Nebmaatre is the prenomen of a poorly attested ruler of the late Second Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt. Nebmaatre may have been a member of the early 17th dynasty and as such would have reigned over the Theban region. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath believes that Nebmaatre was a ruler of the late 16th Dynasty.
Base of the lion amulet of Nebmaatre, now in the Petrie Museum (UC 11587).
|Reign||unknown duration (uncertain dynasty, possibly early 17th dynasty or late 16th dynasty)|
The prenomen Nebmaatre is attested on a bronze axe-head discovered in a tomb at Mostagedda in Middle Egypt and now in the British Museum under the catalog number BM EA 63224. The same prenomen is inscribed on a black steatite amulet representing a lion of unknown provenance and now in the Petrie Museum under the catalog number 11587. A degree of uncertainty affects the ownership of these artifacts since Amenhotep III's prenomen was Nebmaatre as well. However, the axe-head can be dated to the late Second Intermediate Period based on stylistic grounds and provenance while according to Flinders Petrie the amulet is of too rough a workmanship to be attributable to Amenhotep III. Instead Petrie suggested that the amulet be attributable to Ibi, an obscure ruler of the late 13th dynasty whose prenomen is partially preserved in Turin canon as "[...]maatre". However, Kim Ryholt's recent study of the Turin canon precludes this identification as a vertical stroke in the lacuna just prior to "maatre" rules out the hieroglyph for "neb".
The chronological position of Nebmaatre in the second intermediate period is highly uncertain. The egyptologist Jürgen von Beckerath proposes that Nebmaatre was a ruler of a compounded 15th-16th dynasty, which he sees as an entirely Hyksos line of kings. Alternatively, Kim Ryholt put forth the hypothesis that Nebmaatre was a king of the 17th dynasty, although he left his position in the dynasty unspecified. Ryholt's datation is based on the observation that the axe-head bearing Nebmaatre's name was found in a tomb belonging to the Pan-grave culture. The Pan-grave people were Nubian mercenaries employed by rulers of the Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt in their fight against the Hyksos foe. Egyptologist Darrell Baker points out that the Theban rulers of the period might indeed have provided such weapons to their mercenaries.
Other Ancient Egyptians named Nebmaatre
- The amulet of the Petrie Museum
- K. S. B. Ryholt, Adam Bülow-Jacobse, The political situation in Egypt during the second intermediate period, c. 1800-1550 B.C., pp 168, 170, 171, 179, 204, 400
- Jürgen von Beckerath: Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten, Glückstadt, 1964
- Jürgen von Beckerath: Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägyptens, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46. Mainz am Rhein, 1997
- Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Egyptian Pharaohs. Volume I: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty (3300-1069 BC), Bannerstone Press, London 2008, ISBN 978-1-905299-37-9, p. 244
- Flinders Petrie: Scarabs and Cylinders with Names, 1978, Aris & Philips, Ltd. (reprint of the 1917 original edition published by BSAE).
- Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der agyptische Konigsnamen, Muncher. Agyptologische Studien, 49 Mainz, 1999, pp.118-119
- Kim Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C, Museum Tusculanum Press, (1997)
- Manfred Bietak: the Pan-grave culture
- Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson, 2004, ISBN 0-500-05128-3, pp. 191,193