Taiwanese units of measurement
Taiwanese units of measurement (Chinese: 臺制, Taiwanese Hokkien: Tâi-chè, Hakka: Thòi-chṳ, Mandarin: Táizhì) are the customary and traditional units of measure used in Taiwan. The Taiwanese units formed in the 1900s when Taiwan was under Japanese rule. The system mainly refers to Japanese system with some units derived from the Qing era Chinese units and Dutch era Dutch units. The Taiwanese units are pronounced in Taiwanese Hokkien and Hakka before the World War II and adopted by the Mandarin speaking immigrants from China in 1949. Today, the Taiwanese units are used exclusively, in some cases alongside official metric (SI) units, and in other cases they have been supplanted by metric units. Linguistically, practically all Taiwanese units of measure are Chinese classifiers used to classify nouns.
Note that although the Taiwanese units have similar names to those in Chinese units of measurement and Hong Kong units of measurement, the standards are different from those used in China or Hong Kong.
Linear measure in Taiwan is largely metric but some units derived from traditional Japanese units of measurement remain in use as a legacy of Japanese rule.
|Metric||US & Imperial||Notes|
|Hun||Fûn||Fēn||分||1⁄100||1/ m||3.030 mm||125/ yd||0.1193 in||Same as Japanese Bu|
|Chhùn||Chhun||Cùn||寸||1⁄10||1/ m||3.030 cm||1250/ yd||1.193 in||Taiwanese inch; Same as Japanese Sun|
|Chhioh||Chhak||Chǐ||尺||1||10/ m||30.30 cm||12,500/ yd||11.93 in||Taiwanese foot; Same as Japanese Shaku|
|Tn̄g||Chhong||Zhàng||丈||10||100/ m||3.030 m||125,000/ yd||9 ft 11.3 in||Taiwanese fathom; Same as Japanese Jō|
Taiwanese length units and the translation of length units in Metric system (SI) shares the same character. The adjective Taiwanese (台) can be added to address the Taiwanese unis system. For example, 台尺 means Taiwanese foot and 公尺 means meter.
Unlike with other measures, area continues to be almost commonly measured with traditional units. Taiwanese units of area are derived from both traditional Dutch and Japanese measurements. The principal unit for measuring the floor space of an office or apartment is 坪 (Taiwanese Hokkien: pêⁿ , Hakka: phiàng, Mandarin: píng). The unit is derives from the Japanese tsubo, the base unit of the Japanese area. The principal unit of land measure is 甲 (Taiwanese Hokkien: kah, Hakka: kap, Mandarin: jiǎ). The unit is derived from the obsolete Dutch morgen, which was introduced during Taiwan's Dutch era. In the later era Kingdom of Tungning, 犁 (Taiwanese Hokkien: lê, Hakka: lài, Mandarin: lí) is defined to represent the area that could be farmed by one man with one ox and one plow in one day. Today, the rule for converting the two major units from two different sources is
|Unit||Pêⁿ||Kah||Metric||US & Imperial||Notes|
|Pêⁿ||Phiàng||Píng||坪||1||400/ m2||3.306 m2||625,000,000/ yd²||35.58 sq ft||Same as Japanese Tsubo|
|Bó͘||Méu||Mǔ||畝||30||12,000/ m2||99.17 m2||6,250,000,000/ yd²||1,067 sq ft||Same as Japanese Se|
|Hun||Fûn||Fēn||分||293.4||1⁄10||117360/ m2||969.92 m2||—||10,440 sq ft|
|Kah||Kap||Jiǎ||甲||2,934||1||1173600/ m2||0.9699 ha||—||2.3967 acres||Derived from Dutch Morgen|
|Lê||Lài||Lí||犁||14,670||5||5868000/ m2||4.8496 ha||—||11.984 acres||Used from Kingdom of Tungning|
Volume measure in Taiwan is largely metric, with common units such as liter and milliliter.
Packaged goods in Taiwan largely use metric measurements but bulk foodstuffs sold in wet markets and supermarkets are typically measured with units derived from traditional Japanese units of mass, which are similar but not equivalent to corresponding Chinese units of mass.
|Unit||Niú||Metric||US & Imperial||Notes|
|Lî||Lî||Lí||釐||1⁄1000||3/ kg||37.5 mg||3750/ lb||0.5787 gr||Cash; Same as Japanese Rin|
|Hun||Fûn||Fēn||分||1⁄100||3/ kg||375 mg||37,500/ lb||5.787 gr||Candareen; Same as Japanese Fun|
|Chîⁿ||Chhièn||Qián||錢||1⁄10||3/ kg||3.75 g||375,000/ lb||2.116 dr||Mace; Same as Japanese Momme (匁)|
|Niú||Liông||Liǎng||兩||1||3/ kg||37.5 g||3,750,000/ lb||21.16 dr||Tael|
|Kin/Kun||Kîn||Jīn||斤||16||3/ kg||600 g||60,000,000/ lb||1.323 lb||Catty; Same as Japanese Kin|
|Tàⁿ||Tâm||Dàn||擔||1600||60 kg||6,000,000,000/ lb||132.3 lb||Picul; Same as Japanese Tan|
- 臺灣閩南語常用詞辭典 [Dictionary of Frequently-Used Taiwan Minnan] (in Chinese). Ministry of Education, R.O.C. 2011. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- Andrade, Tonio (2005). "Appendix A: Weights, Measures, and Exchange Rates". How Taiwan Became Chinese: Dutch, Spanish, and Han Colonization in the Seventeenth Century. Columbia University Press.