Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt

The Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt is also known as the Bubastite Dynasty, since the pharaohs originally ruled from the city of Bubastis.[1] It was founded by Shoshenq I.

Egypt
945–720 BC
Common languagesEgyptian language
Religion
Ancient Egyptian Religion
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
Historical eraClassical antiquity
 Established
945
 Disestablished
720 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt

The Twenty-First, Twenty-Second, Twenty-Third, Twenty-Fourth, and Twenty-Fifth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group designation of the Third Intermediate Period.

22nd Dynasty rulers

The pharaohs of the Twenty-Second Dynasty were a series of Meshwesh ancient Libyans, who ruled from c. 943 BC until 716 BC. They had settled in Egypt since the Twentieth Dynasty. Manetho states that this Berber dynasty originated at Bubastis, but its rulers almost certainly governed from Tanis, which was their capital and the city where their tombs have been excavated.

Another pharaoh who belongs to this group is Tutkheperre Shoshenq. His period of rule within this dynasty is currently uncertain, although he is now thought to have governed Egypt early in the 9th century BC for a short time between Osorkon I and Takelot I. The next ruler at Tanis after Shoshenq V was Osorkon IV. This pharaoh is sometimes not believed to be a member of the 22nd Dynasty since he only controlled a small portion of Lower Egypt together with Tefnakhte of Saiswhose authority was recognised at Memphisand Iuput II of Leontopolis.

Pharaohs

The known rulers during the Twenty-Second Dynasty include:

Twenty-Second Dynasty pharaohs
PharaohThrone nameReign (BC)Consort(s)Comments
Shoshenq IHedjkheperre-Setepenre943–922 BCPatareshnes
Karomama A
Possibly to be identified with the biblical Shishak
Osorkon ISekhemkheperre-Setepenre922–887 BCMaatkare B
Tashedkhonsu
Shepensopdet A
Shoshenq IIHeqakheperre-Setepenre887–885 BCNesitanebetashru
Nesitaudjatakhet
Enjoyed an independent reign of two years at Tanis according to Von Beckerath
Takelot IHedjkheperre-Setepenre885–872 BCKapes
Osorkon IIUsermaatre-Setepenamun872–837 BCIsetemkheb G
Karomama B
Djedmutesankh
An ally of Israel who fought Shalmaneser III of Assyria at the battle of Qarqar in 853 BC.
Shoshenq IIIUsermaatre-Setepenre837–798 BCTadibast II
Tentamenopet
Djedbastiusankh
Shoshenq (IV)"quartus"Hedjkheperre-Setepenre798–785 BCNot to be confused with Shoshenq VI; the original Shoshenq IV in publications before 1993
PamiUsermaatre-Setepenamun785–778 BCBuried two Apis bulls in his reign
Shoshenq VAkheperre778–740 BCTadibast III?Successor of Shoshenq V was often stated as Osorkon IV;some say it is Pedubast II
Pedubast IISehetepibenre740–730 BCTadibast III?Not mentioned in all Pharaoh lists, placement disputed
Osorkon IVUsermaatre730–716 BCNot always listed as a true member of the XXII Dynasty, but succeeded Shoshenq V at Tanis. The biblical Pharaoh So.

Twenty-Third Dynasty

The so-called Twenty-Third Dynasty was an offshoot of this dynasty perhaps based in Upper Egypt, though there is much debate concerning this issue. All of its kings reigned in Middle and Upper Egypt including the Western Desert Oases.

See also

  • Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt Family Tree
  • Dynasties of ancient Egypt

References

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