USS Scourge (1812)
USS Scourge was an American warship converted from a confiscated Canadian merchant schooner. She foundered along with the American warship Hamilton during a squall on Lake Ontario at 2:00am on Sunday, August 8, 1813,. during the War of 1812.
Sail plan of the USS Scourge.
|Launched:||Niagara-on-the-Lake, Upper Canada, May 1, 1811|
|Fate:||Illegally seized by US Navy|
|Acquired:||by custom seizure, June 9, 1812|
|Fate:||Sunk in squall, August 8, 1813|
|Notes:||42 lost; 8 saved|
|Tonnage:||110 long tons (112 t)|
|Complement:||45 to 50|
Scourge began its career as the schooner Lord Nelson, named after the famous British Admiral Horatio Nelson. The schooner was built at Niagara-on-the-Lake in Upper Canada for merchant James Crooks and launched on May 1, 1811 as an unarmed merchant schooner to carry freight between Upper Canadian ports. The US Navy illegally seized Lord Nelson on June 9, 1812, almost two weeks before the War of 1812, on suspicion of smuggling. The schooner was on a voyage from Prescott, Upper Canada to Niagara, Upper Canada (then known as Newark) carrying freight and personal luggage when Lt. Melancthon T. Woolsey, captain of the American warship USS Oneida, detained her. Woolsey accused Lord Nelson's master of smuggling American goods in violation of the Embargo Act of 1807, which forbid trading between the United States and British colonies. The schooner was taken to the US naval base at Sackets Harbor, New York. Although there was no proof of smuggling and the schooner's owner James Crooks immediately went to Sackets Harbour to dispute the seizure, the onset of war prevented the return of his vessel.
The schooner was commissioned into the US Navy at Sackets Harbor, where it was renamed USS Scourge. For naval service it was armed with four 6-pounder cannons, four 4-pounder cannons and fitted with bulwarks. The schooner was placed in Captain Isaac Chauncey's squadron and patrolled Lake Ontario during the War of 1812.
About 84 men perished when the Hamilton and Scourge sank during a sudden squall off-shore from Fourteen Mile Creek, east of present-day Hamilton, Ontario around 2:00 am on Sunday August 8, 1813. Scourge was under the command of Sailing Master Joseph Osgood. According to a Letter of August 1813 after both ships were lost, sixteen members of the crew survived. A survivor of the Scourge, Ned Myers, told his story to James Fenimore Cooper. According to Myers about eight men from the Scourge were saved, and about 42 were lost.
The site of the sunken ships was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1976. The Ontario Heritage Act was amended in 2005 to provide special protection to the shipwrecks of the Hamilton, the Scourge, and the SS Edmund Fitzgerald because of their historical and cultural significance and because they contain human remains.
After the war, the schooner's original owner James Crooks, resumed his claim for the schooner. On July 11, 1817, the Court of Northern District of New York, determined that the vessel had been seized illegally. Despite the court's decision, compensation to the Crooks family was not paid because the funds had been embezzled by the clerk of the court. Crook's descendants, persisted and finally won compensation for the schooner 97-years-later in 1914, thanks to the determination of Henry James Bethune. The award was $5000, plus 93 years of interest. Total compensation came to $23,644.38, reduced to $15,546.63 after deduction of legal expenses, and was paid by the United States government to the 25 descendants of James Crooks.
- Mr. Joseph Osgood - Sailing Master - lost in storm.
- Mr. Osgood's Steward - a mulatto from Martinique - survived the storm
- Mr. Bogardus - Master's mate - survived the storm
- Unnamed ships pilot - survived the storm
- William Deer - Boatswain - lost in storm
- George Turnblatt - Gunner, possibly a native of Sweden - lost in the storm
- Lemuel Bryant - previously wounded at York - survived the storm
- Ebenezer Duffy - a mulatto and the Ship's Cook - survived the storm
- Tom Goldsmith - survived the storm
- Simeon Grant - left the ship before the storm after losing a hand in an accident
- James Lawson - Seaman - lost in storm
- Leonard Lewis - survived the storm
- Mr. Livingston - left the ship before the storm
- Ned Myers - survived the storm
- Philips - a black powder-boy - lost in storm
- Bill Southard - lost in storm
- Lt. Sanford Thompson -
- The Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships reports armaments as 1 × 32-pounder; 8 × short 12-pounders. See , but this is incorrect - this was actually the armament of the USS Hamilton; see Hamilton-Scourge website at
- The two schooners had spent all Saturday (August 7) chasing the enemy. An account of the sinking in the Buffalo Gazette on August 17, 1813 stated: "It is with deep regret that we record the following facts: about 2 o’clock on Sunday morning last, a most dreadful accident happened in Commodore Chauncey’s squadron off Forty Mile Creek on Lake Ontario; the schooners General Hamilton, Lieut. Winter, and Scourge, Sailing Master Osgood, were upset and lost…
- "History of the Ships Before the War", The Hamilton and the Scourge, National Historic Sites
- August 1813 letter by Capt. Chauncey reporting the loss of Hamilton and Scourge
- Survivor Ned Myers account of the sinking
- Hamilton and Scourge, Directory of Designations of National Historic Significance of Canada
- Hamilton and Scourge, National Register of Historic Places
- Blake, Erica (February 8, 2006). "Fitzgerald wreck site gets added protection". The Blade. Toledo, Ohio. Archived from the original on February 24, 2006. Retrieved March 6, 2011.
- HENRY JAMES BETHUNE (GREAT BRITAIN) v. UNITED STATES (Lord Nelson case. May 1, 1914. Pages 432-435.) https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:oypoVPNM9-AJ:untreaty.un.org/cod/riaa/cases/vol_VI/32-35_Henry.pdf+Henry+James+Bethune&hl=en&gl=ca&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESiFdc9MukHryadF7MrM0KdAh8kyEplO7pq_q__gVwW2kpnFCz78dFflAyu-x542abyrTGfbrW9OkdNAof-XdE1HlOm9sHcTUweSWdsPsa33wXcBDH58Hmo0v-HjREQFkk3H5Umx&sig=AHIEtbRwpl8af6r-BbKoSfk4QgZtSCN3VQ
- "James Crooks: Original Owner Before the War", The Hamilton and the Scourge, National Historic Sites
- Official US Navy record reports "Osgood, Joseph. Sailing Master, 3 July, 1813. Died 8 August, 1813." Continental and US Navy & Marine Corps 1775-1900 Naval History and Heritage Command. Accessed February 7, 2019
- Ned Myers Or a Life Before the Mast