Mewat, officially known as Nuh, is one of the 22 districts in the Indian state of Haryana.It is the most backward district in India. There are four sub-divisions in this district: Nuh, Ferozepur Jhirka, Punahana, and Taoru. It has an area of 1,860 square kilometres (720 sq mi) and had a population of 1.09 million in 2011. It is bounded by Gurugram District to the north, Palwal District of Haryana to the east and Alwar District of Rajasthan to the south and west. Its boundaries also touch Bharatpur District of Rajasthan and Mathura District of Uttar Pradesh near Bichhor Village and Nai Village of Punhana Tehsil. It is predominantly populated by farmers of Meo ethnicity.
Location of Nuh district in Haryana
|Tehsils||Nuh, Ferozepur Jhirka, Punahana, Taoru|
|• Total||1,860 km2 (720 sq mi)|
|• Density||590/km2 (1,500/sq mi)|
|• Sex ratio||906|
|Time zone||UTC+05:30 (IST)|
|Major highways||National Highway 248-A (Gurgaon–Sohna–Alwar), KMP (Western Peripheral) Expressway, Delhi–Mumbai Expressway|
|Average annual precipitation||594 mm (23.4 in)|
|Lok Sabha constituencies||Gurugram (old name: Gurgaon)|
|Vidhan Sabha constituencies||Nuh, Ferozepur Jhirka, Punahana, Tauru, Sub tehsil Nagina, Pinangwan, Indri|
The district was created on 4 April 2005, by taking areas from Gurgaon district and the Hathin Block of Faridabad district. However, in 2008, Hathin sub-division was reorganized in the new district of Palwal. Mewat district was renamed Nuh in 2016, because Mewat is a cultural region which spans the state of Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
The district comprises Nuh, Taoru, Nagina, Ferozepur Jhirka, Indri, Punhana and Pinangwan blocks, 431 villages and 297 panchayats. There had been 512 villages and 365 panchayats in district before Hathin Block was transferred to Palwal district.
The soil of the district is light in texture, composed of sandy soil, sandy loam and clay loam. The upper hills are mostly barren. The total area of Mewat district is 1,507 square kilometres (582 sq mi).
According to the 2011 census, Mewat district had a population of 1,089,263. By population, it ranks 420th among the 640 districts of India. The district had a population density of 729 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,890/sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 37.94%. It had a sex ratio of 906 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 56.1%.
According to the 2001 Census of India, the total population of the district was 993,617 (including Hathin Block of district Palwal) of which 46,122 (4.64%) lived in urban areas while the majority of 947,495 (95.36%) lived in rural areas. Out of the total population of 993,617, there were then 524,872 males and 468,745 females. The scheduled caste population was around 78,802. The total numbers of households were 142,822, with 135,253 (95%) in rural areas and 7,569 (5%) in urban areas. The total number of Below Poverty Line (BPL) households were 53,125, including Hathin Block.
The main occupation in the districut is agriculture, followed by allied and agro-based activities. The Meos are the predominant population group and are all agriculturists. Agriculture is mostly rain-fed except in small pockets where canal irrigation is available, and crop yield per hectare is low compared with the rest of the state. Animal husbandry, particularly dairy, is the secondary source of income for the people; those who live closer to the hilly ranges of Aravali also keep sheep and goats. The heavy indebtedness of most of the farmers requires them to sell milk to their lenders at below-market price, which drastically reduces their income.
Towns such as Punhana, Pinangwan, Ferozepur Jhirka, Taoru and Nuh are major hubs of retail shopping and act as backbones of day-to-day life in the area. The district also has a MMTC–PAMP factory located in the Rojka–Meo industrial estate.
The district falls under the sub-tropical semi-arid climatic zone with extremely hot temperatures in summer. January is the coldest month with temperature ranging between 2 and 25 °C (36 and 77 °F). May and June are the hottest months of the year with the temperature ranging from 30 to 40 °C (86 to 104 °F).
The annual rainfall varies considerably, from 336 to 440 mm (13.2 to 17.3 in). About 80% of the annual rainfall is received during the monsoon season, from June to September with a peak in July. Dryness of air is a standard feature in Mewat district, with high humidity only during the monsoon period. During the monsoon, the sky is heavily clouded, and winds are strong. Winds are generally light during the post-monsoon and winter months. The dry season of minimum humidity (less than 20%) is between April and May, when strong dusty winds are conspicuous.
Mewat district experiences a high incidence of thunderstorms and dust storms, often accompanied by violent squalls (Bengali: andhar ) from April to June. The thunderstorms may be accompanied by heavy rain and occasionally by hail. In the winter months, fog may appear in the district.
Nuh town is on National Highway 248A (NH 248A) (previously known as the Gurgaon–Sohna–Alwar road), connecting the district to Gurugram and Alwar. The Kundli–Manesar–Palwal (KMP) Expressway provides high-speed access to the district from Palwal and Manesar. Major District Roads 131 and 135 connect to the Delhi–Agra Highway. The nearest railway station is Hodal which is around 20 kilometres (12 mi) from Punahana town. The closest railway station to the district headquarters, Nuh town, is 37 kilometres (23 mi) away in Palwal.
The planned route of the Delhi–Mumbai Expressway will pass west of Pinangwan town and is expected to boost connectivity to cities.
- "Gurgaon is now 'Gurugram', Mewat renamed Nuh: Haryana government". The Indian Express. 12 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
- Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- 2011 Census of India, Population By Mother Tongue
- "Population by religion community - 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.
- "Sohna road to have a toll plaza after upgrade".