Mains electricity by country

Mains electricity by country includes a list of countries and territories, with the plugs, voltages and frequencies they commonly use for providing electrical power to appliances, equipment, and lighting typically found in homes and offices. (For industrial machinery, see Industrial and multiphase power plugs and sockets.) Some countries have more than one voltage available. For example, in North America most sockets are attached to a 120 V supply, but there is a 240 V supply available for large appliances. Often different sockets are mandated for different voltage or current levels.

Voltage, frequency, and plug type vary, but large regions may use common standards. Physical compatibility of receptacles may not ensure compatibility of voltage, frequency, or connection to earth (ground), including plugs and cords. In some areas, older standards may still exist. Foreign enclaves, extraterritorial government installations, or buildings frequented by tourists may support plugs not otherwise used in a country, for the convenience of travellers.

Main reference source  IEC World Plugs

The International Electrotechnical Commission publishes a web microsite World Plugs[1] which provides the main source for this page, except where other sources are indicated. World Plugs includes some history, a description of plug types, and a list of countries giving the type(s) used and the mains voltage and frequency.

Although useful for quick reference, especially for travellers, IEC World Plugs may not be regarded as totally accurate, as illustrated by the examples in the plugs section below, and errors may exist, such as Indonesia being listed as using both 220 V and 110 V when the Indonesian Standard SPLN 1[2] clearly states the voltage as 230 V, and the official travel website says "electric power supply is 220 volts in all regions."[3]

Voltages

Voltages in this article are the nominal single-phase supply voltages, or split-phase supply voltages. Three-phase and industrial loads may have other voltages.

All voltages are root mean square voltage; the peak AC voltage is greater by a factor of 2, and the peak-to-peak voltage greater by a factor of 22.

Plugs

The system of plug types using a single letter (from A to N) used here is from World Plugs, which defines the plug type letters in terms of a general description, without making reference to specific standards. Where a plug does not have a specific letter code assigned to it, then it may be defined by the style sheet number listed in IEC TR 60083.[4] World Plugs gives a (not always correct) list of what plug types are used where. The Type N description is of the two variations of Brazilian plug (Brazilian national standard NBR 14136); however, the original plug and socket is defined in IEC 60906-1 and has been adopted as a South African national Standard (SANS 164-2). The Brazilian version is non-compliant with the IEC standard. Not all plugs are included in the letter system; for example, there is no designation for the plugs defined by the Thai National Standard TIS 116-2549, though some web sites refer to the three-pin plug described in that standard as "Type O".

Identification guide

Table of mains voltages, frequencies, and plugs

Country or
territory
Plug type[lower-alpha 1] National plug standard[4] Residential
voltage[6]
Frequency[6] Notes
AfghanistanC, F220 V50 Hz
AlbaniaC, F230 V50 Hz
AlgeriaC, F230 V50 Hz
American SamoaA, B, F, I120 V60 Hz
AndorraC, F230 V50 Hz
AngolaC220 V50 Hz
AnguillaA110 V60 Hz
Antigua and BarbudaA, B230 V60 Hz
ArgentinaC, I230 V[7]50 HzLine/neutral reversed compared to Chinese and Australian/NZ Type I
ArmeniaC, F230 V50 Hz
ArubaA, B, F127 V60 Hz
AustraliaIAS/NZS 3112230 V[8][9]50 HzBathrooms may have shaver supply units
Line/neutral reversed compared to Argentinian Type I
AustriaC
F
ÖVE-IG/EN 50075
ÖVE/ÖNORM E 8620
230 V50 Hz
AzerbaijanC, F230 V50 Hz
BahamasA, B120 V60 Hz
BahrainG230 V50 Hz
BangladeshC, D, G, K220 V50 Hz
BarbadosA, B115 V50 Hz
BelarusC, F220 V50 Hz
BelgiumC, ENBN C 61 112-1230 V50 Hz
BelizeA, B, G110 V
220 V
60 Hz
BeninC, E220 V50 Hz
BermudaA, B120 V60 Hz
BhutanC, D, F, G, M230 V50 Hz
BoliviaA, C115 V
230 V
50 Hz
Bonaire[10][11][12][13], Sint Eustatius and Saba A, B127 V50 HzSockets for 220-240 V European type C plugs are typically available at hotels; some buildings modify voltage, so travellers are advised to check before plugging in. Type F are also available at some hotels.
Bosnia and HerzegovinaC, F230 V50 Hz
BotswanaD, G, M230 V50 Hz
BrazilC, NNBR 14136127 V
220 V[14]
60 Hz[15]
British Virgin IslandsA, B110 V60 Hz
BruneiG240 V50 Hz
BulgariaC, F230 V50 Hz
Burkina FasoC, E220 V50 Hz
BurundiC, E220 V50 Hz
CambodiaA, C, G230 V50 HzSockets for British type G plugs are mainly found at some hotels, but never in households.
CameroonC, E220 V50 Hz
CanadaA, BCSA C22.2 No. 42[16]120 V[17]60 HzHomes are typically provided with 120/240 V split-phase power; NEMA 14-30R and 14-50R receptacles are provided on 240 V circuits for clothes dryers and electric stoves.[18]
Cape VerdeC, F220 V50 Hz
Cayman IslandsA, B120 V60 Hz
Central African RepublicC, E220 V50 Hz
ChadC, D, E, F220 V50 Hz
ChileC, F, L220 V50 HzSchuko or type F plugs are often used for high power appliances.
China (mainland)A, C, IGB 1002-2008 &
GB 2099.1‐2008
220 V50 HzLine/neutral reversed compared to Argentinian Type I
ColombiaA, B120 V[19]60 Hz[20]
ComorosC, E220 V50 Hz
Congo, Republic of theC, E230 V50 Hz
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
C, D, E220 V50 Hz
Cook IslandsI240 V50 Hz
Costa RicaA, B120 V60 Hz
Côte d'IvoireC, E230 V50 Hz
CroatiaC, F230 V50 Hz
CubaA, B110 V60 HzSome modern hotels have 220 V sockets for European 2-pin plugs (Type C).[21]
Curaçao A,[22] B 127 V[22][23] 50 Hz[22]
CyprusG240 V50 Hz
Czech RepublicC, EČSN 35 4516230 V50 Hz
DenmarkC
E, F, K
DS/EN 50075
DS 60884-2-D1[24]
230 V50 Hz
DjiboutiC, E220 V50 Hz
DominicaD, G230 V50 Hz
Dominican RepublicA, B110 V60 Hz
EcuadorA, B120 V60 Hz
EgyptC, F220 V50 Hz
El SalvadorA, B115 V60 Hz
Equatorial GuineaC, E220 V50 Hz
EritreaC, L230 V50 Hz
EstoniaC, F230 V50 Hz
EswatiniM230 V50 Hz
EthiopiaC, E, F, L220 V50 HzType E very rare because Ethiopia never had French influences.
Falkland IslandsG240 V50 Hz
Faroe IslandsC, E, F, K230 V50 Hz
FijiI240 V50 Hz
FinlandC
F
SFS-EN 50075
SFS 5610
230 V50 Hz
FranceC
E
NF EN 50075
NF C 61-314
230 V50 Hz
French GuianaC, D, E220 V50 Hz
French PolynesiaA, B, C, E, F110 V
220 V
60 Hz
60 Hz[25]
GabonC220 V50 Hz
GambiaG230 V50 Hz
GeorgiaC, F220 V50 Hz
GermanyC
F
DIN VDE 0620
DIN 49441
230 V50 Hz
GhanaD, G230 V50 Hz
GibraltarC, G240 V50 Hz
GreeceC, F230 V50 Hz
GreenlandC, E, F, K220 V50 Hz
GrenadaG230 V50 Hz
GuadeloupeC, D, E230 V50 Hz
GuamA, B110 V60 Hz
GuatemalaA, B120 V60 Hz
GuernseyG230 V50 Hz
GuineaC, F, K220 V50 Hz
Guinea-BissauC220 V50 Hz
GuyanaA, B, D, G110 V
220 V[26]
60 Hz
50 Hz[26]
Conversion of 50 Hz distribution to 60 Hz is ongoing[27]
HaitiA, B110 V60 Hz
HondurasA, B110 V60 Hz
Hong KongG
D, M[28]
BS 1363
BS 546
220 V50 HzType G is most common.
HungaryC
F
MSZ EN 50075
MSZ 9781-2
230 V50 Hz
IcelandC, F230 V50 Hz
IndiaC, D, MIS 1293[29]230 V50 Hz
IndonesiaA, C, F, GSNI 04-3892220 V[2]50 HzBritish Type G sockets are common in Riau Islands Province (Batam, Bintan, etc.) due to close proximity to Singapore. British Type G sockets also being used for air conditioner where most air conditioner draws more current than the most sockets rating in Indonesia. Wall sockets in most homes in North Sumatra (in cities such as in Medan & Pematangsiantar) generally accept both Type A and Type C plugs.
IranC, F220 V50 Hz
IraqC, D, G230 V50 Hz
IrelandGI.S. 401[30]230 V50 Hz
Isle of ManG240 V50 Hz
IsraelC, H, M230 V50 HzSeveral territories controlled by the PNA also share the same type as the State of Israel.
ItalyC
F, L
CEI 23-34
CEI 23-50
230 V50 HzDifferent type L plugs are used for high-current vs. low-current devices
JamaicaA, B110 V50 Hz
JapanA, BJIS C 8303100 V60 Hz
50 Hz
East Japan 50 Hz (Tokyo, Kawasaki, Sapporo, Yokohama, and Sendai); West Japan 60 Hz (Okinawa, Osaka, Kyoto, Kobe, Nagoya, Hiroshima). 120 V in military facilities in Okinawa.[31] See Energy in Japan for more.
JerseyG230 V50 Hz
JordanB, C, D, F, G, J230 V50 Hz
KazakhstanC, F220 V50 Hz
KenyaG240 V50 Hz
KiribatiI240 V50 Hz
Kosovo
C, F230 V50 Hz
KuwaitC, G240 V50 Hz
KyrgyzstanC, F220 V50 Hz
LaosC, E, F230 V50 HzSome buildings and households have double use sockets compatible with type A, B and C.
LatviaC, F230 V50 Hz
LebanonA, B, C, D, G220 V50 HzType C sockets are the most frequent. Many buildings and households have double use sockets compatible with type A and C.
LesothoM220 V50 Hz
LiberiaA, B, C, E, F120 V
240 V
60 Hz
50 Hz
LibyaC, D, F, L127 V50 HzBarca, Benghazi, Derna, Sabha & Tobruk 230 V.
LithuaniaC, F230 V50 Hz
LiechtensteinC, J230 V50 Hz
LuxembourgC, F230 V50 Hz
MacauD, F, G, M230 V[32]50 Hz
MadagascarC, D, E, J, K127 V
220 V
50 Hz
MalawiG230 V50 Hz
MalaysiaC[33]
G[33]
M[33][34]
MS 1578:2003[33]
MS 589:PT.1:1997[33]
MS 1577:2003[33]
230 V[35]50 HzType C requires adaptor[36]
Bathrooms may have shaver supply units[36]
MaldivesD, G, J, K, L230 V50 Hz
MaliC, E220 V50 Hz
MaltaG230 V50 Hz
MartiniqueC, D, E220 V50 Hz
MauritaniaC220 V50 Hz
MauritiusC, E, G230 V50 Hz
MexicoA, BNMX-J-163-ANCE127 V60 Hz
MicronesiaA, B120 V60 Hz
MoldovaC, F220 V50 Hz
MonacoC, D, E, F230 V50 Hz
MongoliaC, E220 V50 Hz
MontenegroC, F230 V50 Hz
MontserratA, B120 V
230 V
60 Hz
MoroccoC, E127 V
220 V
50 Hz
MozambiqueC, F, M220 V50 Hz
MyanmarC, D, F, G230 V50 Hz
NamibiaD, M220 V50 Hz
NauruI240 V50 Hz
NepalC, D, M230 V50 Hz
NetherlandsC, FEN 50075
NEN 1020
230 V50 Hz
New CaledoniaC, E220 V50 Hz
New ZealandIAS/NZS 3112230 V50 HzLine/neutral reversed compared to Argentinian Type I
NicaraguaA, B120 V60 Hz
NigerA, B, C, D, E, F220 V50 Hz
NigeriaD, G240 V50 Hz
North KoreaA, C, F110 V
220 V
60 Hz
50 Hz
North MacedoniaC, F230 V
50 Hz
NorwayC
F
NEK EN 50075
NEK 502
230 V
50 Hz
OmanC, G240 V50 Hz
PakistanC, D, G, M230 V50 Hz
PalauA, B120 V60 Hz
PanamaA, B110 V
120 V
60 Hz
Papua New GuineaI240 V50 Hz
ParaguayC220 V50 Hz
PeruA, B, C

F, L[37]

220 V60 HzTalara 110/220 V; some areas 50 Hz[38]
PhilippinesA, B, C230 V[39]60 Hz
PolandC, EBN-88/3064230 V50 Hz
PortugalC, E, FNP 1260230 V50 HzType E very rare, but used in very old installations.
Puerto RicoA, B120 V60 Hz
QatarD, G240 V50 Hz
RéunionE220 V50 Hz
RomaniaC, F230 V50 Hz
RussiaC, F230 V[40]50 HzUSSR (along with much of Eastern Europe) used GOST sockets with 4.0 mm pins similar to Type C plugs and the 4.8 mm standard used by Type E & F.[41]
RwandaC, J230 V50 Hz
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
G220-240 V50 Hz
Saint Martin (French)C, E220 V60 Hz
Sint Maarten (Dutch)A, B120 V60 Hz
St. Kitts and NevisA, B, D, G110 V
230 V
60 Hz
St. LuciaG240 V50 Hz
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
E230 V50 Hz
St. Vincent and the GrenadinesC, E, G, I, K230 V50 Hz
SamoaI230 V50 Hz
San MarinoC, F, L230 V50 Hz
São Tomé and PríncipeC, F220 V50 Hz
Saudi ArabiaGSASO 2203220 V60 Hz
SenegalC, D, E, K230 V50 Hz
SerbiaC
F
JUS N.E3.552
JUS N.E3.553
230 V50 Hz
SeychellesG240 V50 Hz
Sierra LeoneD, G230 V50 Hz
SingaporeC
G
M
-
SS 145
SS 472
230 V50 Hz
SlovakiaC, ESTN 34 4516230 V50 Hz
SloveniaC, F230 V50 Hz
Solomon IslandsI, G220 V50 Hz
SomaliaC220 V50 Hz
South AfricaC, M, NSANS 164230 V50 Hz
South KoreaC, FKS C 8305220 V60 Hz
SpainC, FUNE 20315230 V50 Hz
Sri LankaD, G, M230 V50 HzOnly Type G permitted to be manufactured or imported from August 2017[42]
SudanC, D230 V50 Hz
SurinameC, F127 V60 HzType A and B tend to be very common because standard sockets can't accommodate such voltage.
SwedenC
F
SS-EN 50075
SS 428 08 34
230 V50 HzBathrooms may have shaver supply units.
SwitzerlandC, JSN SEV 1011:2009[43][44]230 V50 Hz
SyriaC, E, L220 V50 Hz
TaiwanA, BCNS 10917110 V60 HzSockets in older buildings are often unearthed and accept only Type A plugs.
TajikistanC, F, I220 V50 Hz
TanzaniaD, G230 V50 Hz
ThailandA, B, C, F-220 V50 HzThere is also a Thai national standard, TIS 166-2549 (sometimes known as Type O) which may not yet be in common use.[45][46]
Timor-Leste (East Timor)C, E, F, I220 V50 Hz
TogoC220 V50 Hz
TongaI240 V50 Hz
Trinidad & TobagoA, B115 V60 Hz
TunisiaC, E230 V50 Hz
TurkeyC, F220 V[47]50 Hz
TurkmenistanB, C, F220 V50 Hz
TuvaluI220 V50 Hz
UgandaG240 V50 Hz
UkraineC, F230 V[48]50 Hz
United Arab EmiratesC, G220 V50 HzType G is most common.
United KingdomG[49]BS 1363230 V[50]50 HzBathrooms may have shaver supply units
United StatesA
B
14-30 P
14-50 P
NEMA 1-15
NEMA 5-15
NEMA 14-30
NEMA 14-50
120 V
120 V
240 V
240 V
60 HzNEMA 5-20R outlets, which are similar to type B but have a T-shaped neutral blade, are sometimes used for higher current 120 V equipment (up to 20 A).
US Virgin IslandsA
B
NEMA 1-15 P
NEMA 5-15 P
110 V60 Hz
UruguayC, F, I, L230 V50 Hz
UzbekistanC, I220 V50 Hz
VanuatuC, G, I220 V50 Hz
VenezuelaA, B120 V60 Hz
VietnamA, C, GTCVN 6188-1 220 V50 HzSockets for British type G plugs are mainly found at some hotels, but never in households.
YemenA, D, G230 V50 Hz
ZambiaC, D, G230 V50 Hz
ZimbabweD, G220 V50 Hz
  1. "C" may indicate that buildings have three-pin sockets compatible with Europlugs, which also work with other plug types or that buildings have some or all two-pin European style sockets, similar to CEE 7/1, or that use of an adaptor is common practice. Not all two-pin European plugs are compatible with all two-pin European sockets; see AC power plugs and sockets § Compatibility.

See also

References

  1. World Plugs. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Retrieved on 2018-06-05.
  2. SPLN 1 : 1995, Standar PLN. "Tegangan-tegangan Standar". Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  3. "Before You Go". Indonesia.travel. Ministry of Tourism, Republic of Indonesia. Archived from the original on 23 April 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  4. IEC/TR 60083 ed7.0: Plugs and socket-outlets for domestic and similar general use standardized in member countries of IEC. International Electrotechnical Commission, October 2015. This 421-page technical report describes many national standards for domestic plugs and sockets. The first edition was published in January 1957. The 7th edition was approved in December 2012 and was published on 29th October 2015.
  5. "Universal AC Outlet • Setup Guide" (PDF). Anaheim, CA: Extron Electronics. November 2017. 68-1638-01 Rev. F. Retrieved 2018-05-21.
  6. "IEC - World Plugs: List view by location". Retrieved 2018-06-05.
  7. Reglamentado por AEA90364, IRAM2001 & IEC60083
  8. AS60038-2012 Standards AustraliaStandard Voltages
  9. When voltage varies. Electrical connection (2012-10-22). Retrieved on 2014-05-24.
  10. "Electrical Plug/Outlet and Voltage Information for Bonaire". Adaptelec.com.
  11. "F.A.Q." CaribbeanClubBonaire.com.
  12. "Technology on Bonaire". InfoBonaire.com.
  13. "Electricity". CaribInn.com.
  14. Brasil. Decreto n. 41.019, de 26 de fev. de 1957. Regulamenta os serviços de energia elétrica, BR: BR Government, 1957
  15. Brasil. Lei n. 4.454, de 06 de nov. de 1964. Dispõe sobre a unificação de frequência da corrente elétrica no País, BR: BR Government, 1964
  16. CSA Standard C22.2 No. 42-10: General use receptacles, attachment plugs, and similar wiring devices. Mississauga, Ontario: Canadian Standards Association. 2010. p. 1.
  17. CAN3-C235-83: Preferred Voltage Levels for AC Systems, 0 to 50 000 V. Rexdale (Toronto), Ontario: Canadian Standards Association. 1983. p. 9.
  18. C22.1-18: Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1. Toronto, Ontario: Canadian Standards Association. 2018. p. 243.
  19. Colombia. Resolución 90708: Reglamento Técnico de Instalaciones Eléctricas - RETIE, August 30, 2013, CO: Ministry of Mines and Energy, 2013
  20. Colombia. CREG RESOLUCIÓN No. 70, May 28, 1998, CO: Commission for the Regulation of Energy and Gas (CREG), 1998
  21. Cuba: Electricity - TripAdvisor
  22. "Curaçao Utilities". Curaçao Tourist Board. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  23. Confirmed 127V by looking at Aqualetric residential electricity meter
  24. Dansk Standard. "DS 60884-2-D1:2011 - Plugs and socket-outlets for household and similar purposes - Requirements for Danish systems". webshop.ds.dk.
  25. (PDF)(french) Page 10, Article 9
  26. History of Guyana Power and Light. Gplinc.com. Retrieved on 2014-01-01.
  27. GPL Converting Parts of the City to 60 Hz, retrieved 2009 July 31. Stabroeknews.com (2009-07-10). Retrieved on 2014-01-01.
  28. "Code of Practice for the Electricity (Wiring) Regulations" (PDF). Electrical and Mechanical Services Department. p. 221. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  29. October 2005. IS 1293 - Indian Standard - PLUGS AND SOCKET-OUTLETS OF RELATED VOLTAGE UP TO AND INCLUDING 250 VOLTS AND RATED CURRENT YP TO AND INCLUDING 16 AMPERES -- SPECIFICATION. Bureau of Indian Standards.
  30. I.S. 401, "Safety requirements for rewirable and non-rewirable 13A fused plugs for normal and rough use having insulating sleeves on line and neutral pins", NSAI (National Standards Authority of Ireland), (1997), Dublin
  31. MC&FP, Military Community Outreach,. "MilitaryINSTALLATIONS - U.S. Department of Defense". www.militaryinstallations.dod.mil. Retrieved 2018-07-13.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  32. Standard Conditions of Supply of Electricity. (Macau). Archived from the original 2016-06-03. Retrieved on 2016-04-14
  33. Plug Top/Plug (15 A and below) -Energy Commission of Malaysia. Archived from the original 2015-01-07.
  34. "Guidelines For Electrical Wiring In Residential Buildings" (PDF) (2008 ed.). Energy Commission of Malaysia.
  35. Voltan Nominal. Malaysian Energy Commission Notice (Nominal Voltage - 2008-01-01). Retrieved on 2019-02-11
  36. Socket Outlet (15 A and below) Archived 2015-01-07 at the Wayback Machine Energy Commission of Malaysia. (MS 1579:2003 is adaptor for Europlugs.)
  37. "MEM recomienda qué tipo de tomacorrientes se deben utilizar". Diario Correo (in Spanish). 2016-01-24. Retrieved 2019-08-26.
  38. Dilwyn Jenkins, The Rough Guide to Peru 2003 Rough Guides, ISBN 1-84353-074-0, p. 57
  39. Philippine Electrical Code, section 2.20.1.5 (a)
  40. "Standard Voltages". docs.cntd.ru. Document gost-29322-92 via Google Translate: "The nominal voltages of the existing 220/380 and 240/415 V networks should be reduced to the recommended value of 230/400 V. Until 2003, as a first stage, power supply companies in countries with a 220/380 V network should lead the voltage to The value of 230/400 V (GOST 29322-92 (IEC 38-83) Standard voltage%). Electricity supply companies in countries with 240/415 V network should also bring this voltage to the value 230/400 V (GOST 29322-92 (IEC 38-83) Standard voltage%). After 2003, the range of 230/400 V ± 10% should be reached. Then, the issue of reducing the limits will be considered."
  41. ГОСТ 7396.1–89 - Plugs (Electrical) and socket-outlets for domestic and similar general use. Standards. Elec.ru (2013-01-30). Retrieved on 2013-02-05.
  42. "New standards for 13A plugs and socket outlets manufactures & importers" (Press release). Public Utilities Commission of Sri Lanka. 13 June 2018.
  43. "Information SEV 1011 – power socket/plug/connector" (PDF). esti.admin.ch (PDF). Federal Inspectorate for Heavy Current Installations ESTI, Swiss Confederation. 1 August 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
  44. "New standard for plugs in Switzerland starting from 2013" (PDF) (PDF). Federal Inspectorate for Heavy Current Installations ESTI, Swiss Confederation. 13 May 2011. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
  45. TIS 166-2549 (2006): Thai Industrial Standards for Plugs and socket-outlets for household and similar purposes : plugs and socket-outlets with rated voltage not exceeding 250 V (English translation) Archived from the original 2016-07-07.
  46. TIS 166-2549 (2006) THAI INDUSTRIAL STANDARD - PLUGS AND SOCKET–OUTLETS FOR HOUSEHOLD AND SIMILAR PURPOSES : PLUGS AND SOCKET–OUTLETS WITH RATED VOLTAGE NOT EXCEEDING 250 V (Original Thai) ISBN 974-9815-94-7
  47. Turkish Electric Plugs & Sockets. Retrieved on 2017-03-26.
  48. ДСТУ ЕN 50160:2014
  49. Mullins, Malcolm (Spring 2006). "The Origin of the BS 1363 Plug and Socket-Outlet System". IEE Wiring Matters. Institute of Electrical Engineers. Retrieved 2016-10-16.
  50. The Electricity Safety, Quality and Continuity Regulations 2002 PART VII Regulation 27, UK: UK Government, 2002
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