1801 in Australia
- Monarch - George III
- 14 September – John Macarthur takes part in a duel with his commanding officer, Lieutenant Colonel William Paterson. Paterson is severely wounded in the shoulder, and Macarthur is arrested the next day. Governor King offers to release him on Norfolk Island but Macarthur refuses and is sent to England to be court martialled.
- The schooner Cumberland (28 tons) is launched in Sydney. The vessel was purchased by the government and became the first armed vessel belonging to the colony.
Exploration and settlement
- January – Brig Harbinger, under John Black, is the second vessel to sail through Bass Strait en route to Port Jackson.
- 27 May – The French cartographic expedition of Nicolas Baudin sights Cape Hamelin.
- 6 December – Matthew Flinders reaches Cape Leeuwin on HMS Investigator and proceeds to make a survey along the southern coast of the Australian mainland.
- 8 June – Thomas Vasse, French sailor
- Shaw, A. G. L. "King, Philip Gidley (1758–1808)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "14 Sep 1801 - John Macarthur arrested after a duel". www.records.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Lachlan and Elizabeth Macquarie Archive: Biographical Register". www.mq.edu.au. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- John Ross (general editor) (1993) Chronicle of Australia, Melbourne, Chronicle Australia, p.115. ISBN 1-872031-83-8
- "The National Archives". discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Flinders, Matthew (2010). A Voyage to Terra Australis: Undertaken for the Purpose of Completing the Discovery of that Vast Country, and Prosecuted in the Years 1801, 1802, and 1803. Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN 9781108018180.
- Design, UBC Web. "Baudin Expedition". monumentaustralia.org.au. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Matthew Flinders (1774-1814)". www.slsa.sa.gov.au. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- Brown, P. L. "Batman, John (1801–1839)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Library POWAnet Pages". www.parliament.wa.gov.au. Retrieved 5 April 2018.