14th century

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was a century lasting from January 1, 1301, to December 31, 1400. It is estimated that the century witnessed the death of more than 45 million lives. During this period, political and natural disasters were observed in both Europe and the Mongol Empire, but the Islamic world's West Africa and Indian Subcontinent witnessed the rise of economic growth and prosperity.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Timelines:
State leaders:
Decades:
Categories: Births – Deaths
Establishments – Disestablishments

In Europe, the Black Death claimed 25 million lives wiping out one third of European society [1] while the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France fought in the protracted Hundred Years' War after the death of Charles IV, King of France led to a claim to the French throne by Edward III, King of England. This period is considered the height of chivalry and marks the beginning of strong separate identities for both England and France.

In Asia, Tamerlane or Timur, established the Timurid Empire, a major Islamic territory in the Middle East and Central Asia and history's third largest empire to have been ever established by a single conqueror, similar to his ancestor Genghis Khan's Mongol Empire. Scholars estimate that Timur's military campaigns caused the deaths of 17 million people, amounting to about 5% of the world population at the time. In India, the Islamic Bengal Sultanate was founded, a major trading nation in the world, described by the Europeans as the richest country to trade with,[2] after its independence from the Delhi Sultanate. The Mongol court was driven out of China and retreated to Mongolia, the Ilkhanate collapsed, the Chaghatayid dissolved and broke into two parts, and the Golden Horde lost its position as a great power in Eastern Europe.

In Africa, the wealthy Mali Empire, a global leader of gold production, reached its territorial and economic height under the reign of Mansa Musa I of Mali, the wealthiest individual of the medieval times, and according to various sources as history's ever.[3][4]

Events

1300s

1310s

1320s

1330s

1340s

1350s

1360s

1370s

1380s

1390s

Significant people

Artists

Architects

  • Filippo Brunelleschi, Italian architect and engineer
  • Henry Yevele, prominent English architect responsible for the building of many important structures in London (1320-1400)

Literary figures

Monarchs

Africa
  • Mansa Musa (d. 1337), King of the Mali Empire. During his reign Mali was the source of almost half the world's gold.
  • Amda Seyon I (13141344), Emperor of Ethiopia. Consolidated the power of his domain beyond the Ethiopian highlands, initiating a long era of Christian proselytization and integration of peripheral areas
Asia
Europe and Near East

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

References

  1. Black Death, Encyclopaedia Britannica
  2. Nanda, J. N (2005). Bengal: the unique state. Concept Publishing Company. p. 10. 2005. ISBN 978-81-8069-149-2. Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.
  3. Thad Morgan, "This 14th-Century African Emperor Remains the Richest Person in History" Archived 2019-05-01 at the Wayback Machine, History.com, March 19, 2018
  4. Davidson, Jacob (July 30, 2015). "The 10 Richest People of All Time". Time. Archived from the original on August 24, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
  5. Macdonnel, Arthur Anthony (1900). " Sanskrit Literature and the West.". A History of Sanskrit Literature. New York: D. Appleton and Co. p. 420.
  6. Ricklefs (1991), page 18
  7. Kern, J.H.C., (1907), De wij-inscriptie op het Amoghapāça-beeld van Padang Candi(Batang Hari-districten); 1269 Çaka, Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde.
  8. Drs. R. Soekmono; et al. (1988) [1973]. Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed (5th reprint ed.). Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. p. 72.
  9. Richardson, Douglas, Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, Md., 2004, p.23, ISBN 0-8063-1750-7
  10. Pound lock
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