Styphnic acid (from Greek stryphnos "astringent"), or 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3-benzenediol, is a yellow astringent acid that forms hexagonal crystals. It is used in the manufacture of dyes, pigments, inks, medicines, and explosives such as lead styphnate. It is itself a low sensitivity explosive, similar to picric acid, but explodes upon rapid heating.
3D model (JSmol)
|UN number||0219 – Dry or wetted with < 20% water/alcohol|
0394 – Wetted with >= 20% water/alcohol
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||245.11 g/mol|
|Melting point||180 °C (356 °F; 453 K)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Preparation and chemistry
This compound is an example of a trinitrophenol.
It may be reacted with weakly basic oxides, such as those of lead and silver, to form the corresponding salts.
The solubility of picric acid and styphnic acid in water is less than their corresponding mono- and di-nitro compounds, and far less than their non-nitrated percursor phenols, so they may be purified by fractional crystallisation.
- Alexander Senning (2006). Elsevier's Dictionary of Chemoetymology: The Whys and Whences of Chemical Nomenclature and Terminology, p. 375, at Google Books
- Armarego, W.L.F.; Chai, C.L.L. (2003). Purification of Laboratory Chemicals. Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 353. ISBN 9780750675710. Retrieved 2015-05-20.
- Sam Barros. "PowerLabs Styphnic Acid Synthesis!". powerlabs.org. Retrieved 2015-05-20.