Lower Austria

Lower Austria (German: Niederösterreich [ˈniːdɐˌʔøːstɐʁaɪ̯ç] (listen); Czech: Dolní Rakousy; Slovak: Dolné Rakúsko) is the northeasternmost of the nine states of Austria. Since 1986, the capital of Lower Austria has been St. Polten, the most recently designated capital in Austria. Previously, Lower Austria's capital was Vienna, even though Vienna has not officially been part of Lower Austria since 1921. With a land area of 19,186 km2 (7,408 sq mi) and a population of 1.612 million people, Lower Austria is the country's largest state; it is the second most populous after the federal state of Vienna. Other main cities are Amstetten, Krems an der Donau and Wiener Neustadt.

Lower Austria

Niederösterreich

Flag

Coat of arms
Country Austria
CapitalSankt Pölten
Government
  GovernorJohanna Mikl-Leitner (ÖVP)
  Deputy Governors
  • Stephan Pernkopf (ÖVP)
Area
  Total19,186 km2 (7,408 sq mi)
Population
 (1 January 2019)
  Total1,670,688
  Density87/km2 (230/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeAT-3
HDI (2017)0.872[1]
very high · 8th
NUTS RegionAT1
Votes in Bundesrat12 (of 62)
Websitewww.noe.gv.at

Geography

Situated east of Upper Austria, Lower Austria derives its name from its downriver location on the Enns River, which flows from west to east. Lower Austria has an international border, 414 km (257 mi) long, with the Czech Republic (South Moravia Region) and Slovakia (Bratislava and Trnava Regions). The state has the second longest external border of all Austrian states. It also borders the other Austrian states of Upper Austria, Styria and Burgenland as well as surrounding Vienna.

Lower Austria is divided into four regions, known as Viertel (quarters):

These regions have different geographical structures. Whilst the Mostviertel is dominated by the foothills of the Limestone Alps with mountains up to 2,000 m (AA) high, most of the Waldviertel is a granite plateau. The hilly Weinviertel lies to the northeast, descends to the plains of Marchfeld in the east of the state, and is separated by the Danube from the Vienna Basin to the south, which in turn is separated from the Vienna Woods by a line of thermal springs (the Thermenlinie) running north to south.

Mountains

  • Schneeberg (Klosterwappen; 2,076 m)
  • Rax (Scheibwaldhöhe; 1,943 m; highest summit: Heukuppe; 2,007 m – Styria)
  • Ötscher (1,893 m)
  • Dürrenstein (1,878 m)
  • Schneealpe (Ameisbühel; 1,828 m; highest summit: Windberg; 1,903 m – Styria)
  • Hochkar (1,808 m)
  • Gamsstein (1,774 m)
  • Stumpfmauer (1,770 m)
  • Göller (1,766 m)
  • Hochwechsel (1,743 m)
  • Gippel (1,669 m)
  • Großer Sonnleitstein (1,639 m)
  • Großer Zellerhut (1,639 m)
  • Gemeindealpe (1,626 m)
  • Scheiblingstein (1,622 m) (not to be confused with Scheiblingstein (2,197 m), which is in Styria)
  • Drahtekogel (1,565 m)
  • Sonnwendstein (1,523 m)
  • Obersberg (1,467 m)
  • Königsberg (1,452 m)
  • Großer Sulzberg (1,400 m)
  • Reisalpe (1,399 m)
  • Gahns (1,380 m)
  • Tirolerkogel (1,377 m)
  • Türnitzer Höger (1,372 m)
  • Unterberg (1,342 m)
  • Traisenberg (1,230 m)
  • Dürre Wand (1,222 m)
  • Hohenstein (1,195 m)
  • Eisenstein (1,185 m)
  • Hohe Wand (1,132 m)
  • Großer Peilstein (1,061 m)
  • Weinsberg (1,041 m)
  • Hocheck (1,036 m)
  • Nebelstein (1,017 m)
  • Eibl (1,007 m)
  • Hohe Mandling (967 m)
  • Jauerling (961 m)
  • Anninger (675 m)
  • Buschberg (491 m)

Other mountains in Lower Austria may be found at Category:Mountains of Lower Austria.

Alpine passes

The state border with Styria runs over both passes.

Rivers

Almost all of Lower Austria is drained by the Danube. The only river that flows into the North Sea (via the Moldau and the Elbe) is the Lainsitz in northern Waldviertel.

The most important rivers north of the Danube (on its left bank) are the Ysper, Kamp, Krems, Lainsitz, March and Thaya. South of the Danube (on its right bank) are the Enns, Ybbs, Erlauf, Melk, Pielach, Traisen, Schwechat, Fischa, Schwarza, Triesting, Pitten and the Leitha.

Lakes

  • Ottenstein Reservoir (4.3 km2)
  • Lunzer See (0.69 km2)
  • Erlaufsee (0.56 km2, of which about half lies in Lower Austria)
  • Erlauf Reservoir
  • Wienerwaldsee (0.32 km2)

Caves

Lower Austria is rich in natural caves; in all 4,082 have been recorded. Most of the caves have formed in limestone and dolomite rocks and are therefore called karst caves. Cavities also form in the marble of the Central Alps and the Bohemian Massif. Among the largest caves in Lower Austria are:

The last two are open as show caves, along with the Allander stalactite cave, the Unicorn Cave, the Hochkarschacht, the Nixhöhle and the Ötschertropfsteinhöhle.

Land use

Type of land useArea in km2Percent of
total area
Farmland7,00042
Woods6,71140
Grassland1,75011
Alpine pastures3001.7
Vineyards3151.9

History

The history of Lower Austria is very similar to the history of Austria. Many castles are located in Lower Austria. Klosterneuburg Abbey, located here, is one of the oldest abbeys in Austria. Before World War II, Lower Austria had the largest number of Jews in Austria.

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±%
18691,077,232    
18801,152,767+7.0%
18901,213,471+5.3%
19001,310,506+8.0%
19101,425,238+8.8%
19231,426,885+0.1%
19341,446,675+1.4%
19391,455,373+0.6%
19511,400,471−3.8%
19611,374,012−1.9%
19711,420,816+3.4%
19811,426,370+0.4%
19901,455,968+2.1%
19951,518,489+4.3%
20001,535,083+1.1%
20051,568,949+2.2%
20101,605,897+2.4%
20141,625,335+1.2%
20151,636,287+0.7%
20161,653,419+1.0%

Administrative divisions

Lower Austria is divided into four regions: Waldviertel, Mostviertel, Industrieviertel, and Weinviertel. The Wachau valley, situated between Melk and Krems in the Mostviertel region, is famous for its landscape, culture, and wine.

Administratively, the state is divided into 20 districts (Bezirke), and four independent towns (Statutarstädte). In total, there are 573 municipalities within Lower Austria.

Independent towns

Districts

References

  1. "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.

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