A supervisor, or also known as foreman, boss, overseer, facilitator, monitor, area coordinator, or sometimes gaffer, is the job title of a low level management position that is primarily based on authority over a worker or charge of a workplace. A supervisor can also be one of the most senior in the staff at the place of work, such as a Professor who oversees a PhD dissertation. Supervision, on the other hand, can be performed by people without this formal title, for example by parents. The term supervisor itself can be used to refer to any personnel who have this task as part of their job description.
An employee is a supervisor if he/she has the power and authority to do the following actions (according to the Ontario Ministry of Labour):
- Give instructions and/or orders to subordinates.
- Be held responsible for the work and actions of other employees.
If an employee cannot do the above, legally, he or she is probably not a supervisor, but in some other category, such as a work group leader or lead hand.
A supervisor is first and foremost an overseer whose main responsibility is to ensure that a group of subordinates get out the assigned amount of production, when they are supposed to do it and within acceptable levels of quality, costs and safety.
A supervisor is responsible for the productivity and actions of a small group of employees. The supervisor has several manager-like roles, responsibilities, and powers. Two of the key differences between a supervisor and a manager are (1) the supervisor does not typically have "hire and fire" authority, and (2) the supervisor does not have budget authority.
Lacking "hire and fire" authority means that a supervisor may not recruit the employees working in the supervisor's group nor does the supervisor have the authority to terminate an employee. The supervisor may participate in the hiring process as part of interviewing and assessing candidates, but the actual hiring authority rests in the hands of a Human Resource Manager. The supervisor may recommend to management that a particular employee be terminated and the supervisor may be the one who documents the behaviors leading to the recommendation but the actual firing authority rests in the hands of a manager.
Lacking budget authority means that a supervisor is provided a budget developed by management within which constraints the supervisor is expected to provide a productive environment for the employees of the supervisor's work group. A supervisor will usually have the authority to make purchases within specified limits. A supervisor is also given the power to approve work hours and other payroll issues. Normally, budget affecting requests such as travel will require not only the supervisor's approval but the approval of one or more layers of management.
As a member of management, a supervisor's main job is more concerned with orchestrating and controlling work rather than performing it directly.
- Carry out policies passed down a hierarchy from the level above.
- Plan short-range action-steps to carry out goals set by the level above.
- Organize the work group.
- Assign jobs to subordinates.
- Delegate projects to subordinates.
- Direct tasks, jobs and projects.
- Train subordinates.
- Enforce rules.
- Lead and motivate subordinates.
- Develop group cohesiveness.
- Solve routine daily problems.
- Control or evaluate performance of subordinates and the department - performance appraisals.
- Discipline subordinates.
"Doing" can take up to 70% of the time - (this varies according to the type of supervisory job - the doing involves the actual work of the department as well as the planning, controlling, scheduling, organizing, leading, etc.).
Supervisors often do not require any formal education on how they are to perform their duties but are most often given on-the-job training or attend company sponsored courses. Many employers have supervisor handbooks that need to be followed. Supervisors must be aware of their legal responsibilities to ensure that their employees work safely and that the workplace that they are responsible for meets government standards.
In academia, a supervisor is a senior scientist or scholar who, along with their own responsibilities, aids and guides a postdoctoral researcher, postgraduate research student or undergraduate student in their research project; offering both moral support and scientific insight and guidance. The term is used in several countries for the doctoral advisor of a graduate student.
The term is also sometimes used colloquially to refer to an old man, an elderly rustic. The word is probably a shortening of "godfather", with "ga" from association with "grandfather". The female equivalent, "gammer", came to refer colloquially to an old lady or to a gossip. The use of gaffer in this way can be seen, for example, in J.R.R. Tolkien's character Gaffer Gamgee.
In 16th century English a "gaffer" was a man who was the head of any organized group of labourers. In 16th and 17th century rural England, it was used as a title slightly inferior to "Master", similar to "Goodman", and was not confined to elderly men. The chorus of a famous Australian shearer's song, The Backblocks' Shearer (also known as Widgegoeera Joe), written by W. Tully at Nimidgee, NSW (c.1900), refers to a gaffer:
- Hurrah, me boys, my shears are set,
- I feel both fit and well;
- Tomorrow you’ll find me at my pen
- When the gaffer rings the bell.
- With Hayden's patent thumb guards fixed
- And both my blades pulled back;
- Tomorrow I go with my sardine blow
- For a century or the sack!
- In glassblowing, a gaffer is the central figure in the creation of a piece of art. For example, at the Corning Glass Works in Corning, New York, a gaffer is a skilled artisan who blows through a long tube to shape molten glass into a variety of useful and/or artistic objects. A business district of Corning has been named "The Gaffer District" in honor of these artisans.
I-O psychology research on first-line supervisors suggests that supervisors with the most productive work groups have the following qualities:
- Effective supervisors are person-centered. They rate higher in the consideration function than do unsuccessful supervisors.
- Effective supervisors are supportive. They are more helpful to employees and more willing to defend them against criticism from higher management than are less effective supervisors.
- Effective supervisors are democratic. They hold frequent meetings with employees to solicit their views and encourage participation. Less effective supervisors are more autocratic.
- Effective supervisors are flexible. They allow employees to accomplish their goals in their own way whenever possible, consistent with the goals of the organization. Less effective supervisors dictate how a job is to be performed and permit no deviation.
- Effective supervisors describe themselves as coaches rather than directors. They emphasize quality, provide clear directions, and give timely feedback to their workers.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-02-23. Retrieved 2015-02-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Who is a Supervisor under the Occupational Health and Safety Act? (2015) Ontario Ministry of Labour. Retrieved Feb 23, 2015.
- Miller, Patricia (1988). Powerful Leadership Skills for Women. p. 86.
- The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 5th Edition, OUP 1964
Schultz & Schultz, Duane (2010). Psychology and work today. New York: Prentice Hall. pp. 169–170. ISBN 0-205-68358-4.
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