It was located in the province of Western Finland and was part of the Pirkanmaa region. The municipality had a population of 5,457 in 2005 and covered an area of 571.26 km² of which 99.90 km² was water. The population density was 10.5 inhabitants per km². The work force mainly consisted of industry and service, these accounting for 50 and 39 percent of total workforce. Population was estimated to be at a slight decline.
The Kolho village in Vilppula is located to the north. Another village, Pohjaslahti, is located northwest from the Vilppula centre. These continue to exist as villages of the new Mänttä-Vilppula municipality.