List of leaf vegetables

This is a list of vegetables which are grown or harvested primarily for the consumption of their leafy parts, either raw or cooked. Many plants with leaves that are consumed in small quantities as a spice such as oregano, for medicinal purposes such as lime, or used in infusions such as tea, are not included in this list.

History

Humans have used leaves as food since time immemorial. Different types of leaves, depending from the place and the season, were part of the human diet since prehistoric times. Traces of edible leaves have been found in ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. Some edible leaves were historically documented in ancient Greece, in ancient Rome, in ancient Sri Lanka and in the Middle Ages.[1] With the passing of the centuries many of those traditional leaf vegetables have been replaced by leaves that are more tender, have a more neutral taste or that are considered more refined. The leaves that were part of ancient traditional diets are still to be found in the wild, sometimes at the edge of cultivated fields, or near abandoned homesteads. Generally they are found not far from inhabited places, indicating that they are the vestiges of ancient cultivated plants.[2]

There are places, like the Italian region of Liguria, where it is customary to go to the fields in spring to gather different kinds of edible leaves. These are later boiled to prepare preboggion, a local green mixture, that is generally used to stuff ravioli-like pasta. Also in Greece the tradition of eating a great variety of different leafy greens gathered in the fields has been preserved. These are eaten as a dish called horta.

Precautions

Moderate quantities of edible leaf vegetables that are proportionate to amounts in local dishes, according to culture and place, are harmless unless there are allergies to chemicals in the leaves. For example, some people are allergic to celery leaves. At any rate, it is advisable not to eat large quantities of any particular leaf for protracted periods.

The fact that a certain leaf is part of the traditional cuisine of a country or an area is no guarantee that it is harmless as food. The leaves of the black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) and similar species, contain solanine, an alkaloid. Despite their categorization among poisonous plants, nightshade species are part of the cuisine of certain countries, such as Ethiopia, India and Greece. The leaves are cooked in salty water, which is often boiled and drained more than once.[3]

Emergency food

Another category comprises edible leaves—from plants such as alfalfa, Ruppia maritima, rice or wheat, and cultivated legumes—that are used as emergency or famine food. They are eaten only during times of famine or in isolated areas when fishing or hunting fails.[4] Most such leaves are very rough fare as they are often used as fodder in times of plenty. During Holodomor, for instance, desperate Ukrainians ate leaves from bushes and trees when no other food was available.[5]

Generally, the types of leaves that are eaten during emergency times only are not considered normally consumed leafy greens and have not been included in the list.

List

Key
  • Citations marked with Ecoport are from the Ecoport Web site, an ecology portal developed in collaboration with the FAO.[6]
  • Those marked with GRIN are from the GRIN Taxonomy of Food Plants.[7]
  • Sources marked with Duke are from James Duke's book Handbook of Energy Crops.[8]
SpeciesCommon nameObservations
Abutilon theophrastiChina JuteThe taste is good, but since the texture of the leaves is cloth-like and not crisp, it is not very suitable for being eaten raw.[9]
Acacia pennataClimbing wattleCha-om, an important green in Burma and Thailand[10][11][12]
Acmella oleraceaParacressBrèdes mafane, sharp-tasting leaves, very popular in Madagascar where they are used to prepare a dish known as romazava[13] In Northern Thailand it is one of the ingredients of the Kaeng khae curry.[14]
Althaea officinalisCommon MarshmallowIt was an esculent vegetable among the Ancient Romans; a dish of Marsh Mallow was one of their delicacies.
Amaranthus cruentusPurple amaranthThai: phak khom daeng. Vietnamese: rau dên. Amaranthus species are edible and have a pleasant taste, but contain a certain proportion of oxalic acid and should preferably be eaten after boiling and disposing of the water[15][16]
Amaranthus retroflexusCommon amaranthThai: phak khom. Rougher than other species of Amaranth when uncultivated, but very common as a weed.
Amaranthus spinosusPrickly amaranthThai: phak khom nam
Amaranthus tricolorAmaranthAmarant hybrids, often from hydroponic cultivation, are popular in China and other Asian countries. They are usually eaten blanched[17][18]
Amaranthus viridisSlender amaranthMalayalam; chiira[19][20]
Apium graveolensCeleryGenerally the stalk is preferred, but the leaves are a staple in many soups. Some people have celery allergy which can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock.[21]
Atriplex hortensisGarden oracheIt was cultivated in Southern Europe in ancient times. Presently it is not valued as a leafy vegetable[22][23][24]
Barbarea vernaBank cressIt is considered a satisfactory substitute for watercress.
Barringtonia acutangulaChik-nam, Kra donShoots and young leaves are eaten raw with Nam phrik. Popular in Isan
Basella albaIndian spinach[25][26]
Beta ciclaChardOne of the cultivated descendants of the Sea Beet
Beta vulgaris maritimaSea Beet[27]
Borago officinalisCommon BorageWidespread as a leaf vegetable in former times. Still valued in some places in Italy and Northern Spain[28]
Brassica carinataAbyssinian Cabbage[29][30]
Brassica junceaIndian mustard[31][32]
Brassica napusRutabagaSag, popular in Indian and Nepalese cuisine, usually stir-fried with salt, garlic and spices[33][34]
Brassica napus var. pabulariaRape Kale[35][36]
Brassica nigraBlack MustardBlack mustard is commonly found in neglected gardens, on roadsides, in abandoned fields, and in areas where waste is disposed of. The plant is native to Asia and Europe, but now grows over much of southern Canada and almost all of the United States. This is the chief mustard used in condiments and as such is normally associated with hot-dogs. To make the mustard condiment, the seeds must be ground fine and then mixed with flour and a small portion of water and vinegar. The plant can be cultivated for its young leaves which are used in a salad or as a pot herb.[37]
Brassica oleraceaWild Cabbage[38]
Brassica oleracea var. acephalaKaleKale is a type of cabbage that has flat or curly leaves and stem colors ranging from dark green to burgundy. Kale contains many nutrients including calcium, iron, and vitamins A, C, and K. Young leaves can be harvested to use fresh in salads or allowed to mature and used as a cooked green. Kale can be found throughout the summer months, but is especially good after a frost.[39]
Brassica oleracea var. alboglabraKai-lanAlso known as Chinese kale[40]
Brassica oleracea var. botrytisCauliflower[41][42]
Brassica oleracea var. capitataCabbage[43][44]
Brassica oleracea var. gemmiferaBrussels Sprouts[45][46]
Brassica oleracea var. italicaBroccoli[47][48]
Brassica oleracea var. palmifoliaLacinato kaleAlso known as Tuscan kale, Tuscan cabbage, Italian kale, dinosaur kale, flat back cabbage, palm tree kale, or black Tuscan palm
Brassica rapaTurnipLeaves popular in the southern United States, Galicia, Spain (Grelos)[49][50][51]
Brassica rapa subsp. chinensisBok Choi[52]
Brassica rapa subsp. narinosaChinese Savoy[53]
Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinicaMizuna[54]
Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensisNapa Cabbage[55]
Brassica rapa subsp. rapaRapini[56]
Brassica rapa var. perviridisKomatsuna
Brassica rapa var. rosularisTatsoi
Campanula rapunculusRampionIt was once widely grown in Europe for its leaves, which were used like spinach[57]
Campanula versicolorHarebellUsed in Greek cuisine[57]
Capparis spinosaCaperCaper leaves are part of the Greek cuisine[58][59]
Celosia argentea var. argenteaWild CoxcombKnown as "Lagos spinach", it is one of the main boiled greens in West Africa[60][61]
Centella asiaticaAsian pennywort, GotukolaBai bua bok, popular green in Thailand
Gotukola Sambola in Sri Lanka
Chenopodium albumLamb's QuartersPopular type of Palak in Northern India. Also used to stuff paratha[62][63][64]
Chenopodium ambrosioidesAmerican WormseedChenopodium species are edible, but many species are mediocre as a leaf vegetable.[65]
Chenopodium berlandieri subsp. nuttalliaeSouthern Huauzontle[66][67]
Chenopodium bonus-henricusGood King HenryOne of the finest Chenopodium species[68][69]
Chenopodium giganteumTree Spinach[70][71]
Chenopodium glaucumOak-Leaved Goosefoot[72]
Chenopodium nuttalliaeHuauzontlePopular in Mexico[73]
Chenopodium quinoa subsp. quinoaQuinoaIt has its origin in the Andean region[74][75]
Chenopodium rubrumRed Goosefoot[76]
Chrysanthemum coronariumGarland chrysanthemumPopular in Korean, Cantonese, Taiwanese, Hong Kong and Japanese cuisine[77]
Cichorium endiviaEndive[78]
Cichorium endivia var. crispum,Curly endiveSometimes called "chicory" in the United States, called chicorée frisée in French[78]
Cichorium endivia var. latifolium,Broad-leaved endiveEscarole in French[78]
Cichorium intybusChicoryLeaves cooked with Fave in Northern Italy[79][80]
Cichorium intybus var. foliosumBelgian endiveAlso known as witloof
Cichorium intybus var. foliosumPuntarelleAlso known as Catalogna chicory
Cichorium intybusRadicchioPopular in Italy[79]
Cichorium intybusSugarloaf
Cirsium oleraceumCabbage thistle[81]
Claytonia perfoliataMiner's lettuceUsed by California Gold Rush miners who ate it to prevent scurvy. Like lettuce but rougher[82]
Claytonia sibiricaSiberian spring beautyHas beet-flavoured leaves.[83]
Cleome gynandraAfrican cabbageWidespread in many tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. Its leaves form an important part of diets in Southern Africa.[84]
Cnidoscolus aconitifoliusChaya or Tree spinachTraditional food in parts of Central and South America. Leaves must be cooked before being eaten.[85]
Coccinia grandisIvy GourdLeaves cooked in soups in Thailand.[86][87]
Colocasia esculentaTaroOnly the young leaves are eaten. Popular in Mauritius.[88][89]
Corchorus olitoriusJew's mallowUsed in Molokhiya[90][91][92][93]
Coriandrum sativumCilantro, CorianderUsed mainly for garnishing or in small quantities[94]
Crambe maritimaSea kaleIt was popular as a blanched vegetable in the early 19th Century, but its use declined
Crassocephalum crepidioidesRedflower ragleafTraditionally eaten as a green in tropical Africa. Possible toxicity not well studied
Cratoxylum formosumPhak tiu som or Phak tiu daengYoung leaves are edible. Popular in Laos, Thailand (Isan) and Vietnam
Crithmum maritimumSamphireIn the 19th century, samphire was being shipped in casks of seawater from the Isle of Wight to market in London at the end of May each year.[95]
Crotalaria longirostrataChipilínA common leafy vegetable in the local cuisines of southern Mexico[96][97]
Cryptotaenia japonicaMitsubaSmall quantities added to soups, etc.[98][99]
Cyclanthera pedataCaiguaTraditional green in Central America and South America[100]
Cynara cardunculusCardoonLeaf stems are valued as food[101][102]
Diplazium esculentumVegetable fernProbably the most commonly consumed fern[103][104]
Diplotaxis tenuifoliaPerennial Wall-rocketOften marketed under the same common names (Arugula, Rocket, Baby leaf rocket etc) as Eruca sativa
Erythrina fuscaThong langFresh raw leaves eaten in Thailand in Miang kham.[105]
Eruca sativaArugula, RocketEspecially appreciated in Veneto, Italy[106]
Emex spinosaLesser jackIt was formerly used as a leafy vegetable, but not highly valued
Eryngium foetidumBhandhanya, CulantroEaten as a leafy green in Thailand. Used as seasoning in the Caribbean.
Foeniculum vulgareFennel[107]
Galactites tomentosaScarlinaEdible type of thistle [108]
Galinsoga parvifloraGallant SoldierPopular in Colombia and Peru in soups and salads[109]
Glechoma hederaceaGround Ivy[110]
Glinus lotoidesLotus sweetjuiceUsed as a leaf vegetable in many tropical countries[111]
Gnetum gnemonMelindjoPopular in Indonesian cuisine.[112][113]
Gynura crepioidesOkinawan SpinachGrown commercially as a vegetable in China
Halimione portulacoidesSea purslane[114]
Hibiscus sabdariffaRoselleTelugu: Gongura. Roselle leaves are edible and have a pleasant taste. This plant is having good medicinal values. In some areas it is used as substitute of Jute.
Hirschfeldia incanaShortpod mustard[115]
Honckenya peploidesSea sandwortTraditionally used as food by the inhabitants of coastal Subarctic areas[116]
Houttuynia cordataFishwortPopular as a leaf vegetable particularly in Vietnam[117][118]
Hydrophyllum canadenseJohn's CabbageIt was used as a leaf vegetable by Native American peoples[119]
Hydrophyllum virginianumShawnee SaladIt was used as a leaf vegetable by Native American peoples[120]
Hyoseris radiataUsed in Liguria, Italy, to make preboggion
Hypochaeris maculataSpotted Cat's-earSimilar to dandelion but not as tasty
Hypochaeris radicataCatsearYoung leaves should be harvested before they become too fibrous[121]
Inula crithmoidesGolden samphireYoung leaves may be eaten raw or cooked as a leaf vegetable.[122]
Inula heleniumElecampaneLeaves are edible, although root is preferred[123]
Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.Water SpinachPopular leafy green in Southeast Asia[124][125]
Ipomoea batatas var. batatasSweet Potato[126][127]
Kleinhovia hospitaYoung leaves are eaten as a vegetable in Malaya, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.[128]
Lablab purpureusLablabThe leaves are used as greens, but have to be cooked like spinach and the water has to be discarded.[129]
Lactuca indicaIndian Lettuce[130][131]
Lactuca perennis[132]
Lactuca sativaLettuceThe wild varieties differ much from the average cultivated salad lettuce.
Lactuca sativaCeltuce[133]
Lactuca serriolaPrickly LettucePrickly lettuce is a common edible weed that is native to Europe, but can now be found from coast to coast in the United States. The name comes from the small prickles that can be found on the lower part of the stem and the midrib of the leaves. The plant is found in fields, places of waste, and roadsides. The leaves of the plant reach out towards the sun and for this reason the plant is sometimes called the Compass Plant. Prickly Lettuce can grow to be from two to five feet tall but should be harvested early on when it is a few inches high. The young leaves of the plant are very tender and make an excellent salad green. As a potherb, the plant needs little cooking and is commonly made with a sauce of melted butter or vinegar. Prickly lettuce should be harvested in spring or early summer.[37]
Lagenaria sicerariaBottle GourdIn Burma young leaves are boiled and eaten with nga peet spicy sauce[134][135]
Lallemantia ibericaDragon's headCultivated in ancient times. Popular in Iran as green vegetable[136]
Lamium albumWhite deadnettle[137]
Lamium amplexicauleHenbit deadnettle[138]
Lamium purpureumRed deadnettleLeaves of plants are eaten in salads or in stirfry.[139]
Lapsana communisNipplewortCultivated in Ancient Rome. Presently it is not valued as a leafy vegetable[140]
Launaea sarmentosaKuḷḷafilaUsed in Maldivian cuisine, usually finely chopped and mixed with Maldive fish and grated coconut in a dish known as mas huni.[141]
Leichhardtia australisBush BananaTraditional food of the Indigenous Australian people[142]
Leontodon hispidusHawkbitLeontodon species are dandelion-like plants that are generally edible[143]
Leontodon tuberosusPopular in Crete as a leafy green[143]
Lepidium campestreField pepperweedAll Lepidium species are edible. Appreciated for their peppery taste[144]
Lepidium latifoliumDittander[145][146]
Lepidium meyeniiMacaA traditional vegetable of the Andean mountain areas[147][148]
Lepidium sativumGarden cressUsed in soups, sandwiches and salads for its tangy flavor[149][150]
Lepidium virginicumVirginia pepperweed[151]
Leucaena leucocephalaPhak kratinPopular in Laos and Thailand (Isan)
Levisticum officinaleLovageUsed in salads and soups. Flavor and smell are very similar to celery[152]
Limnocharis flavaGenjerUsed in Southeast Asia, but considered inferior fare in some places[153][154]
Limnophila aromaticaRice paddy herb, Ngò omPopular in Vietnamese cuisine as an ingredient in canh chua, a sweet and sour seafood soup[155]
Limnophila indica[156]
Lysimachia clethroidesGooseneck LoosestrifeEdible, but considered poor fare[157]
Malva neglectaAll Malva species are edible, but are generally considered poor fare or rough food[158][159]
Malva parvifloraCheeseweed[160]
Malva sylvestrisMallow[161]
Malva verticillataMusk Mallow
Malva verticillata var. crispa[162]
Manihot esculenta subsp. esculentaCassavaShould be always eaten boiled after disposing of the water. In some countries cassava leaves are regarded as a poor man's food and only eaten when there is nothing else.[163][164][165][166]
Marsilea crenataSemanggiSteamed leaf are used in certain areas of Java as component of pecel
Matteuccia struthiopterisKogomiThe sprouts are a delicacy in Japanese cuisine[167]
Megacarpaea polyandra多蕊高河菜 duo rui gao he caiFrom the cabbage family. The young leaves are cooked as a vegetable in China[168]
Melanthera bifloraSea daisyThe leaves and shoots are edible[169] and are eaten cooked in Malaysian cuisine as a leaf vegetable and in Langkhttp://ecoport.org/ep?Plant=2162awi raw with chilli and shrimp paste sambal.[170][171][172]
Mentha arvensis piperascensJapanese mintAll Mentha species are edible, but generally used in small quantities as garnishing or in salads
Mentha longifoliaHabek mint[173]
Mertensia maritimaSea bluebellTraditionally used as food after boiling by the Inuit [116]
Mesembryanthemum crystallinumIce plant[174][175]
Mimulus guttatusSeep monkey flowerThe raw or cooked leaves were one of the traditional foods of the Mendocino and Miwok Indians, among other native peoples[176][177]
Mirabilis expansaMaukaOne of the important food crops of the ancient Inca empire. Leaves were eaten as a leaf vegetable or used raw in salads.[178]
Morinda citrifoliaNoni treeKnown as bai-yo in Thai cuisine the leaves are cooked with coconut milk in a curry.[179]
Moringa oleiferaDrumstick treeLeaves are very popular in South Asia for curries and omelettes.[180][181][182]
Moringa ovalifoliaSouth-west African moringaFound in northern Namibia and south-western Angola
Moringa stenopetalaEthiopian moringa[183]
Mycelis muralisWall lettuceLeaves eaten raw in salads[184][185]
Myrianthus arboreusUjujuImportant food source in the Delta and Edo States of Nigeria[186]
Myriophyllum brasilienseParrot featherUsed as a leaf vegetable in South America[111]
Myrrhis odorataCicelyYoung stalks and leaves are eaten in salads[187]
Nasturtium officinaleWatercressOne of the most popular salad greens in certain areas, but watercress crops grown in the presence of animal waste can be a haven for parasites such as the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.[188]
Neptunia oleracea LoureiroPhak chetWidely used in Thailand. Eaten raw with Nam phrik[189]
Nymphaea odorataFragrant Water LilyYoung leaves were eaten as a vegetable by Native Americans[190]
Nymphoides indicaWater SnowflakeYoung leaves and stems are edible.[191]
Nymphoides peltataYellow floating heart[192]
Ocimum basilicumSweet BasilUsed in soups and sauces.[193]
O. basilicum var. thyrsifloraThai basilEaten both raw and cooked[194]
Ocimum × citriodorumLemon basilUsed throughout Southeast Asia[195]
Oenanthe javanicaWater CeleryUsed in Southeast Asia and the Far East[196][197]
Oenothera biennisCommon evening primrose[198][199]
Oenothera hookeriHooker's Evening-primroseLeaves are cooked as greens[200]
Onoclea sensibilisSensitive fernIt was used as a vegetable by the Iroquois[201]
Oroxylum indicumPhekaHas edible leaves and stems, eaten especially in Isan (Thailand) and in Laos[202]
Oryza sativaRice[203][204][205]
Osmorhiza aristataGrows in China and Japan[206][207]
Osmunda cinnamomeaCinnamon fern[208]
Osmunda claytonianaInterrupted fern[209]
Oxalis acetosellaCommon wood sorrelOxalis species contain oxalic acid and should not be eaten for long periods in large quantities. If possible, they should be eaten after boiling and disposing of the water[210]
Oxalis corniculataCreeping woodsorrel[211]
Oxalis deppeiIron CrossPopular as a vegetable in Mexico for its sharp, lemony taste[212]
Oxalis oreganaRedwood sorrel[213]
Oxalis strictaCommon yellow woodsorrel[214]
Oxalis tuberosaOca[215][216]
Oxalis violacea[217]
Oxyria digynaMountain sorrel[218]
Pachira aquaticaMoney tree[219][220]
Pachira insignis[221]
Paederia foetida[222]
Parkia biglandulosa
Parkia speciosaPetai[223][224]
Parkinsonia floridaBlue Palo Verde
Pastinaca sativa subsp. sativaParsnip[225][226]
Patrinia scabiosifoliaGolden lace
Patrinia villosa
Paulownia tomentosaEmpress tree[227]
Pedalium murexBurra GookerooMucilaginous[228]
Peperomia pellucidaClearweed[229][230]
Pereskia aculeataBarbados Gooseberry[231][232]
Pergularia daemia[233]
Perilla frutescensPerilla[234]
Persicaria hydropiperWater pepperThe leaves of a cultivar of this plant are eaten in Japan[235]
Persicaria vulgaris
Petasites frigidusArctic butterbur[236]
Petroselinum crispumParsleyOnly eaten as garnish, not in large quantities [237]
Peucedanum ostruthium[238]
Phaseolus coccineusRunner Bean[239][240]
Phaseolus lunatusLima Bean[241][242]
Phaseolus vulgarisBean[243][244][245]
Phragmites australisCommon Reed[246][247]
Phyla scaberrimaRough fogfruit
Phyllanthus acidusStar Gooseberry
Phyllanthus emblicaMyrobalan[248]
Phyteuma orbiculareRound-headed rampion
Phytolacca acinosaIndian Pokeberry[249]
Phytolacca acinosa var. esculenta
Phytolacca americanaAmerican Pokeweed[250][251]
Phytolacca dioicaBella Sombra[252]
Phytolacca rivinoidesDeer calalu[253][254][255]
Pimpinella anisumAniseed[256][257]
Pimpinella saxifragaBurnet Saxifrage[258]
Pinus densifloraJapanese Red Pine[259][260]
Piper auritumMexican pepperleafKnown as Hoja santa (holy leaf). Aromatic herb with a heart-shaped, velvety leaf often used in Mexican cuisine for tamales and sauces.[261]
Piper guineenseWest African pepper[262]
Piper sarmentosumCha-phluPopular in Thailand in Miang kham[263]
Pipturus argenteusQueensland grass-cloth plant[264]
Pisonia grandisTree lettuceThe leaves are traditionally used as a leaf vegetable in some countries.[265] Traditionally eaten by Maldivians in Mas huni.[141]
Pistacia chinensisChinese Pistache[266][267]
Pistacia terebinthusTerebinth[268][269]
Pistia stratiotesWater Lettuce[270]
Pisum sativumGarden pea[271][272]
Plantago coronopusBuckshorn plantainSome people may be allergic to this plant.[273][274]
Plantago lanceolataLong-leaved plantain[275]
Plantago majorBroad-leaved Plantain[276]
Plantago maritima[277]
Pluchea indica[278]
Podophyllum hexandrumHimalayan mayapple[279]
Poliomintha incana[280]
Polygonum aviculareKnotweed[281]
Polygonum bistortaBistort[282]
Polygonum bistortoidesAmerican Bistort[283]
Polygonum punctatum
Polygonum viviparumAlpine bistort[284]
Poncirus trifoliataTrifoliate orange[285]
Pontederia cordata[286]
Portulaca oleracea Common purslanePopular in Greek cuisine[287][288]
Portulaca pilosa
Portulacaria afraElephant Bush
Primula verisCowslip[289][290]
Primula vulgarisPrimrose[291]
Pringlea antiscorbuticaKerguelen cabbageIts leaves contain a Vitamin C-rich oil, a fact which, in the days of sailing ships, made it very attractive to British sailors suffering from scurvy[292]
Prosopis spicegera
Prunella vulgaris[293]
Psoralea esculentaPrairie turnipThe prairie turnip is a legume that was often used by American Indians located in the Great Plains. Roots of the legumes provide a valuable source of protein, minerals, and carbohydrates. Most turnips have white skin and the portion of the plant that is seen above the ground is purple, red, or green in color. The root below the surface is known as the taproot and is usually around 5-20 centimeters in diameter.[294]
Pteris ensiformis
Ptychosperma elegans
Pulicaria odora
Pulmonaria officinalisLungwort[295]
Puya caerulea
Puya chilensis[296]
Pyrus betulaefoliaBirch-Leaved Pear
Ranunculus ficariaLesser celandine[297]
Raphanus raphanistrumWild radish[298]
Raphanus raphanistrum ssp. landra
Raphanus raphanistrum ssp. maritimus
Raphanus sativusRadish[299][300]
Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatusChinese radish
Raphia hookeriRaffia palm[301][302]
Reichardia picroidesFrench Scorzonera[303]
Rhamnus dahurica
Rheum rhabarbarum
Rheum tataricum
Rhexia virginicaMeadow beauty[304]
Rhodiola roseaRoseroot[305]
Rhododendron arboreum[306]
Rhopalostylis sapidaNikau
Ribes cereum[307]
Ribes divaricatum[308]
Ribes nigrumBlackcurrant[309][310]
Ribes odoratum[311]
Rorippa indica[312]
Rorippa islandica
Rosa multifloraSeven Sisters Rose[313]
Roystonea elata
Roystonea oleracea
Rubus rosaefolius[314]
Rumex acetosaSorrelMany species of Rumex are edible, but they contain a relatively high proportion of oxalic acid. Raw leaves should be eaten sparingly and leaves should preferably be used after boiling and disposing of the water.[315][316]
Salicornia europaeaGlasswortGlasswort is a leafless plant with jointed stems that are a light green color in the summer and a red color in the fall. There are very small flowers within the segmented portions of the plant. The plant is found in coastal salt marshes and alkaline soils within south Nova Scotia and Eastern and central North America. The stems have a salty flavor and can be harvested to be used in salads, as a puree, or as a pickled condiment.[317]
Salix babylonicaWeeping Willow[318]
Salix daphnoides[319]
Salix gracilistylaRosegold pussy willow
Salsola kaliSaltwort[320][321]
Salsola komaroviiLand Seaweed
Salsola sodaOpposite leaved saltwort[322]
Salvadora persicaToothbrush tree[323]
Sambucus javanica[324]
Sambucus sieboldiana[325]
Sanguisorba canadensis[326]
Sanguisorba minorSalad Burnet[327]
Sanguisorba officinalisGreat Burnet
Sassafras albidumSassafras[328]
Sauropus androgynusKatukA traditional vegetable in some tropical countries that should be consumed in moderate quantities due to the presence of papaverine[329][330][331]
Saxifraga pensylvanicaEastern Swamp SaxifrageThe Cherokee traditionally ate the leaves raw as greens[332][333]
Saxifraga stoloniferaCreeping RockfoilOccasionally used fresh or cooked in Japanese cuisine[334]
Schleichera oleosa[335][336]
Scolymus hispanicusTagarninaEdible thistle. Popular in Southern Spanish cuisine [337]
Scolymus maculatusSpotted golden thistle[337]
Scorzonera hispanicaScorzonera[338][339]
Scutellaria baicalensisBaikal Skullcap[340]
Sechium eduleChayote[341][342]
Sedum anacampserosLove-restorerAll stonecrops (Sedum) are edible, but are generally mediocre food.[343]
Sedum divergensSpreading stonecropTraditional salad vegetable of the Haida and the Nisga'a people of Northwest British Columbia.[344]
Sedum reflexumJenny's stonecropOccasionally used as a salad leaf or herb in Europe.[345]
Sedum rhodanthumRose crown[346]
Sedum telephiumLivelong[347]
Senna occidentalisDigutiyaraTraditionally eaten in the Maldives in Mas huni. Leaves are finely chopped.[141]
Senna siameaCassod TreeUsed in Thai cuisine in a curry named Kaeng khilek. Leaves are boiled and strained and the water discarded.[348]
Sesamum alatumSésame de gazelleEaten in dry regions of Africa like Chad as a vegetable. Considered as famine food in some areas[349][350][351]
Sesamum indicumSesame[352][353]
Sesamum radiatumBenniseedFresh leaves and young shoots are a popular leafy vegetable in Africa[354][355][356]
Sesbania grandifloraWest Indian pea[357][358][359]
Sesbania sesbanSesban[360]
Sesuvium portulacastrumSea Purselane[361]
Setaria palmifoliaPalm-grass[362][363]
Sicyos angulatus[364]
Sida rhombifoliaArrowleaf sida
Sidalcea neomexicana
Silaum silausPepper saxifrageDespite the name, it is neither a saxifrage nor peppery in taste[365]
Silene acaulisMoss campion[366]
Silene vulgarisBladder CampionCollejas; a traditional green in Manchego cuisine, Spain[367][368]
Silybum marianumBlessed milk thistle[369]
Sinapis albaWhite Mustard[370][371]
Sinapis arvensisCharlock[372]
Sisymbrium altissimum[373]
Sisymbrium crassifolium[374]
Sisymbrium irioLondon rocket
Sisymbrium officinaleHedge mustard[375]
Sium cicutaefolium
Smyrnium olusatrumAlexanders[376]
Solenostemon rotundifoliusChinese potato[377][378]
Solidago missouriensis[379]
Sonchus arvensisField sow-thistle[380]
Sonchus asperSpiny-leaved sow thistle[381]
Sonchus oleraceusSow ThistleLeaves are eaten as salad greens or cooked like spinach. This is one of the species used in Chinese cuisine as kŭcài (; lit. bitter vegetable).[382]
Sophora japonicaPagoda-tree[383]
Spathiphyllum phryniifolium
Sphenoclea zeylanica[384]
Sphenostylis stenocarpa[385][386]
Spilanthes acmellaToothache Plant
Spinacia oleraceaSpinachSpinach contains a certain proportion of oxalic acid. Raw leaves should be eaten sparingly. In dishes that include large quantities, leaves should preferably be used after boiling and disposing of the water.[387][388]
Spirodela polyrhizaGreater Duck-weed[389]
Spondias dulcisOtaheite Apple[390][391]
Spondias mombinYellow mombin[392][393]
Spondias purpureaJocote[394][395]
Stanleya pinnatifida
Stellaria mediaCommon Chickweed[396][397]
Stenochlaena palustris
Sterculia foetida[398]
Sterculia tragacantha
Strychnos spinosaNatal orange[399][400]
Suaeda maritimaSea Blite[401]
Symphytum officinale[402]
Symphytum uplandicum
Synedrella nodiflora[403]
Syzygium malaccenseMalay apple[404][405]
Syzygium polycephalum[406]
Talinum paniculatumJewels of Opar
Talinum portulacifolium[407]
Talinum triangulare[408]
Tanacetum vulgareTansy[409]
Taraxacum albidum
Taraxacum officinaleDandelion[410][411]
‘‘Telfairia occidentalis’‘Fluted gourd[412][413]
Telosma cordata
Tetracarpidium conophorum
Tetragonia decumbens
Tetragonia implexicoma[414]
Tetragonia tetragonioidesNew Zealand Spinach[415][416]
Thalia geniculata
Thespesia populneaPortia tree[417]
Thlaspi arvensePennycress[418]
Thymus vulgarisCommon Thyme[419]
Tiliacora triandra
Toddalia asiatica[420]
Toona sinensisChinese Mahogany
Tordylium apulum[421]
Trachycarpus fortuneiWindmill Palm[422]
Tradescantia virginiana[423]
Tragopogon dubiusWestern salsify[424]
Tragopogon porrifoliusSalsify[425][426]
Tragopogon pratensisGoat's Beard[427]
Trianthema portulacastrum[428]
Trichodesma zeylanicum
Trifolium hybridumAlsike CloverClover leaves are edible, but should be dipped in salt water before eating or preparation to aid in digestion[429][430]
Trifolium pratenseRed Clover[431][432]
Trifolium repensWhite Clover[433]
Trigonella caeruleaSweet Trefoil[434]
Trigonella corniculata[435][436]
Trillium erectumWake-robin[437]
Trillium grandiflorumWhite trillium[438]
Trillium sessile
Trillium undulatumPainted trillium[439]
Tropaeolum majusGarden Nasturtium[440][441]
Tropaeolum minusDwarf Nasturtium[442][443]
Tropaeolum tuberosumMashua[444][445]
Tulbaghia alliacea[446]
Tussilago farfaraColtsfoot[447]
Typha capensis
Typha elephantina[448]
Ullucus tuberosusUlluco[449][450]
Ulmus pumilaSiberian elm[451]
Urena lobataRose Mallow[452]
Urtica dioicaStinging NettleA good pot herb. Often also used as famine food[453]
Urtica urensAnnual Nettle[454]
Valerianella eriocarpaItalian Corn Salad[455][456]
Valerianella locustaCorn Salad[457][458]
Vallaris heynei
Verbena officinalisEuropean Verbena[459]
Vernonia amygdalinaBitter leaf[460][461]
Veronica anagallis-aquaticaWater Speedwell[462]
Veronica beccabungaBrooklime[463]
Veronicastrum sibiricum
Viola adunca[464]
Viola canadensisCanada Violet[465]
Viola odorataSweet Violet[466]
Viola papilionacea
Viola pedataBird's Foot Violet[467]
Viola sororiaCommon blue violet
Viola x wittrockiana
Vitex doniana[468]
Vitis amurensisAmur grape[469]
Vitis californicaCalifornia wild grape[470]
Vitis coignetiae
Vitis labruscaNorthern Fox Grape[471][472]
Vitis munsoniana
Vitis shuttleworthii
Vitis viniferaGrape[473][474][475]
Wasabia japonicaWasabiFresh leaves can be eaten, having the spicy flavor of wasabi roots
Wisteria floribundaJapanese wisteria[476]
Wolffia arrhiza[477]
Xanthoceras sorbifoliumYellowhorn
Xanthosoma atrovirens
Xanthosoma brasiliense[478][479]
Xanthosoma sagittifolium[480][481]
Xanthosoma violaceum[482][483]
Ximenia americana[484][485]
Zanthoxylum piperitum
Zanthoxylum planispinum
Zingiber zerumbetAwapuhi[486]

See also

References

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  195. "Kemangi". Delicious Indonesia. Archived from the original on 2013-12-15. Retrieved 2013-12-15.
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  199. Gaertner, Erika E. (1968-10-01). "Additions to the list of wild edible plants preservable by the deep freeze method". Economic Botany. 22 (4): 369–370. doi:10.1007/BF02908133.
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  207. [Osmorhiza aristata - (Thunb.)Makino.&Yabe. PFAF - Osmorhiza aristata (Thunb.)Makino.&Yabe.]
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  225. John H. Wiersema. "GRIN". Ars-grin.gov. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2013-12-15.
  226. "Entity Display : Pastinaca sativa". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  227. "Entity Display : Paulownia tomentosa". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  228. Pedalium Murex - Food resource Archived November 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  229. "GRIN #870". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  230. "Entity Display : Peperomia pellucida". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  231. "GRIN #871". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  232. "Entity Display : Pereskia aculeata". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  233. "Entity Display : Pergularia daemia". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  234. "Entity Display : Perilla frutescens". Ecoport.org. 2001-10-31. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  235. "Entity Display : Persicaria hydropiper". Archive.is. 2012-07-07. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  236. "Entity Display : Petasites frigidus". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  237. "Entity Display : Petroselinum crispum". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  238. "Entity Display : Peucedanum ostruthium". Ecoport.org. 2000-07-07. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  239. "GRIN #877". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  240. "Entity Display : Phaseolus coccineus". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  241. "GRIN #879". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  242. "Entity Display : Phaseolus lunatus". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  243. "GRIN #880". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  244. "Entity Display : Phaseolus vulgaris". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  245. "Phaseolus vulgaris". Hort.purdue.edu. 1998-01-07. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  246. "Entity Display : Phragmites australis". Archive.is. 2013-01-13. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  247. "Duke". Hort.purdue.edu. 1998-01-07. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  248. "GRIN #884". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  249. "Entity Display : Phytolacca acinosa". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  250. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?908%5B%5D
  251. "Entity Display : Phytolacca americana". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  252. "Entity Display : Phytolacca dioica". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  253. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?909%5B%5D
  254. "Entity Display : Phytolacca rivinoides". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  255. "Phytolacca rivinoides - Plant Information Sheet, Food Plants". Foodplantsinternational.com. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  256. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?910%5B%5D
  257. "Entity Display : Pimpinella anisum". Ecoport.org. 2000-03-28. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  258. "Entity Display : Pimpinella saxifraga". Ecoport.org. 2000-07-07. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  259. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?913%5B%5D
  260. "Entity Display : Pinus densiflora". Archive.is. 2012-07-07. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  261. [http://www.zarela.com/2009/hoja-santa-piper-sanctum-or-piper-auritum/
  262. "Entity Display : Piper guineense". Archive.is. 2012-07-10. Archived from the original on 2012-07-10. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  263. Pictures of the Miang kam preparation process Archived 2011-09-04 at the Wayback Machine
  264. "Entity Display : Pipturus argenteus". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  265. "Capricornia Cuisine: Bush Tucker in Central Queensland". Anpsa.org.au. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  266. "GRIN #923". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  267. "Entity Display : Pistacia chinensis". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  268. "GRIN #924". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  269. "Entity Display : Pistacia terebinthus". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  270. "Entity Display : Pistia stratiotes". 2016-09-21. Archived from the original on 2016-09-21. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  271. "GRIN #926". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  272. "Entity Display : Pisum sativum". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  273. Buckshorn plantain (Plantago coronopus) Archived March 31, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  274. "Entity Display : Plantago coronopus". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  275. "Entity Display : Plantago lanceolata". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2012-07-09. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  276. "Entity Display : Plantago major". Archive.is. 2012-07-07. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  277. "Entity Display : Plantago maritima". Archive.is. 2012-07-08. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  278. "Entity Display : Pluchea indica". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  279. "Entity Display : Podophyllum hexandrum". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  280. "Entity Display : Poliomintha incana". Archive.is. 2012-07-07. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  281. "Entity Display : Polygonum aviculare". Archive.is. 2012-07-20. Archived from the original on 2012-07-20. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  282. "Entity Display : Polygonum bistorta". Ecoport.org. 2000-07-11. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  283. "Entity Display : Polygonum bistortoides". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  284. "Entity Display : Polygonum viviparum". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  285. "Entity Display : Poncirus trifoliata". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  286. "Entity Display : Pontederia cordata". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  287. "GRIN #941". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  288. "Entity Display : Portulaca oleracea L". Ecoport.org. 2005-11-11. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  289. "GRIN #952". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  290. "Entity Display : Primula veris". Ecoport.org. 2000-07-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  291. "Entity Display : Primula vulgaris". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  292. "Kerguelen cabbage". Archived from the original on 2012-05-29.
  293. "Entity Display : Prunella vulgaris". Ecoport.org. 2000-12-19. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  294. Stahnke, April, Michelle Hayes, Karen Meyer, Karla Witt, Jeanna Weideman, Anne Fernando, Rhoda Burrows, and Reese Neil. (2008). "Prairie Turnip". Native Plants Journal (Indiana University Press). 9 (1).CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  295. "Entity Display : Pulmonaria officinalis". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  296. "Entity Display : Puya chilensis". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  297. "Entity Display : Ranunculus ficaria". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  298. "Entity Display : Raphanus raphanistrum". Archive.is. 2013-01-13. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  299. "GRIN #1014". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  300. "Entity Display : Raphanus sativus Bailey". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  301. "GRIN #1015". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  302. "Entity Display : Raphia hookeri". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  303. "Entity Display : Reichardia picroides". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  304. "Entity Display : Rhexia virginica". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  305. "Entity Display : Rhodiola rosea". Ecoport.org. 2003-03-17. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  306. "Entity Display : Rhododendron arboreum". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  307. "Entity Display : Ribes cereum". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  308. "Entity Display : Ribes divaricatum". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  309. "GRIN #1029". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  310. "Entity Display : Ribes nigrum". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  311. "Entity Display : Ribes odoratum". Archive.is. 2013-01-13. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  312. "Entity Display : Rorippa indica". Ecoport.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  313. "Entity Display : Rosa multiflora". Archive.is. 2012-07-12. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  314. "Entity Display : Rubus rosaefolius". Archive.is. 2012-07-08. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  315. "GRIN #1070". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  316. "Entity Display : Rumex acetosa". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  317. Peterson, Lee (1977). Edible Wild Plants. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 146. ISBN 0-395-31870-X. Google preview of alternate edition 978-0-395-92622-2
  318. "Entity Display : Salix babylonica L." ecoport.org.
  319. "Entity Display : Salix daphnoides". Archive.is. 2012-07-08. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  320. "Entity Display : Salsola kali". Archive.is. 2013-01-13. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  321. "Duke". Hort.purdue.edu. 1998-01-09. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  322. "Entity Display : Salsola soda". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  323. "Entity Display : Salvadora persica". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  324. "Entity Display : Sambucus javanica". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  325. "Entity Display : Sambucus sieboldiana". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  326. "Entity Display : Sanguisorba canadensis". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  327. "Entity Display : Sanguisorba minor". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  328. "Entity Display : Sassafras albidum". Archive.is. 2013-01-13. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  329. Nutritive value of Sauropus androgynus leaves Archived November 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  330. "GRIN #1095". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  331. "Entity Display : Sauropus androgynus". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  332. Daniel E. Moerman, Native American Food Plants: An Ethnobotanical Dictionary
  333. "Entity Display : Saxifraga pensylvanica". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  334. "Entity Display : Saxifraga stolonifera". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  335. "GRIN #1098". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  336. "Entity Display : Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  337. "Entity Display : Scolymus maculatus". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  338. "GRIN #1101". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  339. "Entity Display : Scorzonera hispanica". Archive.is. 2012-07-07. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  340. "Entity Display : Scutellaria baicalensis". Archive.is. 2012-07-12. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  341. "GRIN #1104". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  342. "Entity Display : Sechium edule". Archive.is. 2012-07-16. Archived from the original on 2012-07-16. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  343. Sedum Anacampseros, Evergreen Orpine - Food Resource Archived November 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  344. Pojar, Jim; MacKinnon, Andy (2004). "Plants of Coastal British Columbia, including Washington, Oregon, & Alaska". ecoport.org. p. 156. Archived from the original on 2016-01-16.
  345. "Sedum rupestre - L. Crooked Yellow Stonecrop". Plants for a Future. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  346. "Rosecrown - Sedum rhodanthum". archive.org. 28 August 2004.
  347. "Entity Display : Sedum telephium". ecoport.org.
  348. "แกงขี้เหล็ก - Kaeng khilek". Papamenu.com. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  349. G. J. H. Grubben, Vegetables, Plant Resources of Tropical Africa Archived May 16, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  350. "GRIN #1110". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  351. "Entity Display : Sesamum alatum". Archive.is. 2012-07-12. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  352. "GRIN #1111". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  353. "Entity Display : Sesamum indicum L." ecoport.org.
  354. "GRIN #1113". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  355. "Entity Display : Sesamum radiatum". Archive.is. 2012-07-16. Archived from the original on 2012-07-16. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  356. "PROTA". Database.prota.org. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  357. "GRIN #1114". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  358. "Entity Display : Sesbania grandiflora". Archive.is. 2012-07-13. Archived from the original on 2012-07-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  359. "Duke". Hort.purdue.edu. 1998-01-09. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  360. "Entity Display : Sesbania sesban". Archive.is. 2012-07-18. Archived from the original on 2012-07-18. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  361. "Entity Display : Sesuvium portulacastrum". Archive.is. 2012-07-07. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  362. "GRIN #1116". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  363. "Entity Display : Setaria palmifolia". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  364. "Entity Display : Sicyos angulatus". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  365. "Silaum silaus – Pepper Saxifrage". Emorsgate Seeds. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  366. "Entity Display : Silene acaulis". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  367. "GRIN #1120". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  368. "Entity Display : Silene vulgaris". Archive.is. 2012-07-12. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  369. "Entity Display : Silybum marianum". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  370. "Entity Display : Sinapis alba". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  371. "Duke". Hort.purdue.edu. 1998-01-09. Retrieved 2018-02-28.
  372. "Entity Display : Sinapis arvensis". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  373. "Entity Display : Sisymbrium altissimum". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  374. "Entity Display : Sisymbrium crassifolium". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  375. "Entity Display : Sisymbrium officinale". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  376. "Entity Display : Smyrnium olusatrum". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  377. "GRIN #70741". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  378. "Entity Display : Solenostemon rotundifolius". ecoport.org.
  379. "Entity Display : Solidago missouriensis". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  380. "Entity Display : Sonchus arvensis". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  381. "Entity Display : Sonchus asper". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  382. "Kucai". Baidu Encyclopedia (苦菜_百度百科) (in Chinese). baike.baidu.com. Retrieved 2008-02-07.
  383. "Entity Display : Sophora japonica". Archive.is. 2013-01-13. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  384. "Entity Display : Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn". Archive.is. 2013-01-13. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  385. "GRIN #1157". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  386. "Entity Display : Sphenostylis stenocarpa". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  387. "GRIN #1158". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  388. "Entity Display : Spinacia oleracea". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  389. "Entity Display : Spirodela polyrhiza". Archive.is. 2013-01-12. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  390. "GRIN #1159". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  391. "Entity Display : Spondias dulcis". Archive.is. 2013-01-13. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  392. "GRIN #1160". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  393. "Entity Display : Spondias mombin". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2018-02-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  394. "GRIN #1161". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  395. "Entity Display : Spondias purpurea". ecoport.org.
  396. "GRIN #1165". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  397. "Entity Display : Stellaria media". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  398. "Entity Display : Sterculia foetida L." ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  399. "GRIN #1172". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  400. "Entity Display : Strychnos spinosa". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  401. "Entity Display : Suaeda maritima". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013.
  402. "Entity Display : Symphytum officinale". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  403. "Entity Display : Synedrella nodiflora". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  404. "GRIN #1182". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  405. "Entity Display : Syzygium malaccense". ecoport.org.
  406. "Entity Display : Syzygium polycephalum". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  407. "Entity Display : Talinum portulacifolium". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  408. "Entity Display : Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  409. "Entity Display : Tanacetum vulgare". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  410. "GRIN #1189". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  411. "Entity Display : Taraxacum officinale". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  412. "GRIN #1190". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  413. "Entity Display : Telfairia occidentalis". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  414. "Entity Display : Tetragonia implexicoma". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  415. "GRIN #1194". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  416. "Entity Display : Tetragonia tetragonioides". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013.
  417. "Entity Display : Thespesia populnea". ecoport.org.
  418. "Entity Display : Thlaspi arvense". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  419. "Entity Display : Thymus vulgaris". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  420. "Entity Display : Toddalia asiatica". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  421. "Entity Display : Tordylium apulum". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  422. "Entity Display : Trachycarpus fortunei". ecoport.org.
  423. "Entity Display : Tradescantia virginiana". ecoport.org.
  424. "Entity Display : Tragopogon dubius". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  425. "GRIN #1205". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  426. "Entity Display : Tragopogon porrifolius". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  427. "Entity Display : Tragopogon pratensis". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  428. "Entity Display : Trianthema portulacastrum". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  429. Wild Plants Archived 2016-02-18 at the Wayback Machine
  430. "Entity Display : Trifolium hybridum". ecoport.org. 8 July 2012. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012.
  431. "Entity Display : Trifolium pratense". ecoport.org. 9 July 2012. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012.
  432. "Trifolium pratense". www.hort.purdue.edu.
  433. "Entity Display : Trifolium repens". ecoport.org. 12 July 2012. Archived from the original on 12 July 2012.
  434. "Entity Display : Trigonella caerulea". ecoport.org. 8 July 2012. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012.
  435. "GRIN #1217". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  436. "Entity Display : Trigonella corniculata". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013.
  437. "Entity Display : Trillium erectum". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  438. "Entity Display : Trillium grandiflorum". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013.
  439. "Entity Display : Trillium undulatum". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  440. "GRIN #1235". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  441. "Entity Display : Tropaeolum majus". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  442. "GRIN #1236". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  443. "Entity Display : Tropaeolum minus". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  444. "GRIN #1237". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  445. "Entity Display : Tropaeolum tuberosum". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  446. "Entity Display : Tulbaghia alliacea". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  447. "Entity Display : Tussilago farfara". ecoport.org.
  448. "Entity Display : Typha elephantina". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013.
  449. "GRIN #1242". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  450. "Entity Display : Ullucus tuberosus". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  451. "Entity Display : Ulmus pumila". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  452. "Entity Display : Urena lobata". ecoport.org.
  453. "Entity Display : Urtica dioica". ecoport.org. 15 July 2012. Archived from the original on 15 July 2012.
  454. "Entity Display : Urtica urens". ecoport.org. 13 July 2012. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012.
  455. "GRIN #1259". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  456. "Entity Display : Valerianella eriocarpa". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  457. "GRIN #1260". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  458. "Entity Display : Valerianella locusta". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  459. "Entity Display : Verbena officinalis". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013.
  460. "GRIN #1264". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  461. "Entity Display : Vernonia amygdalina". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013.
  462. "Entity Display : Veronica anagallis-aquatica". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  463. "Entity Display : Veronica beccabunga". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  464. "Entity Display : Viola adunca". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013.
  465. "Entity Display : Viola canadensis". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013.
  466. "Entity Display : Viola odorata". ecoport.org.
  467. "Entity Display : Viola pedata". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  468. "Entity Display : Vitex doniana". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  469. "Entity Display : Vitis amurensis". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  470. "Entity Display : Vitis californica". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  471. "GRIN #1285". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  472. "Entity Display : Vitis labrusca". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  473. "GRIN #1287". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  474. "Entity Display : Vitis vinifera". ecoport.org.
  475. "Vitis vinifera". www.hort.purdue.edu.
  476. "Entity Display : Wisteria floribunda". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  477. "Entity Display : Wolffia arrhiza". ecoport.org. 8 July 2012. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012.
  478. "GRIN #1292". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  479. "Entity Display : Xanthosoma brasiliense". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013.
  480. "GRIN #1294". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  481. "Entity Display : Xanthosoma sagittifolium". ecoport.org.
  482. "GRIN #1295". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  483. "Entity Display : Xanthosoma violaceum". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  484. "GRIN #1296". npgsweb.ars-grin.gov.
  485. "Entity Display : Ximenia americana". ecoport.org. 12 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
  486. "Entity Display : Zingiber zerumbet". ecoport.org. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013.
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