List of the 72 names on the Eiffel Tower

On the Eiffel Tower, seventy-two names of French scientists, engineers, and mathematicians are engraved in recognition of their contributions.[1] Gustave Eiffel chose this "invocation of science" because of his concern over the protests against the tower.[2] The engravings are found on the sides of the tower under the first balcony, in letters about 60 cm high, and originally painted in gold. The engraving was painted over at the beginning of the twentieth century and restored in 1986–1987 by Société Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, the company contracted by the city of Paris to operate the Tower. The repainting of 2010–2011 restored the letters to their original gold colour.

 
The location of the names on the tower

There are also names of the engineers who helped build the tower and design its architecture on the top of the tower on a plaque, where a laboratory was built as well.

List

Location

The list is split in four parts (for each side of the tower). The sides have been named after the parts of Paris that each side faces:

  • The North-East side (also known as La Bourdonnais side)
  • The South-West side (also known as the Grenelle side)
  • The North West side (also known as the Trocadéro side)

Names

In the table below are all the names on the four sides.

Name appearingFull nameOccupationLocationPortrait
SEGUINMarc Seguinengineer
NW01
LALANDEJérôme Lalandeastronomer
NW02
TRESCAHenri Trescaengineer and mechanic
NW03
PONCELETJean-Victor Ponceletgeometer
NW04
BRESSEJacques Antoine Charles Bressecivil engineer and hydraulic engineer
NW05
LAGRANGEJoseph-Louis Lagrangemathematician
NW06
BELANGERJean-Baptiste-Charles-Joseph Bélangermathematician and hydraulic engineer
NW07
CUVIERGeorges Cuviernaturalist
NW08
LAPLACEPierre-Simon Laplacemathematician and astronomer
NW09
DULONGPierre Louis Dulongphysicist and chemist
NW10
CHASLESMichel Chaslesgeometer
NW11
LAVOISIERAntoine Lavoisierchemist
NW12
AMPEREAndré-Marie Ampèremathematician and physicist
NW13
CHEVREULMichel Eugène Chevreulchemist
NW14
FLACHATEugène Flachatcivil engineer
NW15
NAVIERClaude-Louis Marie Henri Naviermathematician
NW16
LEGENDREAdrien-Marie Legendremathematician
NW17
CHAPTALJean-Antoine Chaptalagronomist and chemist
NW18
JAMINJules Jaminphysicist
SW01
GAY-LUSSACJoseph Louis Gay-Lussacchemist
SW02
FIZEAUHippolyte Fizeauphysicist
SW03
SCHNEIDEREugène Schneiderindustrialist
SW04
LE CHATELIERLouis Le Chatelierengineer
SW05
BERTHIERPierre Berthiermineralogist
SW06
BARRALJean-Augustin Barralagronomist, chemist, physicist
SW07
DE DIONHenri de Dionengineer
SW08
GOUINErnest Goüinengineer and industrialist
SW09
JOUSSELINLouis Didier Jousselinengineer
SW10
BROCAPaul Brocaphysician and anthropologist
SW11
BECQUERELAntoine César Becquerelphysicist
SW12
CORIOLISGaspard-Gustave Coriolisengineer and scientist
SW13
CAILJean-François Cailindustrialist
SW14
TRIGERJacques Trigerengineer
SW15
GIFFARDHenri Giffardengineer
SW16
PERRIERFrançois Perriergeographer and mathematician
SW17
STURMJacques Charles François Sturmmathematician
SW18
CAUCHYAugustin-Louis Cauchymathematician
SE01
BELGRANDEugène Belgrandengineer
SE02
REGNAULTHenri Victor Regnaultchemist and physicist
SE03
FRESNELAugustin-Jean Fresnelphysicist
SE04
DE PRONYGaspard de Pronyengineer
SE05
VICATLouis Vicatengineer
SE06
EBELMENJacques-Joseph Ebelmenchemist
SE07
COULOMBCharles-Augustin de Coulombphysicist
SE08
POINSOTLouis Poinsotmathematician
SE09
FOUCAULTLéon Foucaultphysicist
SE10
DELAUNAYCharles-Eugène Delaunayastronomer
SE11
MORINArthur Morinmathematician and physicist
SE12
HAUYRené Just Haüymineralogist
SE13
COMBESCharles Combesengineer and metallurgist
SE14
THENARDLouis Jacques Thénardchemist
SE15
ARAGOFrançois Aragoastronomer and physicist
SE16
POISSONSiméon Denis Poissonmathematician and physicist
SE17
MONGEGaspard Mongegeometer
SE18
PETIETJules Petietengineer
NE01
DAGUERRELouis Daguerreartist and chemist
NE02
WURTZCharles-Adolphe Wurtzchemist
NE03
LE VERRIERUrbain Le Verrierastronomer
NE04
PERDONNETAlbert Auguste Perdonnetengineer
NE05
DELAMBREJean Baptiste Joseph Delambreastronomer
NE06
MALUSÉtienne-Louis Malusphysicist
NE07
BREGUETLouis Breguetphysicist and inventor
NE08
POLONCEAUCamille Polonceauengineer
NE09
DUMASJean-Baptiste Dumaschemist
NE10
CLAPEYRONÉmile Clapeyronengineer and physicist
NE11
BORDAJean-Charles de Bordamathematician
NE12
FOURIERJoseph Fouriermathematician
NE13
BICHATMarie François Xavier Bichatanatomist and physiologist
NE14
SAUVAGEFrançois Clément Sauvageengineer and geologist
NE15
PELOUZEThéophile-Jules Pelouzechemist
NE16
CARNOTLazare Carnot[3]mathematician
NE17
LAMEGabriel Lamémathematician
NE18

Criticism

Women

The list contains no women. The list has been criticized for excluding the name of Sophie Germain, a noted French mathematician whose work on the theory of elasticity was used in the construction of the tower itself.[4] In 1913, John Augustine Zahm suggested that Germain was excluded because she was a woman.[5]

Hydraulic engineers and scholars

Fourteen hydraulic engineers and scholars are listed on the Eiffel Tower. Eiffel acknowledged most of the leading scientists in the field. Henri Philibert Gaspard Darcy is missing; some of his work did not come into wide use until the 20th century. Also missing are Antoine Chézy, who was less famous; Joseph Valentin Boussinesq, who was early in his career at the time;[6] and mathematician Évariste Galois.

References

  1. "The 72 Scientists". La Tour Eiffel. Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 31 January 2008.
  2. Harriss, Joseph (1975). The Tallest Tower: Eiffel And The Belle Epoque. Houghton Mifflin. pp. 100–101. ISBN 0395204402.
  3. Not to be confused with Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, his son.
  4. Gray, Mary (1978). "Sophie Germain (1776–1831)". In Louise S. Grinstein and Paul Campbell (eds.). Women of Mathematics: A Bibliographic Sourcebook. Greenwood. pp. 47–55. ISBN 978-0-313-24849-8.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
  5. Mozen, H. J. (pseud.) (1913). Women in Science: With an Introductory Chapter on Women's Long Struggle for Things of the Mind. D. Appleton. pp. 154–157.
  6. Chanson, Hubert (13 April 2009). "Hydraulic Engineering Legends Listed on the Eiffel Tower". In Jerry R. Rogers (ed.). Great Rivers History: Proceedings and Invited Papers for the EWRI Congress and Great Rivers History Symposium. American Society of Civil Engineers. pp. 1–7. doi:10.1061/41032(344)1. ISBN 978-0-7844-1032-5.

Further reading

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.