Meskalamdug ("hero of the good land") was an early ruler of the First Dynasty of Ur in the 26th century BCE. He does not appear in the Sumerian King List, but is known from his tomb, grave PG 755 at the Royal Cemetery at Ur, and from bead inscriptions found in Mari, mentioning him as King.
His tomb, discovered by English archaeologist Sir Leonard Woolley in the Royal Cemetery of Ur in 1924, contained numerous gold artifacts including a golden helmet with an inscription of the king's name. By observing the contents of this royal grave, it is made clear that this ancient civilization was quite wealthy. His wife's name was queen Ninbanda. Meskalamdug was also mentioned on a seal in another tomb with the title lugal (king), however because his own tomb lacked attendants, Woolley assumed that he was not royal. The controversy remains though, because he is named on a bead inscription discovered in Mari by French archaeologist André Parrot ten years later, as the father of king Mesannepada of Ur, who appears in the king list and in many other inscriptions.
- "Behind the deceased's head was agold helmet. He held in his hands a gold bowl inscribed with the name Meskalamdug. In the coffin, for example, were gold and silver lamps, a second gold bowl inscribed with the name Meskalamdug, and electrum ax heads. On the northeast side opposite the upper part of the body was a substantial collection of jewelry" in Hansen, Donald P.; Pittman, Holly (1998). Treasures from the Royal Tombs of Ur. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology. pp. 24–25. ISBN 9780924171543.
| Ensi of Ur
ca. 26th century BC