Timeline of healthcare in Egypt
This is a timeline of healthcare in Egypt, focusing on modern healthcare system. Major events such as policies and organizations are included.
|<323 BC||Ancient Egypt is considered to be the first civilization to develop what today we call a healthcare system. Ancient Egyptians document their research and knowledge. Documented ancient Egyptian medical literature is among the oldest in existence today.|
|323 BC – 30 BC||Ptolemaic Kingdom. The Alexandria University is famous for medicine. Herophilus and Erasistratus are permitted to dissect living criminals. The practices of Egyptian medicine are studied by scholars from ancient Greece and are acknowledged by Hippocrates.|
|30 BC–641||Christian Egypt. During the Byzantine period, medicine is often impotent at remedying maladies, thus simple ailments have the potential to progress into fatalities. The cause of many illnesses is unknown, and they are sometimes attributed to the effects of the evil eye or to spells.|
|641–1517||Medieval Egypt. Medicine and disease in medieval Islam is approached through theoretical medical treatises. Also, Jewish physicians – in both Alexandria and Cairo – are a highlight of this period, mainly between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries, with Maimonides being one of the most renowned.|
|1517–1914||Early modern Egypt. Great advance is made after the brief French Occupation. After seizure of power by Muhammad Ali Pasha, Egypt enters a period of modernization along European lines. Modern secular education becomes the norm in the state expansionist program, especially in the medical school. France is seen as a model for development, and the French language becomes dominant in Academia and other public affairs.|
|1914–present||Development of the current structure of the health care system in Egypt during British occupation. Consummated after independence with the creation of the Egyptian Health Insurance Organization in 1964 under the administration of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, who adopts socialist economic policies.|
|Year/period||Type of event||Event||Location|
|2700 BC||Development||The earliest ever record of a physician is Hesy-Ra, "Chief of Dentists and Doctors" to King Dioser.|
|2400 BC||Development||The first female doctor in Ancient Egypt is probably Peseshet, known as the supervisor of all female doctors.|
|1700 BC||Development||Earliest evidence of diagnostic medicine in Egypt.|
|642||Background||Muslim conquest of Egypt.|
|872||Organization||Ahmad ibn Tulun Hospital is founded. The hospital provides free care for anyone who needs it, a policy based on the Muslim tradition of caring for all who are sick.|
|1517||Background||Egypt is absorbed into the Ottoman empire.|
|1827||Organization||Kasr El Aini Hospital (the first Egyptian medical school) is founded.||Abu Zaabal|
|1805||Background||Ottoman Albanian commander Muhammad Ali comes to power in Egypt and rules until 1952, although nominally part of the Ottoman Empire.|
|1836||Policy||French physician Antoine Clot is appointed head of the medical administration of Egypt. Clot establishes a hospital and schools for all branches of medical instruction in Egypt, as well as for the study of the French language.|
|1837||Policy||The Egyptian government reorganization, under the rule of Muhammad Ali determines to extend medical provisions like vaccination, public sanitation, hospitals, and clinics to the masses.|
|1839||Development||After the first generation of Egyptian doctors arrive from Paris with their doctorates in hand, all courses in medicine start to be conducted in Arabic.|
|1882||Background||Great Britain occupies Egypt.|
|1909||Policy||The earliest legislation pertaining to occupational health in Egypt is launched. It concerns the employment of children in cotton ginning factories. A number of Acts including sections dealing with health and welfare of factory workers follows.|
|1911||Organization||NGO Egyptian Red Crescent Society is founded, with main activities being providing health and medical services to those in need.|
|1914||Background||Egypt formally becomes a British protectorate.|
|1922||Political change||Fuad I of Egypt becomes King and Egypt gains independence, although British influence remains significant until mid-1950s.|
|1947||Organization||Ain Shams University Faculty of Medicine is founded.||Cairo|
|1950||Organization||Hassab Hospital is founded.||Alexandria|
|1952||Policy||Foundation of the Republic of Egypt. The new constitution pronounces free medical care as a basic right for all Egyptians.|
|1954||Organization||CARE International starts its operations in the poorest regions of Egypt.|
|1955||Policy||New law regulates use of herbal medicine in Egypt in the forms of prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, self-medication and dietary supplements.|
|1959||Policy||The first comprehensive "Labor Law" is adopted, by which employment of workers, employment conditions and agencies competent with occupational safety and health as well as penalty clauses are covered.|
|1964||Policy/Organization||The Health Insurance Organization (HIO) is established as a compulsory social insurance agency with the intention of eventually covering the whole Egyptian population. HIO imposes mandatory payroll contributions on all formal sector workers and their employers, and public pensioners. From 1965 to 1995, the number of beneficiaries increase from 140,000 to 5,851,549 (9.7% of the national population).|
|1964||Organization||Curative Care Organisation (CCO) is created following the nationalization of several private hospitals. CCO provides health care services to the public for a nominal charge.|
|1969||Organization||National Cancer Institute Egypt is founded.||Cairo|
|1975||Policy||Presidential Decree defines the mission and objectives of the Minister of Health providing that the Ministry’s main mission is to protect the health of all Egyptian citizens through preventive and curative services at a centralized level.|
|1975||Organization||The General Organisation for Teaching Hospitals and Institutes is founded. This organization currently regulates the nine teaching hospitals and nine medical institutes in Egypt.|
|1977||Organization||Theodor Bilharz Research Institute is founded.||Giza|
|1983||Organization||Shabrawishy Hospital Blood Bank is established.||Cairo|
|1985||Organization||Nile Badrawi Hospital is founded.||Cairo|
|1992||Organization||The Egyptian AIDS Society is established as an NGO in order to support national and international efforts to stop newly AIDS infections in Egypt.|
|1993||Policy||The Student Medical Insurance Program (SMIP) is introduced by the HIO. SMIP is financed by a mix of individual premiums paid by enrolled students, a special ear-marked cigarette tax, and a contribution from general revenues per child.|
|1993||Policy||Health insurance is expanded to cover 10 million schoolchildren.|
|1996||Report||Egypt is reported to have the highest body mass index in the world at 26.3.|
|1997||Policy||The government of Egypt launches the Health Sector Reform Program (HSRP) in order to address persistent needs in maternal and child health. The HSRP is introduced in a first phase in the pilot governorates of Alexandria, Menoufia and Sohag (1998-2004).|
|1999||Organization||Dar Al Fouad Hospital is founded.||Giza|
|1999||Policy||The Family Health Fund (FHF) is established according to ministerial decree. FHF is responsible for providing insurance coverage to beneficiaries through contracting and purchasing primary health care services from Family Health Units or Family Health Centers that are owned by the public sector.|
|1999||Organization||The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is the first donor to begin field-level operations in Egypt.|
|1999||Organization||International Eye Hospital Cairo is founded.||Cairo|
|2000||Organization||The Epidemiology and Disease Surveillance Unit (ESU) is established by ministerial decree with the purpose of identifying disease patterns and detecting changes in healthcare practice in Egypt.|
|2001–2002||Report||The Health Insurance Organization reaches coverage at around 45% of the total Egyptian population, and accounts for 10% of the total health spending, representing the second largest health financing organization after the Ministry of Finance.|
|2003||Policy||New law stipulates that the employer takes all necessary measures to ensure safety and health at the workplace. It also requires the medical examination of the worker before employment.|
|2003||Organization||The African Development Bank (ADB) initiates its work through designing Master Plans for some health districts in Egypt.|
|2003||Report||Survey by UNICEF says that 97 percent of married women in Egypt have undergone genital mutilation.|
|2004–2005||Policy||The Health Sector Reform Program (HSRP) is extended to Qena and Suez.|
|2006||Report||Study by the WHO indicates that air pollution, especially in Cairo and Alexandria, is a major source of chronic respiratory diseases in Egypt.|
|2006||Achievement||Egypt is declared free of poliomyelitis.|
|2007||Organization||Children Cancer Hospital 57357 is founded.||Cairo|
|2007||Policy||Egypt bans female circumcision.|
|2008||Organization||In response to Hepatitis C epidemic, the Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population launches a campaign with two major elements: education, where hospital staff is taught about infection control; and requirement for every hospital to have an infection control committee with clear authority to monitor the situation of the hospital.|
|2010||Crisis||Study estimates that more than half a million people in Egypt are newly infected by hepatitis C each year. While globally, roughly 1 person in 50 is infected with the virus, in Egypt, study finds a ratio at about one person in seven.|
|2014||Report||Around half of Egypt’s total population is served by the country’s public health care system, according to government and World Bank data. Around 72% of all health care costs are paid for out-of-pocket by patients and their families.|
|2014||Policy||A new constitution is approved by popular referendum, replacing the nation’s previous 2012 constitution. Article 18 of the new document guarantees the right to health and access to quality health care, in addition to mandating that the government allocate a minimum of 3% of GDP to health care expenditure.|
|2016||Organization||The first digital hospital in Egypt, a branch of the Children’s Cancer Hospital, is founded.|
|2016||Report||Life expectancy in Egypt is estimated at 73.94 years, being ranked 127th out of 228 political subdivisions.|
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