Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt

The Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXI, alternatively 21st Dynasty or Dynasty 21) is usually classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period, lasting from 1069 BC to 945 BC.

1069 BC–945 BC
Common languagesEgyptian language
Ancient Egyptian Religion
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
Historical eraIron Age
1069 BC
945 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt


After the reign of Ramesses III, a long, slow decline of royal power in Egypt followed. The pharaohs of the Twenty-first Dynasty ruled from Tanis, but were mostly active only in Lower Egypt, which they controlled. This dynasty is described as 'Tanite' because its political capital was based at Tanis. Meanwhile, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes effectively ruled Middle and Upper Egypt in all but name. The later Egyptian Priest Manetho of Sebennytos states in his Epitome on Egyptian royal history that "the 21st Dynasty of Egypt lasted for 130 years".[1]

Pharaohs of the 21st Dynasty

Pharaoh ImageThrone name / PrenomenReignBurialConsort(s) Comments
Smendes / Nesbanebdjed I Hedjkheperre Setepenre1077 - 1051 BCunknownTentamun Only controlled Lower Egypt during his reign. Founder of the 21st Dynasty.
Amenemnisu Neferkare Heqawaset1051 - 1047 BCunknown
Psusennes I / Hor-Pasebakhaenniut I Akheperre Setepenamun1047 - 1001 BCNRT III, TanisMutnedjemet
Precise length of reign unknown. Either 41 or 46 years.
Amenemope Usermaatre Setepenamun1001 - 992 BCTanis
Osorkon the Elder Akheperre Setepenre992 - 986 BCunknown
Siamun Netjerkheperre Setepenamun986 - 967 BCunknown
Psusennes II / Hor-Pasebakhaenniut II Titkheperure Setepenre967 - 943 BCunknown

Timeline of the 21st Dynasty


  1. Kenneth A. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 BC), 3rd edition, 1986, Warminster: Aris & Phillips Ltd, p.531

Further reading

  • Jaroslav Černý, Studies in the Chronology of the Twenty-First Dynasty, JEA 32 (1946), 24-30

See also

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