Social exclusion, marginalization or social marginalisation is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society. It is a term used widely in Europe and was first used in France. It is used across disciplines including education, sociology, psychology, politics and economics.
Social exclusion is the process in which individuals are blocked from (or denied full access to) various rights, opportunities and resources that are normally available to members of a different group, and which are fundamental to social integration and observance of human rights within that particular group (e.g., housing, employment, healthcare, civic engagement, democratic participation, and due process).
Alienation or disenfranchisement resulting from social exclusion can be connected to a person's social class, race, skin color, religious affiliation, ethnic origin, educational status, childhood relationships, living standards, and or political opinions, and appearance. Such exclusionary forms of discrimination may also apply to people with a disability, minorities, LGBTQ+ people, drug users, institutional care leavers, the elderly and the young. Anyone who appears to deviate in any way from perceived norms of a population may thereby become subject to coarse or subtle forms of social exclusion.
The outcome of social exclusion is that affected individuals or communities are prevented from participating fully in the economic, social, and political life of the society in which they live. This may result in resistance in the form of demonstrations, protests or lobbying from the excluded people.
Most of the characteristics listed in this article are present together in studies of social exclusion, due to exclusion's multidimensionality.
Another way of articulating the definition of social exclusion is as follows:
Social exclusion is a multidimensional process of progressive social rupture, detaching groups and individuals from social relations and institutions and preventing them from full participation in the normal, normatively prescribed activities of the society in which they live.
In an alternative conceptualization, social exclusion theoretically emerges at the individual or group level on four correlated dimensions: insufficient access to social rights, material deprivation, limited social participation and a lack of normative integration. It is then regarded as the combined result of personal risk factors (age, gender, race); macro-societal changes (demographic, economic and labor market developments, technological innovation, the evolution of social norms); government legislation and social policy; and the actual behavior of businesses, administrative organisations and fellow citizens.
"The marginal man...is one whom fate has condemned to live in two societies and in two, not merely different but antagonistic cultures....his mind is the crucible in which two different and refractory cultures may be said to melt and, either wholly or in part, fuse."
Social exclusion at the individual level results in an individual's exclusion from meaningful participation in society. An example is the exclusion of single mothers from the welfare system prior to welfare reforms of the 1900s. The modern welfare system is based on the concept of entitlement to the basic means of being a productive member of society both as an organic function of society and as compensation for the socially useful labor provided. A single mother's contribution to society is not based on formal employment, but on the notion that provision of welfare for children is a necessary social expense. In some career contexts, caring work is devalued and motherhood is seen as a barrier to employment. Single mothers were previously marginalized in spite of their significant role in the socializing of children due to views that an individual can only contribute meaningfully to society through "gainful" employment as well as a cultural bias against unwed mothers. When the father's sole task was seen as the breadwinner, his marginalization was primarily a function of class condition. Solo fatherhood brings additional trials due to society being less accepting of males 'getting away with' not working and the general invisibility/lack of acknowledgment of single fathers in society. Acknowledgment of the needs participatory fathers may have can be found by examining the changes from the original clinical report on the father's role published by the American Academy of Pediatrics in May 2004. Eight week paternity leave is a good example of one social change. Child health care providers have an opportunity to have a greater influence on the child and family structure by supporting fathers and enhancing a father's involvement.
More broadly, many women face social exclusion. Moosa-Mitha discusses the Western feminist movement as a direct reaction to the marginalization of white women in society. Women were excluded from the labor force and their work in the home was not valued. Feminists argued that men and women should equally participate in the labor force, in the public and private sector, and in the home. They also focused on labor laws to increase access to employment as well as to recognize child-rearing as a valuable form of labor. In some places today, women are still marginalized from executive positions and continue to earn less than men in upper management positions.
Another example of individual marginalization is the exclusion of individuals with disabilities from the labor force. Grandz discusses an employer's viewpoint about hiring individuals living with disabilities as jeopardizing productivity, increasing the rate of absenteeism, and creating more accidents in the workplace. Cantor also discusses employer concern about the excessively high cost of accommodating people with disabilities. The marginalization of individuals with disabilities is prevalent today, despite the legislation intended to prevent it in most western countries, and the academic achievements, skills and training of many disabled people.
There are also exclusions of lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender (LGBT) and other intersexual people because of their sexual orientations and gender identities. The Yogyakarta Principles require that the states and communities abolish any stereotypes about LGBT people as well as stereotyped gender roles.
One example is the Aboriginal community in Australia. The marginalization of Aboriginal communities is a product of colonization. As a result of colonialism, Aboriginal communities lost their land, were forced into destitute areas, lost their sources of livelihood, and were excluded from the labor market. Additionally, Aboriginal communities lost their culture and values through forced assimilation and lost their rights in society. Today various Aboriginal communities continue to be marginalized from society due to the development of practices, policies and programs that "met the needs of white people and not the needs of the marginalized groups themselves". Yee also connects marginalization to minority communities, when describing the concept of whiteness as maintaining and enforcing dominant norms and discourse. Poor people living in run-down council estates and areas with high crime can be locked into social deprivation.
Social exclusion has many contributors. Major contributors include race, income, employment status, social class, geographic location, personal habits and appearance, education, religion, and political affiliation.
Global and structural
Globalization (global-capitalism), immigration, social welfare, and policy are broader social structures that have the potential to contribute negatively to one's access to resources and services, resulting in the social exclusion of individuals and groups. Similarly, increasing use of information technology and the company outsourcing have contributed to job insecurity and a widening gap between the rich and the poor. Alphonse, George & Moffat (2007) discuss how globalization sets forth a decrease in the role of the state with an increase in support from various "corporate sectors resulting in gross inequalities, injustices and marginalization of various vulnerable groups" (p. 1). Companies are outsourcing, jobs are lost, the cost of living continues to rise, and the land is being expropriated by large companies. Material goods are made in large abundances and sold at cheaper costs, while in India for example, the poverty line is lowered in order to mask the number of individuals who are actually living in poverty as a result of globalization. Globalization and structural forces aggravate poverty and continue to push individuals to the margins of society, while governments and large corporations do not address the issues (George, P, SK8101, lecture, October 9, 2007).
Certain language and the meaning attached to language can cause universalizing discourses that are influenced by the Western world, which is what Sewpaul (2006) describes as the "potential to dilute or even annihilate local cultures and traditions and to deny context-specific realities" (p. 421). What Sewpaul (2006) is implying is that the effect of dominant global discourses can cause individual and cultural displacement, as well as an experience of "de-localization", as individual notions of security and safety are jeopardized (p. 422). Insecurity and fear of an unknown future and instability can result in displacement, exclusion, and forced assimilation into the dominant group. For many, it further pushes them to the margins of society or enlists new members to the outskirts because of global-capitalism and dominant discourses (Sewpaul, 2006).
With the prevailing notion of globalization, we now see the rise of immigration as the world gets smaller and smaller with millions of individuals relocating each year. This is not without hardship and struggle of what a newcomer thought was going to be a new life with new opportunities. Ferguson, Lavalette, & Whitmore (2005) discuss how immigration has had a strong link to the access of welfare support programs. Newcomers are constantly bombarded with the inability to access a country's resources because they are seen as "undeserving foreigners" (p. 132). With this comes a denial of access to public housing, health care benefits, employment support services, and social security benefits (Ferguson et al., 2005). Newcomers are seen as undeserving, or that they must prove their entitlement in order to gain access to basic support necessities. It is clear that individuals are exploited and marginalized within the country they have emigrated (Ferguson et al., 2005).
Welfare states and social policies can also exclude individuals from basic necessities and support programs. Welfare payments were proposed to assist individuals in accessing a small amount of material wealth (Young, 2000). Young (2000) further discusses how "the provision of the welfare itself produces new injustice by depriving those dependent on it of rights and freedoms that others have…marginalization is unjust because it blocks the opportunity to exercise capacities in socially defined and recognized way" (p. 41). There is the notion that by providing a minimal amount of welfare support, an individual will be free from marginalization. In fact, welfare support programs further lead to injustices by restricting certain behaviour, as well the individual is mandated to other agencies. The individual is forced into a new system of rules while facing social stigma and stereotypes from the dominant group in society, further marginalizing and excluding individuals (Young, 2000). Thus, social policy and welfare provisions reflect the dominant notions in society by constructing and reinforcing categories of people and their needs. It ignores the unique-subjective human essence, further continuing the cycle of dominance (Wilson & Beresford, 2000).
Whilst recognising the multi-dimensionality of exclusion, policy work undertaken in the European Union focused on unemployment as a key cause of, or at least correlating with, social exclusion. This is because, in modern societies, paid work is not only the principal source of income with which to buy services but is also the fount of individuals' identity and feeling of self-worth. Most people's social networks and a sense of embeddedness in society also revolve around their work. Many of the indicators of extreme social exclusion, such as poverty and homelessness, depend on monetary income which is normally derived from work. Social exclusion can be a possible result of long-term unemployment, especially in countries with weak welfare safety nets. Much policy to reduce exclusion thus focuses on the labour market:
- On the one hand, to make individuals at risk of exclusion more attractive to employers, i.e. more "employable".
- On the other hand, to encourage (and/or oblige) employers to be more inclusive in their employment policies.
The EU's EQUAL Community Initiative investigated ways to increase the inclusiveness of the labor market. Work on social exclusion more broadly is carried out through the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) among the Member State governments.
Some religious traditions recommend excommunication of individuals said to deviate from religious teaching, and in some instances shunning by family members. Some religious organizations permit the censure of critics.
Across societies, individuals and communities can be socially excluded on the basis of their religious beliefs. Social hostility against religious minorities and communal violence occur in areas where governments do not have policies restricting the religious practise of minorities. A study by the Pew Research Center on international religious freedom found that 61% of countries have social hostilities that tend to target religious minorities. The five highest social hostility scores were for Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Iraq, and Bangladesh. In 2015, Pew published that social hostilities declined in 2013, but Harassment of Jews increased.
Scientists have been studying the impact of racism on health. Amani Nuru-Jeter, a social epidemiologist at the University of California, Berkeley and other doctors have been hypothesizing that exposure to chronic stress may be one way racism contributes to health disparities between racial groups. Arline Geronimus, a research professor at the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research and a professor at the School of Public Health, and her colleagues found that psychosocial stress associated with living in extreme poverty can cause early onset of age-related diseases. The 2015 study titled, "Race-Ethnicity, Poverty, Urban Stressors, and Telomere Length in a Detroit Community-based Sample" was conducted in order to determine the impact of living conditions on health and was performed by a multi-university team of social scientists, cellular biologists and community partners, including the Healthy Environments Partnership (HEP) to measured the telomere length of poor and moderate-income people of White, African-American and Mexican race.
In 2006, there was research focused on possible connections between exclusion and brain function. Studies published by both the University of Georgia and San Diego State University found that exclusion can lead to diminished brain functioning and poor decision making. Such studies corroborate with earlier beliefs of sociologists. The effect of social exclusion have been hypothesized in various past research studies to correlate with such things as substance abuse and addiction, and crime.
The problem of social exclusion is usually tied to that of equal opportunity, as some people are more subject to such exclusion than others. Marginalisation of certain groups is a problem in many economically more developed countries, including the United Kingdom and the United States, where the majority of the population enjoys considerable economic and social opportunities.
The marginal, the processes of marginalisation, etc. bring specific interest in postmodern and postcolonial philosophy and social studies. Postmodernism question the "center" about its authenticity and postmodern sociology and cultural studies research marginal cultures, behaviours, societies, the situation of the marginalized individual, etc.
Social inclusion, the converse of social exclusion, is affirmative action to change the circumstances and habits that lead to (or have led to) social exclusion. As the World Bank states, social inclusion is the process of improving the ability, opportunity, and worthiness of people, disadvantaged on the basis of their identity, to take part in society. The World Bank's 2019 World Development Report on The Changing Nature of Work suggests that enhanced social protection and better investments in human capital improve equality of opportunity and social inclusion.
Social Inclusion ministers have been appointed, and special units established, in a number of jurisdictions around the world. The first Minister for Social Inclusion was Premier of South Australia Mike Rann, who took the portfolio in 2004. Based on the UK's Social Exclusion Unit, established by Prime Minister Tony Blair in 1997, Rann established the Social Inclusion Initiative in 2002. It was headed by Monsignor David Cappo and was serviced by a unit within the department of Premier and Cabinet. Cappo sat on the Executive Committee of the South Australian Cabinet and was later appointed Social Inclusion Commissioner with wide powers to address social disadvantage. Cappo was allowed to roam across agencies given that most social disadvantage has multiple causes necessitating a "joined up" rather than a single agency response. The Initiative drove a big investment by the South Australian Government in strategies to combat homelessness, including establishing Common Ground, building high quality inner city apartments for "rough sleeping" homeless people, the Street to Home initiative and the ICAN flexible learning program designed to improve school retention rates. It also included major funding to revamp mental health services following Cappo's "Stepping Up" report, which focused on the need for community and intermediate levels of care and an overhaul of disability services. In 2007 Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd appointed Julia Gillard as the nation's first Social Inclusion Minister.
In Japan, the concept and term "social inclusion" went through a number of changes over time and eventually became incorporated in community-based activities under the names hōsetsu (包摂) and hōkatsu (包括), such as in the "Community General Support Centres" (chiiki hōkatsu shien sentā 地域包括支援センター) and "Community-based Integrated Care System" (chiiki hōkatsu kea shisutemu 地域包括ケアシステム).
In social work
Upon defining and describing marginalization as well as the various levels in which it exists, one must now explore its implications for social work practice. Mullaly (2007) describes how "the personal is political" and the need for recognizing that social problems are indeed connected with larger structures in society, causing various forms of oppression amongst individuals resulting in marginalization. It is also important for the social worker to recognize the intersecting nature of oppression. A non-judgmental and unbiased attitude is necessary on the part of the social worker. The worker must begin to understand oppression and marginalization as a systemic problem, not the fault of the individual.
Working under an anti-oppression perspective would then allow the social worker to understand the lived, subjective experiences of the individual, as well as their cultural, historical and social background. The worker should recognize the individual as political in the process of becoming a valuable member of society and the structural factors that contribute to oppression and marginalization (Mullaly, 2007). Social workers must take a firm stance on naming and labeling global forces that impact individuals and communities who are then left with no support, leading to marginalization or further marginalization from the society they once knew (George, P, SK8101, lecture, October 9, 2007).
The social worker should be constantly reflexive, work to raise the consciousness, empower, and understand the lived subjective realities of individuals living in a fast-paced world, where fear and insecurity constantly subjugate the individual from the collective whole, perpetuating the dominant forces, while silencing the oppressed.
Some individuals and groups who are not professional social workers build relationships with marginalized persons by providing relational care and support, for example, through homeless ministry. These relationships validate the individuals who are marginalized and provide them a meaningful contact with the mainstream.
There are countries, Italy for example, that have a legal concept of social exclusion. In Italy, "esclusione sociale" is defined as poverty combined with social alienation, by the statute n. 328 (11-8-2000), that instituted a state investigation commission named "Commissione di indagine sull'Esclusione Sociale" (CIES) to make an annual report to the government on legally expected issues of social exclusion.
The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, a document on international human rights instruments affirms that "extreme poverty and social exclusion constitute a violation of human dignity and that urgent steps are necessary to achieve better knowledge of extreme poverty and its causes, including those related to the program of development, in order to promote the human rights of the poorest, and to put an end to extreme poverty and social exclusion and promote the enjoyment of the fruits of social progress. It is essential for States to foster participation by the poorest people in the decision making process by the community in which they live, the promotion of human rights and efforts to combat extreme poverty."
- Basic income
- Closure (sociology)
- Guaranteed minimum income
- Environmental racism
- Hate speech
- In-group favoritism
- Isolation to facilitate abuse
- Second-class citizen
- Silent treatment
- Social alienation
- Social control
- Social firm
- Social invisibility
- Social rejection
- Social stigma
- Social vulnerability
- The Yogyakarta Principles
- Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action
- Youth Exclusion
- Silver, Hilary (1994). "Social Exclusion and Social Solidarity: Three Paradigms". International Labour Review. 133 (5–6): 531–78.
- Peace, R., 2001. Social exclusion: A concept in need of definition?. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, pp.17-36.
- "About". Institute on Public Safety and Social Justice. Adler University.
- "The Salvation Army: The Seeds of Exclusion (2008)". salvationarmy.org.uk. Archived from the original on 27 August 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
- "Social exclusion and reintegration".
- "The statistics". Archived from the original on 2009-11-15.
- Young, I. M. (2000). Five faces of oppression. In M. Adams, (Ed.), Readings for Diversity and Social Justice (pp. 35–49). New York: Routledge.
- Walsh, T., 2006. A right to inclusion? Homelessness, human rights, and social exclusion. Australian Journal of Human Rights, 12(1), pp.185-204.
- Hilary Silver, Social Exclusion: Comparative Analysis of Europe and Middle East Youth, Middle East Youth Initiative Working Paper (September 2007), p.15
- G. Joel-Gijsbers and C. Vrooman (2007). Explaining Social Exclusion; A Theoretical Model tested in The Netherlands. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP. ISBN 978 90 377 0325 2; Vrooman, J. C.; S.J.M. Hoff (June 2013). "The Disadvantaged Among the Dutch: A Survey Approach to the Multidimensional Measurement of Social Exclusion". Social Indicators Research. 113 (3): 1261–1287. doi:10.1007/s11205-012-0138-1. ISSN 0303-8300.
- Robert E. Park, Cultural Conflict and the Marginal Man in Everett V Stonequist, The Marginal Man, Introduction, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1937
- Walsh, Tamara (December 2006). "A right to inclusion? Homelessness, human rights and social exclusion" (PDF). Australian Journal of Human Rights. 12: 185–204. doi:10.1080/1323238x.2006.11910818.
- Lessa, Iara (February 2006). "Discursive struggles within social welfare: Restaging teen motherhood". The British Journal of Social Work. 36 (2): 283–298. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bch256.
- Coleman, William L.; Garfield, Craig; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health (May 2004). "Fathers and pediatricians: enhancing men's roles in the care and development of their children". Pediatrics. 113 (5): 1406–1411. doi:10.1542/peds.113.5.1406. ISSN 1098-4275. PMID 15121965.
- Yogman, Michael; Garfield, Craig F.; Child, the COMMITTEE ON PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF; Health, Family (2016-06-13). "Fathers' Roles in the Care and Development of Their Children: The Role of Pediatricians". Pediatrics. 138 (1): e20161128. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-1128. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 27296867.
- Moosa-Mitha, Mehmoona, (2005). Situating anti-oppressive theories within critical and difference-centred perspectives. In L. Brown & S. Strega (Eds.) Research as Resistance (pp. 37–72). Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press.
- "Did You Know That Women Are Still Paid Less Than Men?". White House. Archived from the original on December 26, 2012. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
- Leslie, D.R., Leslie K. & Murphy M. (2003). Inclusion by design: The challenge for social work in workplace accommodation for people with disabilities. In W. Shera (Eds.), Emerging perspectives on anti-oppression practice (pp. 157–169). Toronto: Canadian Scholar's Press.
- Frederic Thrasher, The Gang: A Study of 1,313 Gangs in Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1927
- , Baskin, C. (2003). Structural social work as seen from an Aboriginal Perspective. In W. Shera (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on anti-oppressive practice (pp. 65–78). Toronto: Canadian Scholar's Press.
- Yee, J. (2005). Critical anti-racism praxis: The concept of whiteness implicated. In S. Hick, J. Fook and R. Pozzuto (Eds.), Social work, a critical turn, pp. 87–104. Toronto: Thompson
- Hilary Searing. "Social Exclusion: A Social Worker's View".
- Furlong, Andy. Youth Studies: An Introduction. Routledge, 2013, p. 31.
- "Global Restrictions on Religion (Executive summary)". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. December 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
- "Global Restrictions on Religion (Full report)" (PDF). The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. December 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
- "Latest Trends in Religious Restrictions and Hostilities". Pew Forum. 26 Feb 2015.
- "Table: Social Hostilities Index by country" (PDF). Pew Research Center. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-05.
- Crossley, Michelle 2004. pp. 225, Crossley, Michelle, 2004. "'Resistance' and health promotion". British Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 43, pp. 225–244
- "Scientists Start To Tease Out The Subtler Ways Racism Hurts Health". NPR.org. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
- Geronimus, Arline T.; Pearson, Jay A.; Linnenbringer, Erin; Schulz, Amy J.; Reyes, Angela G.; Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H. (June 2015). "Race-Ethnicity, Poverty, Urban Stressors, and Telomere Length in a Detroit Community-based Sample". Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 56 (2): 199–224. doi:10.1177/0022146515582100. ISSN 2150-6000. PMC 4621968. PMID 25930147.
- "Biological process linked to early aging, death among poor in Detroit". University of Michigan Institute for Social Research. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
- "Study: Social exclusion changes brain function, can lead to poor decision-making". UGA Today. University of Georgia. 2006-11-20. Retrieved 2018-11-02.
- Seddon, Toby (2005-08-30). "Drugs, Crime and Social Exclusion". The British Journal of Criminology. 46 (4): 680–703. doi:10.1093/bjc/azi079. ISSN 1464-3529.
- Townsend, Mark (2017-11-12). "Britain's socially excluded '10 times more likely to die early'". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-11-02.
- Gilbert McInnis, The Struggle of Postmodernism and Postcolonialism, Laval University, Canada
- World Bank (2013). Inclusion Matters: The Foundation for Shared Prosperity. Washington, DC: World Bank. ISBN 978-1-4648-0010-8.
- World Bank World Development Report 2019: The Changing Nature of Work.
- ABC News, 28 April 2006,"Cappo appointed Social Inclusion Commissioner"
- Street to Home, sacommunity.org
- ABC News 20 Oct 2012
- Dahl, Nils (March 2018). "Social inclusion of senior citizens in Japan: an investigation into the 'Community-based Integrated Care System'". Contemporary Japan. 30 (1): 43–59. doi:10.1080/18692729.2018.1424069.
- Mullaly, Bob (2007). The New Structural Social Work. Oxford University Press. pp. 252–286. ISBN 978-0195419061.
- Sakamoto, Izumi; Pitner, Ronald O. (June 2005). "Use of Critical Consciousness in Anti-Oppressive Social Work Practice: Disentangling Power Dynamics at Personal and Structural Levels". The British Journal of Social Work. 35 (4): 435–452. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bch190.
- "Commissione di Indagine sull'Esclusione Sociale, accessed February 07, 2013". lavoro.gov.it. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
- "unhchr.ch". www.unhchr.ch. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
- Alphonse, M., George, P & Moffat, K. (2007). Redefining social work standards in the context of globalization: Lessons from India. International Social Work.
- Applebaum, Richard P., Carr, deborah, Duneier, Mitchell, Giddens, Anthony. "Introduction to Sociology Seventh Edition" 2009.
- Gilles Deleuze, A Thousand Plateaus, 1980.
- Ferguson, I., Lavalette, M., & Whitmore, E. (2005). Globalization, Global Justice and Social Work. London and New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
- Giddens, Anthony, Introduction to Sociology. New York: W.W. Norton &, 2009. Print.
- Karl Marx, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844
- Frank Moulaert, Erik Swyngedouw and Arantxa Rodriguez. The Globalized City: Economic Restructing and Social Polarization in European Cities. Oxford University Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-19-926040-9
- Mullaly, B. (2007). Oppression: The focus of structural social work. In B. Mullaly, The new structural social work (pp. 252–286). Don Mills: Oxford University Press.
- Power, A., Wilson, W.J., 2000, Social Exclusion and the Future of Cities, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics, London
- John Rawls, A Theory of Justice, 1971. ISBN 978-0-674-01772-6
- Sakamoto I., & R.O Pitner. (2005). Use of critical consciousness in anti-oppressive social work practice: disentangling power dynamics at personal and structural levels. British Journal of Social Work 35, pp. 435–452.
- Sewpaul, V. (2006). The global-local dialectic: Challenges for Africa scholarship and social work in a post-colonial world, British Journal of Social Work 36, pp. 419–434.
- University of Georgia (2006, November 9). Social Exclusion Changes Brain Function And Can Lead To Poor Decision-making. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 29, 2008, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2006/11/061108154256.htm
- URSPIC: An EU Research Project to measure impacts of urban development projects on social exclusion
- Philippe Van Parijs, Real Freedom for All: What (if anything) can justify capitalism?, 1995. ISBN 978-0-19-829357-6*Wilson A. & Beresford P. (2000). Anti-oppressive practice': Emancipation or appropriation? British Journal of Social Work 30, pp. 553–573.
- Yee, J. Y. & Dumbrill, G.C. (2003). Whiteout: Looking for Race in Canadian Social Work Practice. In A. Al-Krenawi & J.R. Graham (Eds.) Multicultural Social Work in Canada: Working with Diverse Ethno-Racial Communities (pp. 98–121). Toronto: Oxford Press.
- Yi, Li. The Structure and Evolution of Chinese Social Stratification. University Press of America, 2005, ISBN 0-7618-3331-5
- Is the U.S. a Good Model for Reducing Social Exclusion in Europe? Center for Economic and Policy Research, August 2006
- "Inclutivities" - A Collection of Games, Exercises and Activities for Use in Art Therapy and Training Programmes for Groups of Marginalised and Excluded Persons EU Project "Against Exclusion", 2014