Tanba Province (丹波国 Tanba no kuni) was an old province of Japan. The ambit of its borders encompassed both the central part of modern Kyōto Prefecture and the east-central part of Hyōgo Prefecture. It and the neighbouring Tango Province were collectively known as Tanshū (丹州). Besides Tango, Tanba bordered on Harima, Ōmi, Settsu, Tajima, Wakasa, and Yamashiro Provinces.
The ancient provincial capital is believed to be in the area of modern Kameoka.
In the 3rd month of the 6th year of the Wadō era (713), Tango Province (丹後国) was administratively separated from Tanba. In that same year, Empress Genmei's Daijō-kan continued to organize other cadastral changes in the provincial map of the Nara period.
In Wadō 6, Mimasaka Province (美作国) was sundered from Bizen Province (備前国); and Hyūga Province (日向国) was divided from Ōsumi Province (大隈国). In Wadō 5 (712), Mutsu Province (陸奥国) had been severed from Dewa Province (出羽国).
After being governed by a succession of minor daimyō, the region was eventually conquered by Oda Nobunaga in the Sengoku period. He assigned the province to one of his generals, Akechi Mitsuhide, who would become the central figure in Nobunaga's assassination in 1582.
- Spelling note: A modified Hepburn romanization system for Japanese words is used throughout Western publications in a range of languages, including English. Unlike the standard system, the "n" is maintained even when followed by "homorganic consonants" (e.g., shinbun, not shimbun).
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Tanba" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 943, p. 943, at Google Books.
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, p. 64.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon (Nihon Ōdai Ichiran). Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691.