Ratimir, Duke of Lower Pannonia
Ratimir (Latin: Ratimarus)[a] was a Croatian duke or prince (knez) that ruled the Duchy of Pannonian Croatia between ca. 829 to 838. His name contents the word "rat", meaning "war", and "mir", meaning "peace". It is believed that Ratimir descends from a royal dynasty that provided rulers for Moravia and Croatia.
|Duke of Pannonian Croatia|
Map of central Europe (with Pannonian Croatia (light blue) at the bottom) during the reign of Ratimir
In 827, the Bulgars under Great Khan Omurtag invaded and conquered the Croatian Principality of Southern Pannonia (Savia) and parts of Frankish territories to the north. In 829 the Bulgars imposed a local prince, Ratimir, as the new ruler of the territory. His province is believed to have been the territory of the former Roman Pannonia Savia, and is known in modern historiography as Lower Pannonia; earlier, Sigismund Calles (1750) called him "Slavic duke of the Drava".
In 838, nine years later, following the Bulgarian conquest of Macedonia, the Danubian count Radbod, prefect of the East March, deposed Ratimir and restored Frankish rule. Ratimir fled the land, and the Franks instated dukes Pribina and Kocelj to rule Pannonian area in the name of the Franks.
Unlike his predecessors, Ratimir experienced a rift in relations with the Christian Byzantine Empire.
According to the South Slavic Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, rejected by historians, one of Ratimir's descendants was Svatopluk. According to modern Croatian historiography, Ratimir was a Croat prince.
- His name is derived from the Slavic words rat ("war") and mir ("peace"). His name is also spelled Ratimar.
- Luthar 2008, p. 104.
- "Slavonia - Princes in Slavonia" (PDF).
- Ernst Dümmler (1856). Über die älteste Geschichte der Slaven in Dalmatien: (549-928). Braumüller in Komm. pp. 46–.
- Sigismund Calles (1750). Annales Austriae ab ultima aetatis memoria ad Habsburgicae gentis principes deducti. Pars 1. Res Austriae veteris sub Romanis, Austrasiae, Germaniaeque regibus, ac impp. ac praecipue Babenbergicae stirpis in Austria Marchionibus gestae. Authore P. Sigismundo Calles. typis L. J. Kaliwoda. pp. 602–.
- Živković, Tibor. "The Strategos Paul and the Archontes of the Westerners". p. 172.
- Imre Boba (1971). Moravia's History Reconsidered: A Reinterpretation of Medieval Sources. Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 978-90-247-5041-2.
- Luthar, Oto (2008). The Land Between: A History of Slovenia. Peter Lang. pp. 104–. ISBN 978-3-631-57011-1.
From there his path was soon to lead him to the Slavic prince, Ratimir, successor to the rebellious Louis of Lower Pannonia. This meant he was once more on territory controlled by the Franks and under the jurisdiction of Ratbod, the prefect.
- Annales regni Francorum inde ab a. 741 usque ad a. 829, qui dicuntur Annales Laurissenses maiores et Einhardi. Herausgegeben von Friedrich Kurze. XX und 204 S. 8°. 1895. Printed in 1950.
- Rudolf Horvat, History of Croatia I. (from ancient times to year 1657), Zagreb, 1924. (hr.)
- Nada Klaić, History of Croats in Early Middle Ages, Zagreb, 1975. (hr.)
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