List of words ending in ology

The suffix ology is commonly used in the English language to denote a field of study. The ology ending is a combination of the letter o plus logy in which the letter o is used as an interconsonantal letter which, for phonological reasons, precedes the morpheme suffix logy.[1] Logy is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in -λογία (-logia).[2]

English names for fields of study are usually created by taking a root (the subject of the study) and appending the suffix logy to it with the interconsonantal o placed in between (with an exception explained below). For example, the word dermatology comes from the root dermato plus logy.[3] Sometimes, an excrescence, the addition of a consonant, must be added to avoid poor construction of words.

There are additional uses for the suffix such as to describe a subject rather than the study of it (e.g. technology). The suffix is often humorously appended to other English words to create nonce words. For example, stupidology would refer to the study of stupidity; beerology would refer to the study of beer.[1]

Not all scientific studies are suffixed with ology. When the root word ends with the letter "L" or a vowel, exceptions occur. For example, the study of mammals would take the root word mammal and append ology to it resulting in mammalology but because of its final letter being an "L", it instead creates mammalogy. There are exceptions for this exception too. For example, the word angelology with the root word angel, ends in an "L" but is not spelt angelogy as according to the "L" rule.[4][5]

The terminal -logy is used to denote a discipline. These terms often utilize the suffix -logist or -ologist to describe one who studies the topic. In this case, the suffix ology would be replaced with ologist. For example, one who studies biology is called a biologist.

This list of words contains all words that end in ology. It includes words that denote a field of study and those that do not, as well as common misspelled words which do not end in ology but are often written as such.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
abiologyThe study of inanimate, inorganic, or lifeless things.
acanthochronologyThe study of cactus spines or euphorbia thorns grown in time ordered sequence.
acanthologyThe study of spined things, in particular sea urchins, and the resultant impact on taxonomy.
acarologyThe study of mites and ticks.
accentologyThe systematic analysis of word or phrase stress and accentuation in language.
aceologyThe science of remedies or therapeutics.
  • iamatology
acologyThe science of medical remedies, Materia Medica.
acridologyThe study of grasshoppers and locusts (infraorder Acrididea).
acropathologyThe study of diseases affecting limbs.
actinobiologyThe study of the effects of radiation upon living organisms.
actinologyThe study of the effect of light on chemicals.
acyrologyThe incorrect use of language.
  • cacology
adenologyThe branch of medicine dealing with the development, structure, function, and diseases of glands.
aedoeologyThe study of human genitalia.
aerobiologyA branch of biology that studies organic particles, such as bacteria, fungal spores, very small insects, pollen grains and viruses, which are passively transported by the air.
aerolithologyThe study of meteorites.
aerogeologyThe study of geological features by aerial observation and aerophotography.
  1. The branch of meteorology involving the observation of the atmosphere by means of balloons, airplanes, etc.
  2. The study of the air and of the atmosphere; used in the US Navy until early 1957.
  • meteorology
aeropalynologyThe study of pollen grains and spores (palynomorphs) in the atmosphere.
  1. The establishment of a cause, origin, or reason for something.
  2. The study of causes or causation.
  3. The study or investigation of the causes of disease; a scientific explanation for the origin of a disease.


  • etiology
  • ætiology
agathologyThe science or theory of the good or goodness.
agmatologyThe branch of medical science that studies fractures.
agnoiologyThe study of things of which humans are by nature ignorant, or of things which cannot be known.
  • agniology
  • agnoeology
agnotologyThe study of culturally induced ignorance or doubt, particularly the publication of inaccurate or misleading scientific data.
  • agnatology
agriologyThe comparative study of primitive, illiterate or "savage" cultures.
agrobiologyThe science of plant nutrition and growth in relation to soil conditions, especially to determine ways to increase crop yields.
agroclimatologyThe study of meteorological, climatological, and hydrological conditions which are significant for agriculture owing to their interaction with the objects and process of agriculture production.
agroecologyThe study of ecological processes that operate in agricultural production systems.
agrogeologyThe study of the origins of minerals known as agrominerals and their applications.
  1. The science and art of agriculture.
  2. A sub-discipline of soil science which addresses optimizing crop production (common usage, not acceptable to soil scientists)
  3. A sub-discipline of agronomy which addresses the influence of edaphic conditions on crop production.
agrometeorologyThe study of weather and use of weather and climate information to enhance or expand agricultural crops and/or to increase crop production.
agrostologyThe scientific study of the grasses (family Poaceae).
  • graminology
agrotechnologyThe application of modern technology to agriculture.
  1. The study of causation, or origination.
  2. The causes of diseases or pathologies. (medicine)
  • etiology
  • aetiology
  • ætiology

Interdisciplinary branch of the humanities that addresses the language, costume, literature, art, culture and history of Albanians.

alethiologyThe study of the nature of truth or aletheia.
  • alethology
  1. The medical treatment of pain as practiced in Greece and Turkey.
  2. The branch of botany dealing with algae.

2. phycology

alimentologyThe study of nutrition.
allergologyThe study of the causes and treatment of allergies.
alphabetologyThe study of alphabetic systems of writing.
amphibiologyThe branch of zoology that deals with the class Amphibia.
amphibologyA situation where a sentence may be interpreted in more than one way due to ambiguous sentence structure.
  • amphiboly
anaplastologyThe branch of medicine dealing with the prosthetic rehabilitation of an absent, disfigured or malformed anatomically critical location of the face or body.
anarcheology[lower-alpha 1]The study of how people throughout history have progressed and thrived with limited government (minarchy) or with no government at all.
anatripsologyThe study of friction as a remedy in medicine.
andrologyThe medical specialty that deals with male health, particularly relating to the problems of the male reproductive system and urological problems that are unique to men.
anemologyThe study of wind.
anesthesiologyThe study of anesthesia and anesthetics.
angelologyThe study of angels.
angiologyThe study of the anatomy of blood and lymph vascular systems.
angiopathologyThe pathology of diseased blood vessels.
antapologyThe reply to an apology.
anthoecologyThe branch of ecology that studies the relationship of flowers to their environment.
anthologyA published collection of poems or other pieces of writing.
anthropobiologyThe study of the biologic relationships of humans as a species.
  • bioanthropology
anthropologyThe holistic scientific and social study of humanity, mainly using ethnography as its method.
anthropomorphologyThe attribution of human characteristics to God.
anthroposociologyThe anthropological and sociological study of race as a means of establishing the superiority of certain peoples.
anthrozoologyThe study of the interactions between humans and animals.
antitechnologyA philosophy opposing technology.
aphasiologyThe study of linguistic problems or aphasias resulting from brain damage.
aphnologyThe study of wealth.
  • plutology
apicologyThe study of honey bee ecology.
apiologyThe scientific study of honey bees and honey-making.
  • apidology
apologyAn acknowledgement for a failure or mistake.
arachnologyThe scientific study of spiders and related animals such as scorpions, pseudoscorpions, and harvestmen, collectively called arachnids.
araneologyThe branch of arachnology that deals with spiders.
archeogeology[lower-alpha 1]The branch of geology that studies the geological formations of the past.
archeology[lower-alpha 1]The study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
archeozoology[lower-alpha 1]The study of faunal remains or the items left behind when an animal dies.
archologyThe study of the science of governance or the origin of things.
arcologyA field of creating architectural design principles for very densely populated, ecologically low-impact human habitats.
areologyThe study of the planet Mars' geology.
  1. The part of moral philosophy which treats of virtue, its nature, and the means of attaining to it.
  2. A narrative about a divine figure's miraculous deeds.
aristologyThe art or study of cooking and dining.
arkeologyThe study of the story of Noah's Ark, particularly the search for physical evidence which would corroborate it.
ArmenologyThe study of Armenian history, language, and culture.
arteriologyThe branch of angiology dealing with arteries.
arthrologyThe branch of anatomy dealing with joints.
  • synosteology
arthropathologyThe study of functional and structural changes made by diseases of the joints.
arthropodologyThe study of arthropods.
AssyriologyThe study of the Assyrians.
astacologyThe study of crayfish.
astheniologyThe study of diseases of weakening and aging.
asthmologyThe study of asthma.
astroarcheaology[lower-alpha 1]The study of astronomical knowledge of prehistoric cultures; archaeoastronomy.
astrobiologyThe study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe: extraterrestrial life and life on Earth.
astrogeologyThe science dealing with the structure and composition of planets and other bodies in the solar system.
  • exogeology
astrolithologyThe study of aerolites.
astrologyThe study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
astrometeorologyThe study of the theoretical effects of astronomical bodies and forces on the Earth's atmosphere.
astroseismologyThe study of oscillations in stars.
atheologyThe resistance or opposition to theology.
atmologyThe branch of science dealing with the laws and phenomena of aqueous vapour.
atmospherologyThe study of a planetary atmosphere.
atomologyThe study or doctrine of atoms.
audiologyThe study of the auditory and vestibular systems, and associated disorders.
autecologyOne of two broad subdivisions of ecology, which studies the individual organism or species.
autologyThe study of oneself.
autonumerologyThe study of unusual license plates.
auxanologyThe study of growth.
  • auxology
auxologyThe study of growth.
  • auxanology
axiologyThe philosophical study of value.
azoologyThe study of inanimate nature.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
bacteriologyThe scientific study of bacteria, especially in relation to disease and agriculture.
balneologyThe study of the treatment of disease by bathing, usually practiced at spas.
barologyThe study of gravity and weight and their relation.
bascologyThe study of Basque language and culture.
batologyThe scientific study of plants in the genus Rubus, commonly known as brambles.
batrachologyThe study of amphibians.
battologyContinual unnecessary reiteration of the same words, phrases, or ideas.
bibliologyThe study of books as physical, cultural objects.
biocenologyThe branch of biology dealing with the study of biological communities and the interactions among their members.
  • biocoenology
bioclimatologyThe interdisciplinary field of science that studies the interactions between the biosphere and the Earth's atmosphere on time scales of the order of seasons or longer (in opposition to biometeorology).
bioecologyThe study of the relationship of organisms to each other and to their environment.
biogerontologyThe sub-field of gerontology concerned with the biological aging process, its evolutionary origins, and potential means to intervene in the process.
biologyThe study of life and living organisms and their morphology, anatomy, and physiology.
biometeorologyThe study of the relationship between atmospheric conditions (the weather) and living organisms.
biopsychologyThe application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals.
  • psychobiology
  • biological psychology
  • behavioral neuroscience
biospeleologyThe branch of biology dedicated to the study of organisms that live in caves and are collectively referred to as troglofauna.
  • cave biology
biotechnologyThe use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products.
bolloxology(Irish slang) Nonsense, derived from the word bollocks.
boxologyA representation of an organized structure as a graph of labelled nodes ("boxes") and connections between them (as lines or arrows).
  1. The colloquial omission of words from a phrase; e.g. "morning" instead of "good morning".
  2. Consice speech or laconism.

1. brachylogy

bracketologyThe practice of predicting and analyzing sports tournament brackets.
brewologyThe science or study of brewing, especially of brewing beer.
bromatologyThe study of food.
brontologyThe study of thunder.
bryologyThe branch of botany concerned with the scientific study of bryophytes.
bumpologyArchaic and derogatory term for phrenology.
  1. The study of buttons.
  2. In computing, the basic training required to start using a piece of software: what the components of the interface are, what they do, how to accomplish basic tasks.
ByzantinologyThe interdisciplinary branch of the humanities that addresses the history, culture, costumes, religion, art, such as literature and music, science, economy, and politics of the Byzantine Empire.
  • Byzantine studies
  • Byzantology


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
cacologyPoor diction or word choice.
  • acyrology
caliologyThe study of birds nests.
  • nidology
campanologyThe study of bells: their casting, tuning, and ringing.
cancerologyThe study of cancer.
capologyExpertise in the mechanics of salary caps, the rules regulating the total amount of player compensation.
carabidologyThe study of ground beetles (family Carabidae).
carcinologyThe study of crustaceans.
  • malacostracology
  • crustalogy
  • crustaceology
cardiologyThe study of the heart.
caricologyThe study of carex or sedges.
cariologyThe study of dental caries and cariogenesis.
carphologyA lint-picking behavior that is often a symptom of a delirious state.
carpologyThe study of the structure of seeds and fruit.
cartologyThe creation of charts and maps based on the layout of a territory's geography.
catachronobiologyThe study of the deleterious effects of time on a living system.
cecidiologyThe study of galls or cecidia.
cephalologyThe science of the head.
cerealogyThe study of crop circles.
cereologyThe study of, or practice of creating crop circles.
cerebrologyThe science that deals with the cerebrum or brain.
cetologyThe branch of zoology concerned with the order Cetacea, which includes whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
chalcidologyThe study of chalcid wasps.
chaologyThe study of chaos and chaotic systems.
  • chaos theory
characterologyThe study of character reading that attempts to combine revised physiognomy, reconstructed phrenology and amplified pathognomy, with ethnology, sociology and anthropology.
cheesologyThe study of cheese.
  • fromology
cheloniologyThe study of turtles or tortoises (order Chelonia).
  • chelonology
  • testudinology
chemoimmunologyThe branch of chemistry that studies the chemical processes in immunology.
  1. The study of chess.
  2. The study of cheese.
  • 2. fromology
  1. The study of the hand.
  2. Palm reading.
chondrologyThe study of cartilage.
choreologyThe study of the aesthetic and science of forms of human movement by special notation.
  • Benesh Movement Notation
  1. The study of the causal relations between geographical phenomena occurring within a particular region
  2. The study of the spatial distribution of organisms.
chresmologyThe study of prophecies.
  • chrismology
ChristologyThe field of study within Christian theology which is primarily concerned with the nature and person of Jesus as recorded in the canonical Gospels and the epistles of the New Testament.
chromatologyThe study of colour.
chronobiologyA field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms.
  1. The study of things in order of time or the study of time.
  2. The arrangement of events or dates in the order of their occurrence.
  1. The study of the influence of biological rhythms on neoplastic growths.
  2. The study of the timing of drug administration for anti-cancer treatments.
chronopharmacologyThe study of the effects of biological rhythms on pharmacotherapy and drug administration.
chrysologyThe study of the production of wealth.
cinematologyThe art and science of making movies; cinematography.
cirripedologyThe study of barnacles.
climatologyThe science that deals with climates, and investigates their phenomena and causes.
clinologyThe study of retrogression and decline in form and function in an animal or organism.
clonologyThe science or study of cloning and clones.
clownologyThe study of being a clown.
coalitionologySpeculation in the run-up to a general election about possible coalition governments that might ensue. Used in Britain and Ireland.
coccidologyThe study of scale insects, mealybugs, and organisms within the superfamily Coccoidea.
codicologyThe study of books as physical objects, especially manuscripts written on parchment (or paper) in codex form.
codology(Irish) Hoaxing, humbugging, bluffing, leg-pulling.
  • kidology
cognitologyThe multidisciplinary study of mind and behavior.
  • cognitive science
cohomologyThe theory of a sequence of abelian groups associated to a topological space, often defined from a cochain complex.
coleopterologyThe scientific study of beetles (order Coleoptera).
coloproctologyBranch of medicine dealing with pathology of the colon, rectum, and anus and colorectal surgery.
cometologyThe branch of astronomy that deals with comets.
comitologyIn the European Union, the system of committees, composed of representatives of the member states, used to oversee European Commission implementing acts made under European Union legislation.
complementologyThe branch of immunology that deals with complement (one of four proteolytic cascades in blood).
computerologyThe study of computers, or any kind of work with computers.
  1. The study of molluscs and their shells.
  2. The hobby of shell collecting.
coniologyThe study of atmospheric dust and its effects on organisms.
connectologyThe configuration according to which devices, tubes, etc. are connected. Used in medicine.
conscientologyThe study of consciousness.
  • conscientiology
conspiratologyThe study of conspiracies.
contrologyThe methods of the physical fitness system called Pilates.
coprologyThe study of feces.
  • scatology
cosmecologyThe science that considers the earth in its relation to cosmic phenomena.
cosmetologyThe science or study of cosmetics or being a beautician.
cosmochronologyThe science of determining timescales for astrophysical objects and events.
cosmologyThe study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
craniologyA pseudomedicine primarily focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind and the mental state can be determined by physical external characteristics.
  • phrenology
crapologyNonsense, rubbish. Derived from the word crap.
crenologyThe utilization of mineral springs for therapeutic purposes.
  • craunology
criminologyThe scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.
  1. The part of logic dealing with the establishment of criteria.
  2. The study of how judgments can be made solely based on specific criteria.
crustaceologyThe branch of zoology dealing with crustaceans.
  • carcinology
  • malacostracology
  • crustalogy
cryobiologyThe study of biological material or systems at temperatures below normal.
cryologyThe study of very low temperatures and related phenomena.
cryopedologyThe study of frozen grounds and intensive frost action.
cryptologyThe study and practice of analyzing encoded messages, in order to decode them.
  • cryptography
cryptozoologyA pseudoscience involving the search for creatures whose existence has not been proven due to lack of evidence.
crystallologyThe study of the crystalline structure of inorganic bodies.
ctetologyThe branch of biology that studies the origin and development of acquired characteristics.
curiologyThe study of picture writing, especially crude hieroglyphics.
  • kuriology
cyclonologyThe study of cyclones.
cyesiologyThe study of gestation and pregnancy.
cynologyThe study of dogs.
cystologyThe study of cysts.
cytologyThe study of cells.
cytomorphologyThe study of the structure of cells.
cytopathologyA branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level.
cytophysiologyThe physiology of cells.
cytotechnologyThe study of cells to detect cancer and other abnormalities.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
DacologyThe study of ancient Dacia and its culture and antiquities.
  1. The study of finger rings.
  2. The study of gem engraving.
dactylologyThe representation of the letters of a writing system and sometimes numeral systems using only the hands, especially by the deaf; fingerspelling.
daemonologyThe study of demons, especially the incantations required to summon and control them.
  • demonology
dantologyThe study of Dante Alighieri and his works.
defectologyA branch of science that is concerned with the study of the principles and characteristics of the development of children with physical and mental defects and the problems of their training and upbringing. Also describes the training of teachers of handicapped children. (Used in former Soviet Union.)
dekalogyA series of ten related works.
deltiologyThe study and collection of postcards.
demologyThe study of human populations, activities, social conditions, and behaviour.
demonologyThe study of demons, especially the incantations required to summon and control them.
  • daemonology
dendroarcheology[lower-alpha 1]In archeology, the science that uses dendrochronology to date wooden material from archeological sites.
dendrochronologyThe science that uses the spacing between the annual growth rings of trees to date their exact year of formation.
dendroclimatologyThe science that uses dendrochronology to reconstruct historical climate conditions.
dendroecologyThe science that uses dendrochronology to analyze historic ecological processes.
dendrogeomorphologyThe science that uses dendrochronology to study changes to the Earth's surface over time.
dendrohydrologyThe science that uses dendrochronology to investigate and reconstruct hydrologic processes, such as river flow and past lake levels.
dendrologyThe study of trees.
dendropyrochronologyThe use of tree rings to study and reconstruct the history of wild fires.
deontologyThe study of the nature of duty and obligation.
dermatologyThe study of skin.
dermatoneurologyThe study of nerves of the skin.
dermatopathologyA subspecialty of dermatology and pathology and to a lesser extent of surgical pathology that focuses on the study of cutaneous (skin) diseases at a microscopic and molecular level.
dermatovenerologyThe study of skin disease and sexually transmitted disease and how symptoms of STD's appear on the skin.
dermonosologyThe science of nomenclature and classification of skin diseases.
desmidiologyThe study of single-celled algae.
desmologyThe study of ligaments.
diabetologyThe study of Diabetes mellitus.
diabologyThe study of the devil and beliefs of the devil in religion.
dicaeologyAn excuse or justification.
dialectologyThe scientific study of linguistic dialect, a sub-field of sociolinguistics.
dinosaurologyThe branch of paleontology that focuses on studying dinosaurs.
  1. The analysis of original texts or documents.
  2. The study of diplomats.
  3. The study of diplomatics.
dipterologyThe study of flies (order Diptera).
dittologyA double reading or twofold interpretation of a text.
docimologyThe study or act of scientific testing or assaying metals and ores.
dogmatologyThe study of religious dogma.
dosiologyThe study of dosages of drugs.
  • dosology
  • posology
dosologyThe study of dosages of drugs.
  • dosiology
  • posology
doxologyA short hymn of praises to God in various forms of Christian worship, often added to the end of canticles, psalms, and hymns.
dracologyThe study of the mythology surrounding dragons.
draconologyThe study of dragons.
  • dragonology
dragonologyThe study of dragons.
  • draconology
dronologyA genre of music which heavily utilizes drones. Also used to describe the use of drones in music.
duologyA pair of related novels, plays, or movies.
dysteleologyThe philosophical view that existence has no telos or final cause from purposeful design.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
ecclesiologyThe theological study of the Christian Church.
eccrinologyThe study of the secretion of the eccrine glands.
echinologyThe study of echinoderms.
ecohydrologyThe study of the interactions between water and ecosystems.
ecologyThe scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment.
ecophysiologyThe study of the adaptation of an organism's physiology to environmental conditions.
  • environmental physiology
  • physiological ecology
ecopsychologyThe study of the relationship between human beings and the natural world through ecological and psychological principles.
ecotoxicologyThe study of the effects of toxic chemicals on biological organisms, especially at the population, community, ecosystem level.
edaphologyA soil science concerned with the influence of soils on living things, particularly plants.
  1. An epistemological system that seeks to "define the knowledge as a set of texts, discourses (and thus terms), and to assign the scientificity of those texts to the very conditions of their publishing, the manner they are accepted by the international scientific community" developed by Jean C. Baudet.
  2. The study of editing.
eidologyThe study of mental imagery.
EgyptologyThe study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD.
electrobiologyThe study of the production and use of electricity by biological organisms.
  1. The practice and study of electrical epilation to permanently remove human hair.
  2. The branch of physical science that deals with electricity and its properties.
electrophysiologyThe study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.
electrotechnologyThe technological and industrial applications of electricity.
emblematologyThe study of emblems.
embryologyThe branch of biology that studies the development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
emetologyThe study of the causes of emesis (vomiting).
emmenologyThe study of menstruation.
  1. The way a group of people think and speak about their emotions.
  2. The multidisciplinary study of emotions.
encephalologyThe study of the brain and its function, structure and anatomy, and diseases.
endemiologyThe study of endemic diseases.
endocrinologyA branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
engysseismologyThe branch of seismology that deals with earthquake shocks registered in or near the region of disturbance.
enigmatologyThe study of puzzles.
enologyThe study of wines.
  • oenology
enteradenologyThe study of the gastrointestinal tract and glands.
enterologyThe study of the intestinal tract.
entomechologyThe study and design of mechanical insects.
entomologyThe scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.
entozoologyThe study of entozoa, a type of microscopic parasitic worm.
entreprenologyThe study of entrepreneurship.
enzymologyThe branch of science that studies enzymes.
epidemiologyThe study and analysis of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
epileptologyThe branch of neurology that studies epilepsy.
epiphytologyThe study of the character, ecology, and causes of plant diseases, especially epiphytotic outbreaks.
epistemologyThe branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
epizootiologyThe study of disease patterns within animal populations.
  • epizoology
  • veterinary epidemiology
equinologyThe study of horses.
  • hippology
eremologyThe study of deserts.
  1. The study of the psychological effects of work, or of work patterns; especially the causes of work-related stress (job stress).
  2. In ethnology, knowledge originating from the study of the object culture of non-European traditional societies.
erotologyThe study of sexual stimuli and behavior.
ertologyFan activities based on Ertar, an alternative reality project, created by a group of Czech science fiction fans.
escapologyThe practice of escaping from restraints or other traps; escape art.
eschatologyA part of theology concerned with the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity.
EskimologyA complex of humanities sciences studying languages, history, literature, folklore, culture, and ethnology of people speaking Eskimo–Aleut languages and Eskimo (InuitYupik)–Aleut peoples in chronological and comparative context.
  • Inuitology
EsperantologyThe study of Esperanto.
  • Esperatology
EsperatologyThe study of Esperanto.
  • Esperantology
ethnoarcheology[lower-alpha 1]The ethnographic study of people for archeological reasons, usually through the study of the material remains of a society.
ethnobiologyThe scientific study of the way living things are treated or used by different human cultures.
ethnocynologyA neologism referring to the study of dogs within their cultural context.
ethnoecologyThe scientific study of how different groups of people living in different locations understand the ecosystems around them, and their relationships with surrounding environments.
ethnologyThe branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different people and the relationship between them.
ethnomethodologyThe study of methods people use for understanding and producing the social order in which they live.
ethnomusicologyThe study of the music of different cultures and their cultural contexts, especially non-Western ones.
ethnopsychologyThe study of alternative perceptions of the mind and its behavior.
ethologyThe scientific and objective study of non-human animal behaviour rather than human behaviour usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
  1. The study of causation, or origination.
  2. The causes of diseases or pathologies.
  • aetiology
  • ætiology
  • aitiology
etruscologyThe study of the ancient Italian civilization of the Etruscans.
etymologyThe study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.
euchologyOne of the chief liturgical books of the Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches, containing the portions of the services which are said by the bishop, priest, or deacon.
exoarcheology[lower-alpha 1]Argued to be the same as xenoarcheology, a fictional science concerned with the physical remains of alien cultures. May also mean the study of human activities in a space environment.
exobiologyThe branch of biology dealing with extraterrestrial lifeforms.
  • astrobiology
  • xenobiology
exogeologyA planetary science discipline concerned with the geology of the celestial bodies such as the planets and their moons, asteroids, comets, and meteorites.
  • astrogeology
  • planetary geology
exomoonologyThe search for and study of exomoons.
exoplanetologyAn integrated field of astronomical science dedicated to the search and study of exoplanets (extrasolar planets).


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
fairyologyThe study of fairies.
faunologyThe branch of zoology that deals with the geographical distribution of animals.
  • zoogeography
felinologyThe study of cats.
fermentologyThe study of ferments and fermentation.
  • zymology
festologyA treatise or dissertation on ecclesiastical festivals.
  • festilogy
fetologyThe scientific study of fetuses.
  • foetology
filicologyThe study of ferns.
filmologyA 1950s60s movement of theoretical study relating to film.
flatologyThe study of flatulence.
fluviologyThe study of watercourses or rivers.
fluviomorphologyThe study of a river channel and the network of tributaries within the river basin.
  • river morphology
foliologyThe study of autumnal leaf colour changes.
fontologyThe study of fonts, or electronic typefaces.
formicologyThe study of ants.
  • myrmecology
fornicologyThe study of fornication.
fossilologyThe study of fossils.
fronologyThe study of the contour of the skull.
  1. The study of cheese.
  2. The collection of labels from cheese.

1. cheesology

fuckologyA useless study, gibberish.
fungologyThe study of fungi.
  • mycology
futurologyThe study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
galvanologyThe study of galvanism (of biology, physics, and chemistry).
gametologyThe study of gametes.
garbologyThe study of modern refuse and trash as well as the use of trash cans, compactors and various types of trash can liners.
gastroenterologyThe branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.
  • gastrology
gastrologyThe branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.
  • gastroenterology
gelotologyThe study of humour and laughter.
gemologyThe scientific study dealing with natural and artificial gemstone materials.
  • gemmology
geneologyThe common misspelling of genealogy. The study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
genecologyA branch of ecology which studies the gene frequency of a species relating to their population distribution in a particular environment.
genesiologyThe study of reproduction.
genethliologyThe common misspelling of genethlialogy. The divination of the destiny of a newborn by studying stars and heavenly bodies on the nativity.
geoarcheology[lower-alpha 1]A multi-disciplinary approach which uses the techniques and subject matter of geography, geology and other Earth sciences to examine topics which inform archeological knowledge and thought.
  • geoarchæology
geobiologyAn interdisciplinary field of scientific research that explores interactions between the biosphere and the lithosphere and/or the atmosphere.
geochronologyThe science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves.
geoecologyThe interdisciplinary study of geography and ecology.
geohydrologyThe area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers).
  • hydrogeology
  1. An earth science comprising the study of solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change.
  2. The study of the solid features of any celestial body (such as the geology of the Moon or Mars).
  3. The geological features of an area.
geomorphologyThe scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
geomythologyThe study of alleged references to geological events in mythology.
geotechnologyThe study of how earth, rock and subterranean water affect the planning, execution, and operation of engineering projects.
geotectologyThe study of the structure of the Earth's crust; geotectonics.
  • structural geology
gephyrologyThe study of bridges and naturally occurring arches or bridge like structures.
geratologyThe study of elderly people and senility; geriatrics.
  • gerontology
gerodontologyThe study of dentistry in elderly people.
gerontologyThe study of the social, psychological, cognitive, and biological aspects of aging.
  • geriatrics
  • geratology
ghostologyThe learning, teaching, knowledge, or study of ghosts, spirits, and the supernatural; ghostlore.
gigantologyThe study or description of giants.
gizmologyGadgets, gadgetry.
glaciologyThe scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.
  1. The study of the tongue and its diseases.
  2. The definition and explanation of terms in constructing a glossary.
  3. The scientific study of language change over time; historical linguistics.
glottochronologyThe study of languages to determine when they diverged from being the same language.
glottologyThe study of languages.
  • linguistics
glycobiologyThe study of the structure, biosynthesis, and biology of saccharides (sugar chains or glycans) that are widely distributed in nature.
glyptologyThe study or art of engraving gems or glyptics.
gnathologyThe study of the masticatory system.
gnomologyThe study of gnomic poetry or gnomes and aphorisms.
gnomonologyThe study of gnomonics.
gnoseologyThe scientific or philosophical study of knowledge.
  • gnosiology
gnosiologyThe scientific or philosophical study of knowledge.
  • gnoseology
gnotobiologyThe study of animals in a germ-free environment
GoogleologyThe study of Google and its subsidiaries.
  • Googlology
  1. The study of the number googol.
  2. The mathematical study of large numbers.
graminologyThe scientific study of the grasses (family Poaceae).
  • agrostology
grammatologyThe scientific study of writing systems or scripts.
graphologyThe analysis of the physical characteristics and patterns of handwriting purporting to be able to identify the writer.
graphopathologyThe study of handwriting as a symptom of mental or emotional disorder.
grossologyThe study of things that are disgusting or gross.
gynecologyThe medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus and ovaries) and the breasts.
  • gynæcology
  • gynaecology
gynoroentgenologyThe study of radiologic imaging of the gynecologic parts of the female human body in order to make a radiologic diagnosis of a gynecologic disease.
  • gynecological roentgenology
  • gynæcological roentgenology
  • gynaecological roentgenology


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
hemorheology[lower-alpha 2]The study of flow properties of blood and its elements of plasma and cells.
  • blood rheology
hagiologyA biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader; a hagiography.
hamartiologyThe branch of Christian theology that studies sin.
hamburgerologyA course of study introduced by McDonald's to train people to work in its fast food restaurants.
haplologyIn linguistics, the elimination of a syllable when two consecutive identical or similar syllables occur.
harmonologyThe study of harmonization.
hauntologyIn Derridan philosophy, the paradoxical state of the spectre, which is neither being nor nonbeing.
hedonologyThe study of the impact an injury or incident had on a persons lifestyle.
helcologyThe study of ulcers.
heliologyThe study of the sun.
helioseismologyThe study of the propagation of wave oscillations, particularly acoustic pressure waves, in the Sun.
helminthologyThe study of parasitic worms (helminths).
hematology[lower-alpha 2]The branch of medicine concerned with the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.
hemerologyThe study of calendars.
hemipterologyThe study of true bugs (order Hemiptera).
hemopathologyThe branch of pathology which studies diseases of hematopoietic cells.
henologyThe philosophical account or discourse on "The One" that appears most notably in the philosophy of Plotinus.
heortologyThe study of religious festivals.
hepaticologyThe study of hepatics (division Marchantiophyta).
hepatologyThe branch of medicine that incorporates the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas as well as management of their disorders.
herbologyThe study of the use of plants for medicinal purposes; herbal medicine/herbalism.
  • herbalogy
heresiologyThe study of heresy.
herpetologyThe branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians (gymnophiona)) and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, crocodilians, and the tuataras).
  1. A lack of correspondence between parts that reflects a difference in origin.
  2. An abnormality or structural difference from what is considered normal.
heteroptologyThe study of true bugs (suborder Heteroptera).
heterotopologyThe study of heterotopias, that is, "a systematic approach that analyzes and describes the features of other spaces" as said by Michel Foucault.
hexicologyThe study of the relations of living creatures to other organisms, and to their surrounding conditions.
  • hexiology
hexiologyThe study of the relations of living creatures to other organisms, and to their surrounding conditions.
  • hexicology
hieroglyphologyThe study of hieroglyphics.
hierologySacred literature or lore or the study of it.
hippologyThe study of horses.
  • equinology
hippopathologyThe study of the diseases and treatment or pathology of the horse.
histiologyThe study of the microscopic anatomy (microanatomy) of cells and tissues of plants and animals.
  • histology
histologyThe study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals.
histopathologyThe microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.
histophysiologyThe physiology or study of the functions of the cells and tissues in health.
historiologyThe study of history.
histotechnologyThe study of the processes and procedures used in the preparation of slides for light microscopy.
HittitologyThe study of the Hittites.
hodologyThe study of pathways.
  1. (neuroscience) The study of the interconnections of brain cells.
  2. (psychology) A term introduced by Kurt Lewin (1890–1947) to describe paths in a person's "life space".
  3. (philosophy) The study of interconnected ideas.
  4. (geography) The study of paths.
HomerologyThe study of the poet Homer and his works.
  1. (anthropology and archeology). A type of analogy whereby two human beliefs, practices, or artifacts are separated by time but share similarities due to genetic or historical connections.
  2. (specifically anthropology) A structure that is shared through descent from a common ancestor.
  3. (biology) The existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different species.
  4. (chemistry) The appearance of homologues, a compound belonging to a series of compounds differing from each other by a repeating unit.
  5. (mathematics, especially algebraic topology and abstract algebra) A general way of associating a sequence of algebraic objects such as abelian groups or modules to other mathematical objects such as topological spaces.
  6. (psychology) A relationship between characteristics that reflects the characteristics' origins in either evolution or development.
  7. (sociology)"Structural 'resonances'...between the different elements making up a socio-cultural whole." [6]
hoplologyA science that studies human combative behavior and performance.
hormonologyThe science or study of hormones.
horologyThe art or science of measuring time and mechanical time-keeping devices.
  1. The study of humour and laughter.
  2. Humorism
hydrobiologyThe science of life and life processes in water.
hydroecologyThe study of support systems in wetlands such as the interactions between water and wildlife habitats.
hydrogeologyThe area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers).
  • geohydrology
  1. The scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
  2. (agriculture) The study of water balance components intervening in agricultural water management, especially in irrigation and drainage; agricultural hydrology.
hydrometeorologyA branch of meteorology and hydrology that studies the transfer of water and energy between the land surface and the lower atmosphere.
hyetologyThe scientific study of precipitation.
hygiologyThe science and study of the preservation of health.
  1. The study of bodily fluids.
  2. The study of humidity.
hylologyThe doctrine or theory of matter as unorganized.
hymenopterologyThe study of the order Hymenoptera.
hymnologyThe scholarly study of religious song, or the hymn.
hypnologyThe scientific study of sleep.
  • somnology


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
iamatologyThe study of medicinal remedies or therapeutics.
  • aceology
iatrologyThe study of medicine.
ichnolithologyThe branch of geology and biology that deals with traces of organismal behavior, such as footprints and burrows.
  • ichnology
ichnologyThe branch of geology and biology that deals with traces of organismal behavior, such as footprints and burrows.
  • ichnolithology
ichthyologyThe branch of biology devoted to the study of fish.
  1. A method of interpretation in cultural history and the history of art used by Aby Warburg, Erwin Panofsky, and their followers that uncovers the cultural, social, and historical background of themes and subjects in the visual arts.
  2. The study of visual imagery and its symbolism and interpretation, especially in social or political terms.
ideologyA collection of doctrines or beliefs shared by members of a group.
idiomatologyThe study of idioms and idiomatic language.
idiomologyThe study of idiom, jargon, or dialect.
idiopsychologyThe psychology of one's own mind.
imageologyThe study of images, especially those produced by medical imaging.
imagologyThe study of cultural stereotypes as presented in literature.
immunohematology[lower-alpha 2]The study of the relationships between disorders of the blood and the immune system, especially antigen-antibody interaction.
immunologyA branch of biomedical science that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
immunopathologyThe branch of medicine that deals with immune responses associated with disease.
implantologyThe science of or techniques involved in dental implants.
IndologyThe academic study of the history and cultures, languages, and literature of the Indian subcontinent (most specifically the modern-day states of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Nepal and the eastern parts of Afghanistan)
infectiologyThe study of the diagnosis, treatment, and control of infections and infectious diseases.
  • infectology
insectologyThe study of insects.
  • entomology
InuitologyA complex of humanities sciences studying languages, history, literature, folklore, culture, and ethnology of people speaking Eskimo–Aleut languages and Eskimo (InuitYupik)–Aleut peoples in chronological and comparative context.
IranologyAn interdisciplinary field dealing with the study of history, literature, art and culture of Iranian peoples.
irenologyThe study of peace.
iridologyAn alternative medicine technique whose proponents claim that patterns, colors, and other characteristics of the iris can be examined to determine information about a person's health; iridodiagnosis.
IslamologyThe study of Islam.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
JapanologyThe study of Japan, its language, culture, and history.
JinologyThe study of Jin Yong's novels.
JudeologyThe study of Judaism.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
kalologyThe study of beauty and aesthetics.
karstologyThe study of karst formations.
karyologyThe study of the nuclei of cells, especially with regard to the chromosomes which they contain.
KibologyA parody religion, named after James Parry (Kibo), the central figure.
kidologyThe practice of bluffing or deception.
killologyThe study of the psychological and physiological effects of killing and combat on the human psyche.
kinesiologyThe scientific study of human body movement and its physiological, mechanical, and psychological mechanisms.
kinologyThe branch of physics that deals with the laws of motion.
knobologyThe functionality of controls on an instrument as relevant to their application.
koniologyThe study of atmospheric dust and its effects.
  • coniology
kookologyThe study of kooks, or eccentric people.
KoreanologyThe study of Korea.
  1. The study of the internal politics of the high members of the government of the USSR.
  2. The study of the internal politics of any powerful and secretive organization.
ktenologyThe science of putting people to death, execution.
KubrickologyThe study of Stanley Kubrick and his works.
kymatologyThe study of wave motion.
kyriologyThe use of literal or simple expressions, as distinguished from the use of figurative or obscure ones.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
labologyA collection of labels, especially from beer bottles.
lalopathologyThe study of speech disorders.
laryngologyA branch of medicine that deals with disorders, diseases and injuries of the vocal apparatus, especially the larynx.
latrinologyThe study of writings on restroom walls.
lectinologyThe study of lectin.
lemologyThe study of plague and epidemic diseases.
  • loimology
  • epidemiology
lepidopterologyA branch of entomology concerning the scientific study of moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies.
leprologyThe study of leprosy.
  1. A minute and tedious discourse on trifling things.
  2. The study of the forms and structures of crystals; crystallography.
lexicologyThe part of linguistics which studies words.
lichenologyThe branch of mycology that studies the lichens, symbiotic organisms made up of an intimate symbiotic association of a microscopic alga (or a cyanbacterium) with a filamentous fungus.
limacologyThe branch of zoology which deals with slugs.
limnobiologyThe branch of biology that deals with animals and plants of fresh water.
limnologyThe study of inland waters.
lipsologyThe art and science of reading lip prints in order to determine characteristics about a person.
literaturologyThe study of literature.
lithoidologyThe study of rocks.
  1. The study of rocks, with particular emphasis on their description and classification.
  2. The description of physical characteristics of a rock.
liturgiologyThe study of liturgy, a set of rituals that are performed, usually by a religion; liturgics.
  1. The field of recreational linguistics, an activity that encompasses a wide variety of word games and wordplay.
  2. The study of all aspects of science (the science of science)
  3. The study of words in search for divine truth.
  4. The study of logos.
  5. The part of linguistics that studies words.

5. lexicology

logyologyThe study of the study of things.
loimologyThe study of pestilential diseases and plagues.
  • lemology
  • epidemiology
ludologyThe study of games.
lymphologyThe study of the lymphatic system.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
machirologyThe study or collection of knives.
macrocosmologyThe study or description of the macrocosm.
macroecologyThe subfield of ecology that deals with the study of relationships between organisms and their environment at large spatial scales.
macrologyVerbose, meaningless talk; pleonasm.
macrometeorologyThe study of large-scale behavior of the atmosphere.
macromorphologyThe gross structures or morphology of an organism, mineral, or soil component visible with the unaided eye or at very low levels of magnification.
magicologyThe study of magic.
magirologyThe study of cooking.
malacologyThe branch of invertebrate zoology that deals with the study of Mollusca.
malacostracologyThe study of crustaceans.
  • carcinology
  • crustaceology
  • crustalogy
malariologyThe study of malaria.
mammologyThe common misspelling of mammalogy. The study of mammals.
mantologyThe study or art of fortune telling.
mapologyThe study of maps; cartography.
MariologyThe theological study of Mary, the mother of Jesus.
  1. (Catholicism) A catalogue or list of martyrs and other saints and beati arranged in the calendar order of their anniversaries or feasts.
  2. (Judaism) The ten rabbis living during the era of the Mishnah who were martyred by the Romans in the period after the destruction of the second Temple.
mastologyThe study of breasts.
mateologyA vain, unprofitable discourse or inquiry.
mazologyThe study of mammals.
  • mammalogy
meconologyThe study of opium and its effects.
melissopalynologyThe study of pollen contained in honey and, in particular, the pollen's source.
melittologyA branch of entomology concerning the scientific study of bees (clade Anthophila).
  • mellittology
mellittologyA branch of entomology concerning the scientific study of bees (clade Anthophila).
  • melittology
membranologyThe study of membranes.
menologyA service-book used in the Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Rite of Constantinople; a menologium or menologe.
mereologyIn logic and philosophy, the study of parts and the wholes they form.
  1. The scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their environment.
  2. The environmental or sociological influence on a person.

1. ecology

mesometeorologyThe study of weather systems smaller than synoptic scale systems but larger than microscale and storm-scale cumulus systems.
  • mesoscale meteorology
metallogenyThe study of the genesis and regional-to-global distribution of mineral deposits, with emphasis on their relationship in space and time to regional petrologic and tectonic features of the Earth's crust.
metapsychologyA speculative psychology which seeks to understand the structure of the mind in terms which may not be empirically verifiable.
meteorologyThe study of the atmosphere and related phenomena such as weather.
methodologyThe systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study; the study of methods.
metrologyThe science and study of measurement.
microbiologyThe study of microorganisms.
microclimatologyA branch of climatology that studies microclimates which are small, local region having a unique pattern of weather or weather effects that differ from the local climate.
  1. The ecology of microbes.
  2. The ecology of a microhabitat.
microhomologyThe presence of the same short sequence of bases in different genes.
  1. The study of microscopes.
  2. The science of preparing microscopic objects for study.
  3. The study of trivialities or things of little importance.
micrometeorologyThe study of short-lived atmospheric phenomena smaller than mesoscale.
  • microscale meteorology
micromorphologyThe fine-level structures (microstructures) or morphology of an organism, mineral, or soil component visible through microscopy.
micropaleontology[lower-alpha 3]The branch of paleontology that studies microfossils, or fossils that require the use of a microscope to see the organism, its morphology and its characteristics details.
microphytologyThe study of very small or microscopic plant life.
microseismologyThe study of microseisms.
microtechnologyTechnology with features near one micrometre.
minerologyThe common misspelling of mineralogy. The study of minerals.
misologyThe hatred or fear of reasoning or argument.
missiologyThe area of practical theology that investigates the mandate, message, and mission of the Christian church, especially the nature of missionary work.
mixologyThe art of combining various ingredients to make cocktails.
mnesiologyThe study of memory.
mobilologyThe study of human behavior in a mobile world and the study of mobile device/phone lifestyles.
  • mociology
mociologyThe study of human behavior in a mobile world and the study of mobile device/phone lifestyles.
  • mobilology
molinologyThe study of mills and other mechanical devices which use the energy of moving water or wind, or the strength of animal or human muscle to power machines.
momilogyThe study of mummies.
  • momiology
momiologyThe study of mummies.
  • momilogy
monadologyThe study of theory of monads.
monologyThe habit of soliloquizing, or of monopolizing conversation.
  1. The study of monsters or cryptids.
  2. (mathematics) The study of the monster group.
montologyThe study of mountains.
  • orology
morologyFoolish talk, nonsense.
morphologyThe study of the forms of things.
  1. (archeology) The study of shapes and forms (of artifacts), and their grouping into time periods.
  2. (astronomy) The study of the shape of astronomical objects such as nebulae, galaxies, or other extended objects.
  3. (biology) A branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
  4. (folkloristics) The structure of narratives such as folk tales.
  5. (linguistics) The study of the structure and content of word forms.
  6. (mathematics) A theory and technique for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures, based on set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions.
  7. (Urban morphology) The study of the form, structure, formation and transformation of human settlements.
  8. (materials science) The study of shape, size, texture and phase distribution of physical objects.
  9. (architecture and engineering) The study of two-dimensional and three-dimensional symmetries, and then uses these geometries for planning buildings and structures.
  10. (social) The study of the form and structure of society.
  11. (ideological) The study of the conceptual structure of ideologies, and the rules defining the admissibility of meanings into concepts.
morphonologyThe branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.
  • morphophonology
  • morphophonemics
muscologyThe branch of botany concerned with the scientific study of bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts).
  • bryology
museologyThe study of the designs, organization, and management of museums.
musicologyThe study of music, music history, music theory, or the physical nature of sound.
mycetologyThe study of fungi.
  • mycology
mycologyThe branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi.
  • mycetology
mycotoxicologyThe branch of mycology that focuses on analyzing and studying the toxins produced by fungi, known as mycotoxins.
myologyThe study of the muscular system.
myrmecologyThe branch of entomology focusing on the scientific study of ants.
  1. The study of myths.
  2. A collection of myths, especially of a specific culture or religion.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
nanotechnologyThe manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. Otherwise accepted as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers.
nanotribologyA branch of tribology which studies friction phenomenon at the nanometer scale.
naologyThe study of ecclesiastical or sacred buildings.
narratologyThe theory and the study of narrative and narrative structure and the ways that these affect our perception.
nasologyThe study of the nose.
nassologyThe science or art of stuffing animals for display; taxidermy.
  1. A church register containing the names of those connected with the church who have died.
  2. A list of people who have died during a specific period of time.
  3. The study of death or the dead.
  4. A notice of death; an obituary.
nematologyThe scientific study of nematodes.
neoichnologyThe study of footprints and traces of extant animals.
  1. The study or art of creating new words or neologizing.
  2. The act of introducing a new word into a language.
  3. The holding of novel or rational religious views.
neonatologyA subspecialty of pediatrics that consists of the medical care of newborn infants.
neossologyThe study of young birds.
nephologyThe study of clouds.
nephrologyThe study of kidneys.
nerterologyAny study that pertains to the dead or death.
nessologyThe belief or study of the loch ness monster.
neurobiologyThe study of the nervous system including the brain.
neuroendocrinologyThe study of the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system.
neuroethologyThe study of animal behavior and its underlying mechanistic control by the nervous system.
neurohypnologyThe study or practice of mesmerism or hypnotism.
  • neurypnology
neurologyA branch of medicine dealing with neurological disorders.
neuropathologyThe study of disease of nervous system tissue.
neuropharmacologyThe study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system.
neurophysiologyA branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system.
neuropsychologyThe study of the structure and function of the brain as it relates to specific psychological processes and behaviors.
neuropterologyThe study of net-winged insects (order Neuroptera).
neuroradiologyA subspecialty of radiology focusing on the diagnosis and characterization of abnormalities of the central and peripheral nervous system, spine, and head and neck using neuroimaging techniques.
neurypnologyThe study or practice of mesmerism or hypnotism.
  • neurohypnology
nidologyThe study of birds nests.
  • caliology
nomologyThe study of laws.
nongeologyNot of or pertaining to geology.
noologyThe systematic study and organization of everything dealing with knowing and knowledge.
  • noölogy
nosetiologyThe study of the causes of disease.
nosologyA branch of medicine dealing with the classification of disease.
nostologyThe study of senility or the mental problems of aging.
  • gerontology
numerologyThe study of the purported mystical relationship between numbers and the character or action of physical objects and living things.
numismatologyThe study or collection of money (coins, tokens, medals, paper money); numismatics.
nymphologyThe study of nymphs.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
oceanologyThe branch of Earth science that studies the ocean; oceanography.
octologyA series of eight related works.
  • octalogy
odologyThe study of odic force.
odonatologyThe study of dragonflies and damselflies (order Odonata).
  1. The study of the structure and development of teeth.
  2. The branch of dentistry dealing with abnormalities of teeth.
oecologyThe scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment.
  • œcology
  • ecology
oenologyThe science and study of all aspects of wine and winemaking with the exception of vine-growing and grape-harvesting which pertains to viticulture.
  • enology
  • oinology
ohnologyThe state of paralogous genes that have originated by a process of whole-genome duplication.
oikologyThe science of houses and homes, considered especially in respect of their sanitary conditions.
oinologyThe science and study of all aspects of wine and winemaking with the exception of vine-growing and grape-harvesting which pertains to viticulture.
  • oenology
olfactologyThe study of smell.
oligochaetologyThe study of earthworms (class Oligochaeta).
ologyA subject of study, a branch of knowledge.
ombrologyThe study of rain.
omenologyThe study of omens, divination.
omnibologyThe study of motor buses or omnibuses.
omphalologyA medical field of study whose specialty is not identified.
oncologyThe branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
oneirologyThe scientific study of dreams.
onologyFoolish discourse.
onomasiologyThe branch of lexicology that deals with concepts and the terms that represent them, in particular contrasting terms for similar concepts, as in a thesaurus.
onomatologyThe study of the origin, history, and use of proper names; onomastics.
  1. (philosophy) The branch of metaphysics that addresses the nature or essential characteristics of being and of things that exist.
  2. (philosophy) The theory of a particular philosopher or school of thought concerning the fundamental types of entity in the universe.
  3. (logic) A logical system involving theory of classes.
  4. (computer science) A structure of concepts or entities within a domain, organized by relationships; a system model.
onychopathologyThe study of nail disease.
oologyThe study of eggs, especially those of birds.
  • oölogy
ophidiologyThe study of snakes (clade Ophidia).
  • ophiology
ophiologyThe branch of herpetology dealing with the study of snakes (clade ophidia).
  • ophidiology
ophthalmologyThe branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye.
opsonologyThe study of antibody opsonization.
optologyThe science of testing eyes for lenses.
orchidologyThe study of orchids (family orchidaceae).
oreologyThe study of mountains.
  • orology
organologyThe study of musical instruments and their classification.
orismologyThe identification, specification, and description of technical terms.
ornithologyA branch of zoology dealing with the study of birds.
orologyThe study of mountains.
  • montology
orrhologyThe study of serum.
  1. (biology) Homologous sequences descended from the same ancestral sequence.
  2. (language) The study of the correct use of words.
orthopterologyThe scientific study of the order Orthoptera.
  1. The study of things dug out of the Earth such as minerals and fossils.
  2. The study of fossils, minerals, and rocks.
  3. The study of minerals; oryctognosy.
  1. The scientific study of smells.
  2. The study of osmosis.
  • osphresiology
  1. The scientific study of smells.
  2. The study of osmosis.
  • osmology
osteologyThe scientific study of bones.
osteopathologyThe study of diseases of the bone.
otolaryngologyThe branch of medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) region.
  • otorhinolaryngology
otologyA branch of medicine which studies normal and pathological anatomy and physiology of the ear (hearing and vestibular sensory systems and related structures and functions).
otorhinolaryngologyThe branch of medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) region.
  • otolaryngology
ourologyThe branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary tract system and the male reproductive organs.
  • urology
  1. The study of eggs.
  2. The study of ova.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
pachydermatologyThe study of elephant skin. (humorous)
paedologyThe study of children's behavior and development.
  • pedology
paidonosologyThe study of children's diseases.
paleoalgology[lower-alpha 3]The subdiscipline of paleobotany that deals with the study and identification of fossil algae and their evolutionary relationships and ecology.
  • paleophycology
paleoanthropology[lower-alpha 3]The scientific study of human fossils, and the evolution of modern man.
  • paleanthropology
paleobiology[lower-alpha 3]The study of fossils of plants and animals.
paleobotany[lower-alpha 3]The branch of paleontology that deals with the study of plant fossils.
  • paleophytology
paleoclimatology[lower-alpha 3]The study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
paleodendrology[lower-alpha 3]The branch of paleobotany that deals with fossil trees.
paleoecology[lower-alpha 3]The scientific study of reconstructing ecosystems in the past using fossils and subfossils.
paleoentomology[lower-alpha 3]The study of prehistoric insects.
paleoethnology[lower-alpha 3]The study of the races of early man.
paleoetiology[lower-alpha 3]The explanation of past phenomena.
paleogeology[lower-alpha 3]The study of ancient geological features.
paleohydrology[lower-alpha 3]The study of ancient rivers and other hydrological features.
paleoichnology[lower-alpha 3]The branch of ichnology concerned with the study of trace fossils preserved in ancient rocks.
paleoichthyology[lower-alpha 3]The study of fossil and ancient fish.
  • paleichthyology
paleolimnology[lower-alpha 3]The study of paleoenvironments of inland waters by examination of sediment and fossils.
paleology[lower-alpha 3]The study of antiquities.
paleometeorology[lower-alpha 3]The meteorology of the earth's atmosphere during ancient times.
paleontology[lower-alpha 3]The scientific study of life existent prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch.
paleoornithology[lower-alpha 3]The study of ancient and prehistoric birds and their evolution.
paleoosteology[lower-alpha 3]The study of ancient bones.
paleopathology[lower-alpha 3]The study of diseases in ancient humans.
paleopedology[lower-alpha 3]The study of soils of past geological eras, from quite recent (Quaternary) to the earliest periods of the Earth's history.
paleophycology[lower-alpha 3]The subdiscipline of paleobotany that deals with the study and identification of fossil algae and their evolutionary relationships and ecology.
  • paleoalgology
paleophytology[lower-alpha 3]The study of ancient plants and plant fossils; paleobotany.
paleotempestology[lower-alpha 3]The study of past tropical cyclone activity by means of geological proxies as well as historical documentary records.
paleozoology[lower-alpha 3]The branch of paleontology, paleobiology, or zoology dealing with the recovery and identification of organisms and the use of these fossils in the reconstruction of prehistoric environments and ancient ecosystems.
palynologyThe study of dust, which more precisely includes contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, orbicules, dinocysts, acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts, together with particulate organic matter (POM) and kerogen found in sedimentary rocks and sediments.
pantheologyA branch of theology embracing all religions; a complete system covering all gods and religious systems.
pantologyA systematic view of all human knowledge.
papyrologyThe study of ancient literature, correspondence, legal archives, etc., as preserved in manuscripts written on papyrus.
  1. The use of paradoxes.
  2. A paradox.
parapsychologyA field of study concerned with the investigation of paranormal and psychic phenomena which include telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-death experiences, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, and other paranormal claims.
parasitologyThe study of parasites and how they interact with their hosts.
parisologyThe use of equivocal or ambiguous words.
paroemiologyThe study of proverbs.
parologyThe common misspelling of paralogy.
  1. The state of being paralogous (in biology, homologous sequences are paralogous if they were created by a duplication event within the genome).
  2. Paralogical reasoning.
paromologyA concession to an adversary in order to strengthen one's own argument.
parthenologyThe study of virginity.
pathobiologyThe branch of biology that deals with pathology with greater emphasis on the biological than on the medical aspects.
  1. (anatomy) The study of macro and microscopic abnormalities in tissues.
  2. (Clinical pathology) Medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids, such as blood, urine.
  3. (mathematics) Any mathematical phenomenon considered atypically bad or counterintuitive.
  4. (Pathological science) A process by which the scientific process is distorted through wishful thinking or subjective bias.
  5. (speech) The area of rehabilitative medicine that treats of speech or swallowing impediments.
pathophysiologyThe physiological processes associated with disease or injury or study of it.
  • physiopathology
patrologyThe study of the early Christian writers who are designated Church Fathers.
  1. (soil study) The study of soils in their natural environment.
  2. (children study) The study of children's behavior and development.
  • paidology
  • paedology
PekingologyThe study of the behavior of the government of the People's Republic of China.
  • Pekinology
pelologyThe study of the therapeutic uses of mud.
penologyThe study of the processes devised and adopted for the punishment and prevention of crime.
pentologyA series of five related works.
perinatologyA branch of medicine that focuses on managing health concerns of the mother and fetus prior to, during, and shortly after pregnancy; Maternal-fetal medicine.
periodontologyThe specialty of dentistry that studies supporting structures of teeth, as well as diseases and conditions that affect them; periodontics.
perissologySuperfluity of words, verbosity.
  1. The assessment of a person's character or personality from outer appearance, especially the face.
  2. A theory of personality psychology advanced by Henry Murray and others.

1. physiognomy

pestologyThe study of pests.
petrogeologyThe study of origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels.
  • petroleum geology
petrologyThe branch of geology that studies the origin, composition, distribution and structure of rocks.
phaenologyThe study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events and how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate, as well as habitat factors (such as elevation).
  • phenology
phagologyThe study of habits related to eating or feeding.
phallologyThe study of the penis.
phantasmologyThe scientific study of spiritualistic manifestations and of apparitions.
  • spectrology
phantomologyThe study of supernatural beings.
pharmacoendocrinologyThe pharmacology of endocrine function.
  1. A branch of pharmacology and pharmacovigilance that deals entry of chemicals or drugs into the environment after elimination from humans and animals as post-therapy.
  2. The environmental impact of a drug.
pharmacologyThe branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action.
pharologyThe scientific study of lighthouses and signal lights, their construction and illumination.
  • pharonology
pharyngologyThe scientific study of the pharynx and its diseases.
phenologyThe study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events and how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate, as well as habitat factors.
  1. May be used to describe empirical research when used to describe measurement methods in some sciences, or empirical relationships.
  2. (architecture) An aspect of philosophy based on the experience of building materials and their sensory properties.
  3. (archeology) The use of sensory experiences to view and interpret an archeological site or cultural landscape.
  4. (particle physics) A branch of particle physics that deals with the application of theory to high-energy experiments.
  5. (philosophy) The philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness or the school of philosophy founded by Edmund Husserl.
  6. (psychology) The study of subjective experience.
  7. (religion) The experiential aspect of religion, describing religious phenomena in terms consistent with the orientation of worshippers.
  8. (mathematical model) A mathematical expression that relates several different empirical observations of phenomena to each other, in a way which is consistent with fundamental theory, but is not directly derived from theory.
pherologyThe study of human carrying capacity of the Earth.
philematologyThe science and study of kissing.
philologyThe study of language in written historical sources.
phlebologyThe medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis and treatment of venous disorders.
  • venology
phonologyA branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
phorologyThe study of disease carriers and epidemic or endemic diseases.
photobiologyThe scientific study of the interactions of light and living organisms.
photoecologyThe study of or application of aerial photography to ecology and land management.
photogeologyThe study or use of aerial photography to interpret geologic features.
  • photogeomorphology
photogeomorphologyThe study or use of aerial photography to interpret geologic features.
  • photogeology
photologyThe study of light.
phraseologyThe study of set or fixed expressions, such as idioms, phrasal verbs, and other types of multi-word lexical units (often collectively referred to as phrasemes).
phrenologyA pseudomedicine primarily focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules.
  • craniology
phthisiologyThe study of or the care, treatment, and study of tuberculosis of the lung.
phycologyThe scientific study of algae.
  • algology
physicologyThe study of matter and its motion and behavior through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force; physics.
  1. A branch of biology that deals with the functions and activities of life or of living matter (as organs, tissues, or cells) and of the physical and chemical phenomena involved.
  2. The study and description of natural objects.
physiopathologyThe physiological processes associated with disease or injury.
  • pathophysiology
phytobacteriologyThe study and diagnosis of bacterial diseases of plants.
phytolithologyThe study of fossil plants.
  • paleophytology
  • phytopaleontology
  • paleobotany
phytologyThe study of plants; botany.
phytomorphologyThe study of the physical form and external structure (morphology) of plants.
  • plant morphology
phytonematologyThe study of plant nematodes.
phytopaleontology[lower-alpha 3]The study of ancient plants and plant fossils.
  • paleobotany
  • paleophytology
  • phytolithology
phytopathologyThe scientific study of diseases in plants.
  • plant pathology
  1. The study of the effects of drugs on plants.
  2. The study of medicine from plant sources.
phytophenologyThe study of phenology pertaining to plants.
phytophysiologyThe study of the physiology of plants.
phytosociologyThe branch of science which deals with plant communities, their composition and development, and the relationships between the species within them.
phytovirologyThe study of plant viruses.
pimpologyThe study or practice of pimping or being a pimp.
piscatologyThe study, art, or science of fishing.
pisteologyThe science or study of faith.
  • pistology
pistologyThe branch of theology dealing with faith.
  • pisteology
placentologyThe study of the placenta.
planetologyThe scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.
plangonologyThe study of dolls or the collection of dolls.
planktologyThe study of plankton.
plutologyThe study of wealth.
  • aphnology
pneumatologyThe study of spiritual beings and phenomena, especially the spiritual aspect of human beings and the interactions between humans and God.
pneumologyThe study of the respiratory system and its organs.
  • pulmonology
pneumonologyThe study of the respiratory system.
podologyThe study of the feet.
  • podiatry
  • chiropody
poenologyThe study of the processes devised and adopted for the punishment and prevention of crime.
  • penology
pogonologyThe study of beards.
polemologyThe study of human conflict and war.
politicologyA synonym for the academic study of political science. It is infrequently used in English-speaking North America, yet the term is more commonly employed in Europe and elsewhere.
  • political science
politologyThe academic branch of political science that focuses on politics. However, this term is not in popular circulation within the United States, perhaps as it may be confused with the preceding "ology."
polychaetologyThe study of worms belonging to the class Polychaete.
pomologyA branch of botany that studies and cultivates fruit.
  1. The study of evil.
  2. (political) An interdisciplinary study of social issues.
posologyThe study of the dosages of drugs, especially the determination of appropriate dosages.
potamologyThe study of rivers.
praxeologyThe deductive study of human action based on the notion that humans engage in purposeful behavior, as opposed to reflexive behavior.
  • praxiology
primatologyThe scientific study of primates.
proctologyThe branch of medicine dealing with the pathology of and surgery upon the colon, rectum, and anus.
projectiologyThe study of Out-of-body experiences.
promenadologyThe science of strolling.
  • strollology
  1. The study of the organization of the egg especially with reference to localization of subsequently developed embryonic structures.
  2. The branch of morphology that studies the forms of organisms from a mathematical point of view.
protistologyThe scientific study of protists.
protoanthropologyThe study of humans prior to the invention of writing.
protoarcheology[lower-alpha 1]The study of prehistoric human artifacts and human fossils.
protozoologyThe study of protozoa.
psephologyA branch of political science which deals with the study and scientific analysis of elections.
pseudologyFalsehood of speech, the art of lying.
psilologyTrivial or vacuous talk.
  1. The study of the application of principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals.
  2. The branch of psychology that interprets psychological phenomena in terms of adaptation to biological, environmental, and other factors.

1. biological psychology, biopsychology

psychoneuroimmunologyThe study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body.
  • psychoendoneuroimmunology (PENI)
  • psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology (PNEI)
psychologyThe study of behavior and mind, embracing all aspects of conscious and unconscious experience as well as thought.
psychopathologyThe scientific study of mental disorders.
phsychopharmacologyThe scientific study of the effects drugs have on mood, sensation, thinking, and behavior.
psychophysiologyThe branch of psychology that is concerned with the physiological bases of psychological processes.
psychosociologyThe study of problems common to psychology and sociology, particularly the way individual behavior is influenced by the groups the person belongs to.
psychotechnologyAny application of technology for psychological purposes.
pteridologyThe study of ferns and other pteridophytes.
  1. The branch of ornithology that studies the areas upon which birds grow feathers; pterylography.
  2. The study of pterylosis.
ptochologyThe study of pauperism or poverty.
pulmonologyThe study of the respiratory system and its organs.
  • pneumology
  • respirology
punnologyThe art or practice of making puns or paronomasia.
pyramidologyThe study of pseudoscientific speculations regarding pyramids.
pyretologyThe study of fevers.
pyrgologyThe study of towers.
  1. The art of using a blowpipe, and often a charcoal block, to analyse minerals and metal salts.
  2. The study of pyrite or the pyrite group.
pyrologyThe scientific study of the effects of heat or flame, often in regards to explosives or chemical compounds.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
quinologyThe science of the cultivation of cinchona and its use in medicine as quinine.
quintologyA novel or piece of literature divided into five works.
  • pentalogy


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
rabdologyThe practice of performing arithmetic using Napier's bones named after a treatise by John Napier.
  • rhabdology
raciologyThe study of races and ideas trying to justify the beliefs of racism, racialism, and other ideas of classifying individuals of different phenotypes into discrete races.
  • racial anthropology
radarmeteorologyThe study or use of radar in meteorology, especially to track water and ice in clouds.
radiobiologyThe study of the effect of ionizing radiation on living things.
radioecologyThe study of the effects of radiation and radioactive substances on ecological communities and natural ecosystems.
  1. The study of the distribution of radioactive elements in the Earth's crust.
  2. A technique of dating materials by examining their radioactivity.
radiohydrologyThe study of hydrology as used in the processing of radioactive materials.
radioimmunologyThe study of immunology using antigens or antibodies labelled with radioisotopes.
  1. A medical specialty that uses imaging to diagnose and treat diseases seen within the body.
  2. The use of radioactive substances in diagnosis and treatment of disease.
  • roentgenology
  1. The technical application of any form of radiation to industry.
  2. The technology of a radio.
reactologyThe scientific study of psychological reactions.
redologyThe academic study of Cao Xueqin's Dream of the Red Chamber, one of the Four Great Classical Novels of China.
  1. An alternative medicine involving a system of massage and application of pressure used to relieve tension and illness.
  2. The study and interpretation of behavior in terms of simple and complex reflexes.
respirologyThe study of diseases involving the respiratory tract.
  • pulmonology
rhabdologyThe practice of performing arithmetic using Napier's bones named after a treatise by John Napier.
  • rabdology
rheologyThe study of the flow of matter.
rhematologyThe study of rhemes.
rheumatologyThe study of rheumatic disorders.
rhinologyThe study of the nose, including the sinuses.
ribozymologyThe study of ribozymes.
rickettsiologyThe study of rickettsia.
RipperologyThe study of Jack the Ripper, an unidentified serial killer.
roentgenologyThe study or use of radiation in the treatment or diagnosis of disease; radiography.
  • rontgenology
  • radiology
  • röntgenology
röntgenologyThe study or use of radiation in the treatment or diagnosis of disease.
  • rontgenology
  • radiography
  • radiology
  • roentgenology
rumorologyThe study or practice of spreading rumours.
rumpologyThe claimed ability to foretell the future by analyzing the characteristics of a person's buttocks.
runologyThe study of the Runic alphabets, Runic inscriptions and their history.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
saprobiologyThe study of decaying organic matter and animals, saprophytes, that derive nutrients from it.
sarcologyThe study of the soft parts of the body which include the studies: myology, angiology, neurology, and splanchnology.
satanologyThe study of Satan.
scatologyThe study of feces.
  • coprology
scelerologyThe study of the sclera of the eye.
ScientologyA body of religious beliefs and practices created in 1954 by American science fiction author L. Ron Hubbard.
scolecologyThe study of worms.
  • helminthology
sedimentologyThe study of natural sediments (silt, clay, and sand) and of the processes by which they are formed.
seismologyThe scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
selenologyThe scientific study of the moon.
selenomorphologyThe study of the lunar surface and landscape.
semantologyThe study of the meaning of words.
semasiologyA discipline within linguistics concerned with the meaning of a word independent of its phonetic expression.
  1. The science of language as expressed by signs.
  2. A branch of linguistics studying the meaning of words; semantics.
  1. (semiotics) The study of signs.
  2. (medicine) The science of the signs or symptoms of disease.
  3. The art of using signs in signalling.
  • semeiology

2. symptomatology

senologyThe branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the breast.
serologyThe scientific study of serum and other bodily fluids.
serpentologyThe study of snakes.
sexologyThe scientific study of human sexuality, including human sexual interests, behaviors and functions.
siagonologyThe study of jawbones.
sialosemeiologyThe study and analysis of saliva in medical diagnoses.
sindhologyThe study of the history, society, culture, and literature of Sindh, a province of Pakistan.
sindonologyThe study of the Shroud of Turin.
sinologyThe academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, and history.
siphonapterologyThe scientific study of fleas and other insects of the order Siphonaptera.
sitiologyThe study of food, diet, and nutrition; dietetics.
sitologyThe branch of medicine dealing with nutrition and dietetics.
  • sitiology
skatologyThe study of feces.
  • scatology
  • coprology
sociobiologyA field of scientific study that is based on the hypothesis that social behavior has resulted from evolution and attempts to explain and examine social behavior within that context.
socioecologyThe scientific study of how social structure and organization are influenced by an organism's environment.
sociologyThe study of society, human social interaction and the rules and processes that bind and separate people not only as individuals, but as members of associations, groups and institutions.
sociophysiologyAn interdisciplinary field of research encompassing sociology and physiology that studies the physiological side of human interrelations.
somatologyThe study or science of the human body's physical nature as a branch of anthropology.
somatotypologyThe study of somatotypes.
somnologyThe scientific study of sleep and related disorders.
sonologyThe study of sound in a variety of disciplines.
  1. (medicine) The field of radiology using medical ultrasonography.
  2. (electronic music) The use or study of Acoustics, electronics, informatics, composition and psychoacoustics in electronic music and computer music.
  3. The use of sound for therapeutic and religious purposes.
  1. A philosophical concept regarding wisdom, as well as a theological concept regarding the wisdom of God.
  2. The science of ideas.
sophologyThe study of wisdom.
soteriologyThe study of religious doctrines of salvation.
SovietologyThe study of politics and policies of the Soviet Union and former communist states.
spectrologyThe study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation and the analysis of the electromagnetic spectrum.
speleologyThe study of caves and other karst features.
  • spelacology
  • spelæology
  • spelaeology
  1. The study of trivia.
  2. The study of seeds.
sphagnologyThe study of sphagnum moss.
sphygmologyThe study of the pulse and its use in diagnosis of disease.
spinologyThe technique or skill of spinning drum sticks.
splanchnologyThe study of the visceral organs.
splenologyThe study of the spleen and its diseases and functions.
spongiologyThe study of sponges (phylum Porifera).
sporalogyThe study of predicting a persons future by analyzing the position of trams at the moment of a persons birth. (A parody of astrology by astronomer Nils Mustelin).
stasiologyThe study of political parties.
stemmatologyThe study of multiple surviving versions of the same text with the aim of reconstructing a lost original.
  • stemmatics
  • stemmology
stereologyThe three-dimensional interpretation of two-dimensional cross sections of materials or tissues.
stichologyThe study of poetic metres.
stigmeologyThe art of punctuation.
  1. (physiology) The study of the elements, or principles, composing animal tissues.
  2. (logic) The doctrine of the elementary requisites of mere thought.
  3. The statement or discussion of the first principles of any science or art.
  • stoichiology
  • stoechiology
stomatologyThe study of the mouth and nearby organs and their disorders.
storiologyThe study of folklore and legends.
stringologyThe study of algorithms and data structures used for processing text strings in programming and computing.
strollologyThe science of strolling.
  • promenadology
stromatologyThe study of stratified rocks.
stygobiologyThe study of stygofauna.
suicidologyThe scientific study of suicidal behaviour and suicide prevention.
SumerologyThe study of the ancient Sumerian civilization.
switchologyThe settings of switches on panels.
symbiologyThe study of symbiosis.
symbologyThe study of symbols.
  1. The study of signs and symbols; semiotics.
  2. (iconography) The branch of art history which studies images.
  3. (Symbolic anthropology) A diverse set of approaches within cultural anthropology that view culture as a symbolic system that arises primarily from human interpretations of the world.
  4. An encoding scheme, particularly for barcodes.

1. symbolology

symbolologyThe study or use of symbols.
  • symbology
symptomatologyA set of symptoms characteristic of a medical condition or exhibited by a patient.
  • symptomology
symptomologyA set of symptoms characteristic of a medical condition or exhibited by a patient.
  • symptomatology
synchronologyThe systematic arrangement of synchronous or contemporaneous events.
syndesmologyThe study of ligaments.
synechologyThe theory of continuity or universal causation.
  • synechiology
synecologyThe ecological study of whole plant or animal communities.
synoecologyThe study of relationships between species.
synosteologyThe study of joints.
  • arthrology
syphilologyThe scientific study of the diagnosis and treatment syphilis.
systematologyThe study of nature regarding the formation of systems.
systemologyThe study of systems and the logic of systems.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
TangutologyThe study of the culture, history, art and language of the ancient Tangut people.
tartarologyThe study of the underworld or doctrine pertaining to Hell.
  1. (rhetoric) A self-reinforcing pretense of significant truth.
  2. (grammar) The use of redundant words.
  3. (logic) A universal truth in formal logic.
  4. (rule of inference) A rule of replacement for logical expressions.
taxologyThe technique or study of identifying, naming, and classifying things; taxonomy.
  1. Machinery and equipment developed from the application of scientific knowledge.
  2. The collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation.
  • technicology
tectologyA Bogdanovian discipline that unified all social, biological and physical sciences by considering them as systems of relationships.
  • tektology
tegestologyThe collection of beer mats or beverage coasters.
teleologyThe philosophical study of nature by attempting to describe things in terms of their apparent purpose, directive principle, or goal.
teleseismologyThe study of teleseisms or very distant seismic events.
telmatologyThe branch of physical geography concerned with the study of wetlands, such as marshes or swamps.
tenontologyThe study of tendons.
tephrochronologyA geochronological technique that uses discrete layers of tephravolcanic ash from a single eruptionto create a chronological framework in which paleoenvironmental or archeological records can be placed.
teratologyThe study of abnormalities of physiological development.
  1. The study of terms and their use.
  2. A set of terms used for a specific application or study.
terotechnologyThe technology of installation, commissioning, maintenance, replacement and removal of plant machinery and equipment, of feedback to operation and design there of.
testaceologyThe study of testaceous mollusks.
  • conchology
testudinologyThe study of turtles or tortoises (order Chelonia).
  • chelonology
  • cheloniology
tetrologyThe common misspelling of tetralogy, a series of four related works.
teuthologyA branch of malacology dealing with the study of cephalopods.
  1. The study of the production of texts.
  2. A branch of linguistics that deals with texts as communication systems.
thanatologyThe scientific study of death.
thaumatologyThe study of miracles.
theologyThe study of god and religious ideas.
thereologyThe science of healing and treatment of diseases; therapeutics.
theriogenologyA branch of veterninary medicine concerned with reproduction.
theriologyThe study of mammals.
  • mammalogy
  • mastology
  • therology
thermoecologyThe branch of ecology that focuses on the effects of the temperature change.
  1. The study of heat.
  2. (medicine) A science that uses infrared images of the body to diagnose problems.
thermopathologyThe branch of pathology that focuses on the effects of the temperature change.
therologyThe study of mammals.
  • theriology
  • mastology
  • mammalogy
ThracologyThe scientific study of Ancient Thrace and Thracian antiquities.
thremmatologyThe field of breeding or propagating plants and animals.
threpsologyThe study of nutrition
  • alimentology
  • sitiology
  • sitology
thymologyThe study of those human aspects that precede or cause purposeful human behavior.
TibetologyThe study of things related to Tibet, including its history, religion, language, politics and the collection of Tibetan articles of historical, cultural and religious significance.
tidologyThe science or study of tides.
timbrologyThe study of postage stamps; philately.
timologyThe study of values or excellence.
tocologyThe study of childbirth and obstetrics.
  • tokology
tokologyThe study of childbirth and obstetrics.
  • tocology
tonologyThe study of tone in human languages.
  1. (mathematics) The properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching and bending, but not tearing or gluing. This can be studied by considering a collection of subsets, called open sets, that satisfy certain properties, turning the given set into what is known as a topological space.
  2. (membrane topology) The specific orientation of transmembrane proteins.
  3. (electronics) The configuration of electronic components.
  4. (Network topology) Configurations of computer or biological networks.
  5. (Geospatial topology) The study or science of places with applications in earth science, geography, human geography, and geomorphology.
  6. (cartography) Used to described a map (topological map is) that is greatly simplified but preserves the mathematical topology while sacrificing scale and shape.
  7. (phylogenetics) The branching pattern of a phylogenetic tree.
toxicologyA branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals (poisons) on living organisms.
  1. The study of projectiles and trajectories.
  2. Archery, or the study of archery.
trachelologyThe study of the neck and related injuries and disease.
transitologyThe study of the process of change from one political regime to another.
  1. (medicine) The study of wounds and injuries (traumas) caused by accidents or violence to a person, and the surgical therapy and repair of the damage.
  2. (psychology) The study, development and application of psychological and counseling services for people who have experienced extreme or traumatic events.
traumatopsychologyThe study of psychologyical trauma.
treeologyThe study of trees.
  • dendrology
tribologyThe study of science and engineering of interacting surfaces in relative motion.
trichologyThe branch of dermatology that deals with the scientific study of the health of hair and scalp.
trilobitologyThe study of trilobites.
trolleyologyAn area of philosophy dealing with the kind of moral dilemma typified by the trolley problem.
trophologyThe study of food combining.
  1. The use of figurative language in speech or writing.
  2. The interpretation of figurative meanings in the Bible.
truthologyThe study of truth.
tsiganologyThe study of the Romani people.
tsiologyThe study of or a treatise on tea.
TurkologyThe study of the languages, history, literature, folklore, culture, and ethnology of people speaking Turkic languages and Turkic peoples.
typhlologyThe study of blindness.

The study of types.

  1. (farm) The classification of farms by the USDA.
  2. (Milewski's typology) A language classification system.
  3. (morphological) A way of classifying the languages of the worldthat groups languages according to their common morphological structures.
  4. (Oakeshott typology) A classification system of medieval swords.
  5. (Pavlov's typology) The first systematic approach to the psychophysiology of individual differences.
  6. (Psychological typologies) Classifications used by psychologists to describe the distinctions between people.
  7. (Sasang typology) A classification scheme in Traditional Korean medicine.
  8. (Sociopolitical typology) The four types, or levels, of a political organization.
  9. (anthropology) The division of culture by races.
  10. (archeology) The classification of artifacts according to their characteristics.
  11. (linguistics) The study and classification of languages according to their structural features.
  12. (psychology) A model of personality types.
  13. (statistics) A concept in statistics, research design and social sciences.
  14. (theology) In Christian theology, the interpretation of some figures and events in the Old Testament as foreshadowing the New Testament.
  15. (urban planning and architecture) The classification of characteristics common to buildings or urban spaces.
  16. (Johnson's typology) A classification of intimate partner violence (IPV).
typtologyThe study of spirit rapping, or the theory that spirits communicate with the living by tapping various codes.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
ufologyThe study of reports, visual records, physical evidence, and other phenomena related to unidentified flying objects (UFO).
universologyThe study and science of the universe.
uranologyThe study of heavens.
urbanologyThe branch of sociology that studies the problems of living in cities and towns.
uredinologyThe study of rust molds.
  • urenology
urenologyThe study of rust molds.
  • uredinology
urinologyThe study of urine and the urinary system.
urogynecologyA surgical sub-specialty of urology and gynecology.
urolithologyThe study of the formation, composition, effects, and removal of urinary calculi.
urologyThe branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary tract system and the male reproductive organs.
uronologyThe branch of medicine dealing with urine.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
vaccinologyThe study, development, and production of vaccines.
VaticanologyThe study of the politics, decisions and functioning of the Vatican, Holy See, and Roman Catholic Church.
velologyThe study and collection of vehicle tax discs.
venereologyThe branch of medicine dealing with the study and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.
venologyThe study of veins.
  • phlebology
vermeologyThe study of worms.
  • helminthology
vexillologyThe study of the history, usage, and symbolism of flags.
victimologyThe study of the victims of crime, and especially of the reasons why some people are more prone to be victims.
VietnamologyThe study of Vietnam.
vinologyThe study of wine and winemaking.
  • enology
  • oenology
virologyThe study of viruses.
vitaminologyThe study of vitamins.
volcanologyThe study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.
  • vulcanology
vulcanologyThe study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.
  • volcanology
vulvologyThe study of the vulva.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
woodpeckerologyThe study of woodpeckers.
wordologyThe study of words.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
xenoarcheology[lower-alpha 1]A fictional science, concerned with the physical remains of alien cultures.
xenobiologyThe study of non-terrestrial life.
xenodochienologyThe love of hotels or inns.
  1. (science fiction) The study of alien life.
  2. (genetics) Homology from horizontal gene transfer.
xenozoologyThe branch of xenology dealing with extraterrestrial animals.
  • astrozoology
  • exozoology
xylologyThe study of wood.


-ology Word Description Synonyms
Alternative spellings
zooarcheology[lower-alpha 1]The study of animal remains at archeological sites.
zoogeologyThe study of fossil animal remains.
zoologyThe scientific study of the behavior, structure, physiology, classification, and distribution of animals.
  • zoölogy
zoonosologyThe study of animal diseases.
zoopathologyThe veterinary study specializing in the diagnosis of animal diseases through the examination of animal tissue and body fluids.
  • veterinary pathology
zoophysiologyThe study of the physiology of animals.
zoophytologyThe natural history of zoophytes.
  • zoöphytology
zoopsychologyThe study of psychology in animals.
zygologyThe study of zygotes.
zymologyThe science of or knowledge concerning fermentation.
  • zumology

  -ology words which are not a field of study
  Common incorrect but accepted variations of terms ending in ology

[7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24]

See also


  1. The prefix or combining form archeo means ancient. It can be alternately spelt archaeo or archæo. All words which contain archeo can be alternatively spelt with archaeo or archæo.
  2. Words that contain the American prefix or combining form hema- (or sometimes hemo) can be alternatively spelt with haema- or hæma, the British English version. In both cases, it means blood.
  3. The prefix paleo is used to denote something which is prehistoric, old, ancient, or primitive. The alternate spellings for it include: palaeo and palæo. All words which begin with the prefix paleo- can be alternatively spelt with palaeo- or palæo-.


  1. Harper, Douglas. "-ology". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  2. List of ancient Greek words ending in -λογία on Perseus
  3. "dermatology". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  4. Eric Partridge, Origins, 2nd edition,New York, Macmillan, 1959
  5. Words Ending In ogy : Words Ending With ogy
  6. Middleton, Richard (1990/2002). Studying Popular Music. Philadelphia: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-15275-9.
  7. "List of ologies". Fact Index. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  8. Helmenstine, Anne Marie. "Ology List of Sciences". Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  9. "Ologies". Tinyonline. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  10. "List all words that contain ology". More Words. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  11. "Sciences and Studies". The Phrontistery. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  12. "-logy". Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  13. "Words ending in ogy". Word Over. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  14. "Words ending in -logy". Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  15. "-ology, -logy, -ologist, -logist". English-Word Information. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
  16. "-ology, -logy, -ologist, -logist". English-Word Information. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  17. ., adg. "ologies". Wordnik. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  18. Aldrich, Chris (2002). The Aldrich dictionary of phobias & other word families. Victoria, B.C.: Trafford. pp. 88–139. ISBN 1-55369-886-X. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  19. "Dictionary of Ologies - Documents". Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  20. "A list of Ologies". Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  21. Helmenstine, Anne Marie. "Ology List of Sciences" (PDF). Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  22. "-logy (English)". Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  23. "Sciences and Studies". Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  24. "Ologies and Graphys". Retrieved 18 July 2017.
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