Tajima Province (但馬国 Tajima no Kuni) was an old province of Japan in the area that is today northern Hyōgo Prefecture. It was sometimes called Tanshū (但州). Tajima bordered on Harima, Inaba, Tanba, and Tango provinces.
Tajima is the birthplace of Kobe beef, known locally as Tajima beef. Also well known are its many onsens, beaches, and small ski resorts. Its main industries are forestry, fishing, farming, and tourism.
Two theories are given as to where the initial ancient provincial capital was; one is the remains of Hazaka in the former Izushi District (currently Toyooka), and the other is somewhere in the former Keta District (currently Toyooka). In 804, the capital was moved to Takada in the former Keta District.
For much of the Sengoku period, this area was ruled by the Yamana clan, who submitted to Oda Nobunaga. Tadashima Akiyama, a samurai, hailed from the province and dueled Miyamoto Musashi there. He was defeated by Musashi.
- Hyōgo Prefecture
- Asago District (朝来郡) - dissolved
- Futakata District (二方郡) - merged with Shitsumi District to become Mikata District (美方郡) on April 1, 1896
- Izushi District (出石郡) - dissolved
- Keta District (気多郡) - merged into Kinosaki District (along with Mikumi District) on April 1, 1896
- Kinosaki District (城崎郡) - absorbed Keta and Mikumi Districts on April 1, 1896; now dissolved
- Mikumi District (美含郡) - merged into Kinosaki District (along with Keta District) on April 1, 1896
- Shitsumi District (七美郡) - merged with Futakata District to become Mikata District on April 1, 1896
- Yabu District (養父郡) - dissolved