesterMassachusetts5,943Northeast
22SchenectadyNew York5,903Northeast
23MarbleheadMassachusetts5,900Northeast
24New HavenConnecticut5,772Northeast
25PetersburgVirginia5,668South
26New BedfordMassachusetts5,651Northeast
27LancasterPennsylvania5,405Northeast
28SavannahGeorgia5,215South
29CharlestownMassachusetts4,959Northeast
30GeorgetownDistrict of Columbia4,948South
31PittsburghPennsylvania4,768Northeast
32BeverlyMassachusetts4,608Northeast
33BrooklynNew York4,402Northeast
34MiddleboroughMassachusetts4,400Northeast
35LexingtonKentucky4,326South
36PlymouthMassachusetts4,228Northeast
37LynnMassachusetts4,087Northeast
38HudsonNew York4,048Northeast
39HartfordConnecticut3,955Northeast
40ReadingPennsylvania3,462Northeast
41New LondonConnecticut3,238Northeast
42TrentonNew Jersey3,002Northeast
43ElizabethNew Jersey2,977Northeast
44NorwichConnecticut2,976Northeast
45YorkPennsylvania2,847Northeast
46CincinnatiOhio2,540Midwest

References

  1. Dollarhide, William (2001). The Census Book: A Genealogists Guide to Federal Census Facts, Schedules and Indexes. North Salt Lake, Utah: HeritageQuest. p. 8.
  2. "Tennessee Census Availability at TSLA and Online". March 5, 2013. Archived from the original on January 23, 2014. Retrieved December 28, 2013.
  3. Between 1790 and 1820, the District of Maine was part of the state of Massachusetts.
  4. Between 1790 and 1860, the state of West Virginia was part of Virginia; the data for each states reflect the present-day boundaries.
  5. The District of Columbia is not a state but was created with the passage of the Residence Act of 1790. The territory that formed that federal capital was originally donated by both Maryland and Virginia; however, the Virginia portion was returned by Congress in 1846.
  6. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  7. "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.


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