120mm 45 caliber Pattern 1892

The 120mm 45 caliber Pattern 1892 was a Russian naval gun developed in the years before the Russo-Japanese War that armed a variety of warships of the Imperial Russian Navy during the Russo-Japanese War and World War I. Guns salvaged from scrapped ships found a second life on river gunboats of the Soviet Navy during the Russian Civil War and as coastal artillery and railway artillery during World War II.[2] It was estimated that in 1941 there were 35 still in service.[2]

120mm 45 caliber Pattern 1892
120mm 45 caliber Pattern 1892 gun on Kuivasaari Island.
TypeNaval gun
Coastal artillery
Railway artillery
Place of originFrance
Service history
In service1897-1945
Used byRussian Empire
Soviet Union
Finland
Japan
WarsBoxer Rebellion
Russo-Japanese War
World War I
Russian Civil War
Winter War
World War II
Production history
DesignerCanet
Designed1891
ManufacturerObukhov
Perm
Produced1897
Specifications
Mass2.95 t (3.25 short tons)
Length5.4 m (17 ft 9 in)
Barrel length4.2 m (13 ft 9 in)

ShellFixed QF ammunition
Shell weight20.4 kg (45 lb)
Caliber120 mm (4.7 in) 45 caliber
Elevation-7° to +20°
Rate of fire12-15 rpm
Muzzle velocity823 m/s (2,700 ft/s)
Maximum firing range11.8 km (7.3 mi) at +20°[1]

History

In 1891 a Russian naval delegation was shown three guns designed by the French designer Canet. One was a 75/50 gun, one was a 120/45 gun, and the last was a 152/45 gun. All three guns used fixed QF ammunition which produced a rate of fire of 15 rpm for the 75/50 gun, 12 rpm for the 120/45 gun and 10 rpm for the 152/45 gun. The Russians were impressed and in 1892 they negotiated a production license for all three guns.[1]

Construction

There were two main series of the 120/45 guns produced. The first series of 76 guns were built between 1897-1905 at the Obhukov factory.[1] During the Russo-Japanese war a number of barrels of the 152/45 guns burst in action and a strengthened series of 152/45 and 120/45 guns were ordered. 34 of the second series of strengthened guns were built between 1905-1915 at the Obhukov factory. Between 1914-1916 production switched to the Perm factory and a further 18 strengthened guns were produced there.[1]

120/45 guns armed a variety of ships such as armored cruisers, auxiliary cruisers, coastal defense ships, destroyers, gunboats, minesweepers, pre-dreadnought battleships, protected cruisers, seaplane tenders and unprotected cruisers of the Imperial Russian Navy built between 1890-1916.[3]

Armored Cruisers

  • Dmitriy Donskoi-class - The secondary armament of Dmitrii Donskoi consisted of ten, 120/45 guns, in single mounts after an 1895 refit.[4] The secondary armament of Vladimir Monomakh consisted of six, 120/45 guns, in single mounts after an 1897 refit.[5]
  • Rurik - The tertiary armament of this ship consisted of six, 120/45 guns, in single mounts.[6]

Auxiliary Cruisers

  • Angara - The primary armament of this ship consisted of six, shielded, 120/45 guns.
  • Dnepr - The primary armament of this ship consisted of seven, shielded, 120/45 guns.
  • Don - The primary armament of this ship consisted of two, shielded, 120/45 guns.
  • Lena - The primary armament of this ship consisted of six, shielded, 120/45 guns.
  • Kuban - The primary armament of this ship consisted of two, shielded, 120/45 guns.
  • Oryol - The primary armament of this ship consisted of two, shielded, 120/45 guns.[7]
  • Rion - The primary armament of this ship consisted of eight, shielded, 120/45 guns.
  • Terek - The primary armament of this ship consisted of two, shielded, 120/45 guns.
  • Ural - The primary armament of this ship consisted of two, shielded, 120/45 guns.[8]

Coastal defense ships

Destroyers

Gunboats

  • Gilyak - The primary armament of this ship consisted of one, forward, shielded, 120/45 gun.[11]
  • Gilyak-class - The primary armament of this class of four ships consisted of two, shielded, 120/45 guns, in single mounts, fore and aft.[12]
  • Korietz-class - Four ships of this class the Donets, Kubanets, Terets and Uralets had a tertiary armament of one, 120/45 gun, after 1905-1921 refits.[13]
  • Vogul-class - The primary armament of this ship consisted of two, shielded, 120/45 guns, in single mounts, fore and aft.[14]

Minesweepers

  • Sofiya - This ships primary armament consisted of one, 120/45 gun, in a forward single mount.[15]
  • Amur-class - This class of two ships primary armament consisted of five 120/45 guns, in single mounts.[16]

Pre-dreadnought Battleships

  • Andrei Pervozvanny-class - This class of two ships tertiary armament consisted of twelve, casemated, 120/45 guns, in single mounts. Four guns were in the bow, four in the stern and four amidships.[17]
  • Sissoi Veliky - This ships tertiary armament consisted of four, 120/45 guns, in single mounts after a 1904 refit.[18]
  • Tri Sviatitelia - This ships tertiary armament consisted of four, 120/45 guns, in single mounts.[19]
  • Navarin - This ships tertiary armament consisted of four, 120/45 guns, in single mounts after a 1904 refit.[20]

Protected Cruisers

  • Boyarin - The primary armament of this ship consisted of six, shielded, 120/45 guns, in single mounts. One each at the bow and stern and four in sponsons amidships.[21]
  • Izumrud-class - This class of two ships primary armament consisted of six, 120/45 guns, in single mounts.[22]
  • Novik - The primary armament of this ship consisted of six, 120/45 guns, in single mounts.[23]

Seaplane Tenders

  • Imperator Aleksandr I - The primary armament of this ship consisted of six, 120/45 guns, in single mounts.
  • Imperator Nikolay I - The primary armament of this ship consisted of six, 120/45 guns, in single mounts.[24]

Unprotected Cruisers

  • Almaz - The primary armament of this ship consisted of seven, 120/45 guns, in single mounts after a 1915 refit.[25]

Ammunition

Ammunition was of fixed QF type. A complete round weighed 20.4 kg (45 lb).[1]

The gun was able to fire:

References

  • Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7.

Notes

  1. Friedman, Norman (2011-01-01). Naval weapons of World War One. Seaforth. ISBN 9781848321007. OCLC 786178793.
  2. DiGiulian, Tony. "Russia / USSR 120 mm/45 (4.7") Pattern 1892 - NavWeaps". www.navweaps.com. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  3. "FR RU 4.7in 12cm 45cal 1892 QF Single". navalhistory.flixco.info.
  4. "DMITRIY DONSKOY semi-armoured frigate (1885) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-06.
  5. "VLADIMIR MONOMAKH semi-armoured frigate (1883) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-06.
  6. "RIURIK 1st class cruiser (1895) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-06.
  7. "armed merchant cruisers of WWI - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  8. "armed merchant cruisers of Russian-Japanese war 1904 - 1905 - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  9. "ADMIRAL USHAKOV coast defence battleships (1897 - 1899) - Imperial Russian Navy". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  10. "Лейтенант Шестаков <Leytenant Shestakov> destroyers (1909) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  11. "GILYAK gunboat (1899) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  12. "GILYAK gunboats (1907 - 1908) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  13. "Кубанец <Kubanets> gunboats (1887 - 1889) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  14. "Вогул <Vogul> river gunboats (1909) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  15. "minesweepers of WWI - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  16. "Амур <Amur> minelayers (1909) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
  17. "Андрей Первозванный <Andrey Pervozvannyy> battleships (1912) - Imperial Russian Navy / Soviet Navy (Russia / USSR)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  18. "SISOY VELIKIY battleship (1896) - Imperial Russian Navy". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-06.
  19. "TRI SVYATITELYA turret ship (1897) - Imperial Russian Navy". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-06.
  20. "NAVARIN turret ship (1896) - Imperial Russian Navy". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  21. "BOYARIN 2nd class cruiser (1902) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  22. "ZHEMCHUG 2nd class cruisers (1904) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  23. "NOVIK 2nd class cruiser (1901) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  24. "seaplane carriers of WWI - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  25. "ALMAZ 2nd class cruiser (1903) - Imperial Russian Navy (Russia)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.