List of destroyed libraries

Libraries have been deliberately or accidentally destroyed or badly damaged. Sometimes a library is purposely destroyed as a form of cultural cleansing.[1]

There are examples of accidentally destroyed libraries by human actions. Other times they are damaged by natural disasters like earthquakes, floods or accidental fires.

Library fires have happened sporadically through the centuries: notable examples are the destruction of the Library of Alexandria, destruction of Library of Nalanda in India and the accidental burning of the Duchess Anna Amalia Library in Weimar. Causes vary from arson to the sun's rays setting fire to leaflets through the action of a magnifying lens, as happened to a library in Northam, Devon.[2][3]

Causes and prevention

In earlier times mildew was considered a major problem in many libraries and so the emphasis on library design was to increase air flow by, for example, leaving openings under the shelves in adjoining floors. In a fire the flames will be drawn floor to floor by the air flow thus ensuring the relatively easy destruction of a whole library rather than a small section.

Advances in technology have reduced the possibility of a library collection being destroyed by fire. These include water sprinklers, fire doors, freezers, alarms, smoke detectors, suppression systems, and emergency generators. Older libraries are usually converted by closing up air flow openings and installing fire doors, alarms and sprinklers. Air conditioning reduces the mold problems. These are all essential parts of new library design.

There is no recovery possible if a book is burnt so it is accepted that a better solution is to put out the fire with water and then dry out the books. As mold destroys paper the books are frozen until they can be dried. This process will damage the book but not destroy it and the information will be intact.

In order to minimize the possibility of damage from fire, or other causes, and decrease the time needed for recovery after a destructive event, all libraries need a disaster management and recovery plan. This can be an ongoing process which will include professional development following updates in technology for key staff, training for the remaining staff, checking and maintaining disaster kits, and review of the disaster plan.

In addition, fire-safety investigations are periodically carried out, especially regarding historical libraries. The Library of Congress, for example, experienced a year-long inspection in 2000. Before the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995, the Library of Congress and all Capitol Hill buildings were exempt from safety regulations.[4] Balancing historical preservation and contemporary safety standards proves to be a difficult task for "even a 12-year rehabilitation of LC completed in 1997 did not address many fire hazards".[5] After the Compliance Office inspection, however, the LC announced their wholehearted commitment "to achieving the highest level of safety possible" and "the Architect of the Capitol and Library of Congress will report their progress to the Office of Compliance every three months".[4]

Information technology is another catalyst for careful fire protection. With so many computers in libraries there "is a decrease in floor space and an increase in more compact and powerful computer systems" which generates more heat and requires the use of many more outlets, increasing the number of potential ignition sources.[6] From as early as the 1950s the potential dangers of computer equipment, and the facilities that house them, was recognized. Thus in 1962 the National Fire Protection Association began developing the first safety standards specifically applicable to electronic computer systems.[6] This standard is called NFPA 75 Protection of Information Technology Equipment. FM Global Data Sheet 5–32 is another standard providing guidelines to protect against not only fire, but water, power loss, etc.[6]

Human action

Image Name of Library City Country Date of Destruction Perpetrator Reason and/or Account of Destruction
Xianyang Palace and State Archives Xianyang Qin China 206 BC Xiang Yu Xiang Yu, rebelling against emperor Qin Er Shi, led his troops into Xianyang in 206 BC. He ordered the destruction of the Xianyang Palace by fire.[7] (Qin Shi Huang had ordered the burning of books and burying of scholars earlier.)
Library of Alexandria Alexandria Ancient Egypt Disputed Disputed Disputed,[8][9] see destruction of the Library of Alexandria.
Library of Antioch Antioch Ancient Syria 364 AD Emperor Jovian[10] The library had been heavily stocked by the aid of the perpetrator's non-Christian predecessor, Emperor Julian (the Apostate).
Library of the Serapeum Alexandria Ancient Egypt 392 Theophilus of Alexandria The library was burned and looted at the perpetrator's decree, who was ordered to do so by Theodosius I.
Library of
al-Hakam II
Córdoba Al-Andalus 976 Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir & religious scholars All books consisting of "ancient science" were destroyed in a surge of ultra-orthodoxy.[11][12]
Library of Rayy Rayy Buyid Emirate 1029 Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni Burned the library and all books deemed as heretical.[13]
Library of Avicenna Isfahan Kakuyid Emirate 1034 Sultan Mas'ud I After conquering the city of Isfahan, the library of Avicenna was destroyed.[14]
Library of Banu Ammar (Dar al-'ilm) Tripoli Fatimid Caliphate 1109 Crusaders Following Sharaf al-Daulah's surrender to Baldwin I of Jerusalem, Genoese mercenaries burned and looted part of the city. The library, Dar al-'ilm, was burned.[15]
Library of Ghazna Ghazna Ghurid empire 1151 'Ala al-Din Husayn City was sacked and burned for seven days. Libraries and palaces built by the Ghaznavids were destroyed.[14]
Library of Nishapur Nishapur Seljuk Empire 1154 Oghuz Turks City partially destroyed, libraries sacked and burned.[16]
Nalanda Nalanda India 1193 Bakhtiyar Khilji Nalanda University complex (the most renowned repository of Buddhist knowledge in the world at the time) was sacked by Turkic Muslim invaders under the perpetrator; this event is seen as a milestone in the decline of Buddhism in India.[17]
Imperial Library of Constantinople Constantinople Byzantine Empire 1204 The Crusaders In 1204, the library became a target of the knights of the Fourth Crusade. The library itself was destroyed and its contents burned or sold.
Alamut Castle's library Alamut Castle Iran 1256 Mongols Library destroyed after the capture of Alamut Castle.[18]
House of Wisdom Baghdad Iraq 1258 Mongols Destroyed during the Battle of Baghdad[19]
Libraries of Constantinople Constantinople Byzantine Empire 1453 Ottoman Turks After the Fall of Constantinople, hundreds upon thousands of manuscripts were removed, sold, or destroyed from Constantinople's libraries.[20]
Madrassah Library Granada Crown of Castile 1499 Cardinal Cisneros The library was ransacked by troops of Cardinal Cisneros in late 1499, the books were taken to the Plaza Bib-Rambla, where they were burned.[21]
Bibliotheca Corviniana Buda Hungary 1526 Ottoman Turks Library was destroyed by Ottomans in the Battle of Mohács.[22]
Monastic libraries England England 1530s Royal officials The monastic libraries were destroyed or dispersed following the dissolution of monasteries by Henry VIII.
Glasney College Penryn, Cornwall England 1548 Royal officials The smashing and looting of the Cornish colleges at Glasney and Crantock brought an end to the formal scholarship which had helped to sustain the Cornish language and the Cornish cultural identity.
Maya codices of the Yucatán Maní, Yucatán Mexico and Guatemala 1562-07-12 Diego de Landa Bishop De Landa, a Franciscan monk and conquistador during the Spanish conquest of Yucatán, wrote: "We found a large number of books in these characters and, as they contained nothing in which were not to be seen as superstition and lies of the devil, we burned them all, which they (the Maya) regretted to an amazing degree, and which caused them much affliction." Only three extant codices are widely considered unquestionably authentic.
Raglan Library Raglan Castle Wales 1646 Parliamentary Army The Earl of Worcester's library was burnt during the English Civil War by forces under the command of Thomas Fairfax
Library of Congress Washington, D.C. United States 1814 Troops of the British Army The library was destroyed during the War of 1812 when British forces set fire to the U.S. Capitol during the Burning of Washington.[23]
Several libraries Mexico City and major Mexican cities Mexico 1856-1867 Liberal troops and anti-clericalists During and after the Mexican Reform War, under the liberal governments of Benito Juárez and Ignacio Comonfort, many convent libraries and Church owned school libraries were sacked or destroyed by Liberal troops and looters, most notably included San Francisco Convent Library, which had over 16,000 books (great majority of them were unique collections of Spanish colonial era productions), the library was totally destroyed. Other important libraries included San Agustín Convent Library, was looted and burned. The Carmen de San Ángel Convent and its library were also totally destroyed (with a few books recovered), other affected convent libraries to different degrees were those of Santo Domingo, Las Capuchinas, Santa Clara, La Merced and the Church owned school Colegio de San Juan de Letrán, among others, all of them in Mexico City. Similar events happened all over Mexico, espcially in major cities. Besides books, other items such as altarpieces, unique collections of colonial period Baroque paintings, crosses, sculptures, gold and silver chalices (often robbed and melted) were also lost. Total estimates place the total of lost books and manuscripts at 100,000 by 1884.[24][25]
University of Alabama Tuscaloosa, Alabama United States 1865-05-04 Troops of the Union Army During the American Civil War, Union troops destroyed most buildings on the University of Alabama campus, including its library of approximately 7,000 volumes.[26]
Mosque-Library Turnovo, Bulgaria Ottoman Empire 1877 Christian Bulgarians Turkish books in a library were destroyed when the mosque was burned.[27]
Royal library of the Kings of Burma Mandalay Palace Burma 1885–1887 Troops of the British Army The British looted the palace at the end of the 3rd Anglo-Burmese War (some of the artefacts which were taken away are still on display in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London)[28] and burned down the royal library.
Hanlin Academy Library Hanlin Academy China 1900-06-23/4 Disputed. Possibly the Kansu Braves besieging the west of the Legation Quarter, or possibly by the international defending forces. During the Siege of the International Legations in Beijing at the height of the Boxer Rebellion, the unofficial national library of China at the Hanlin Academy, which was adjacent to the British Legation, was set on fire (by whom and whether deliberately or accidentally is still disputed) and almost entirely destroyed. Many of the books and scrolls that survived the flames were subsequently looted by forces of the victorious foreign powers.
Library of the Catholic University of Leuven Leuven Belgium 1914-08-25 German Occupation Troops The Germans set the library on fire as part of the burning of the entire city in an attempt to use terror to quell Belgian resistance to occupation.[29]
Public Records Office of Ireland Dublin Ireland 1922 Disputed. Poss. deliberately by Anti-Treaty IRA or accidental ignition of their stored explosives due to shelling by Provisional Government forces.[30] The Four Courts was occupied by the Anti-Treaty IRA at the start of the Irish Civil War. The building was bombarded by the Provisional Government forces under Michael Collins.[31]
Several religious libraries Madrid Spain 1931 Anarchists and anti-clericalists In 1931, several groups of radical leftists and anarchists, with the complicit inaction of the Republican government, burned down several convents in Madrid. Most included important libraries. Among them, the Colegio de la Inmaculada y San Pedro Claver and the Instituto Católico de Artes e Industrias with a library of 20000 volumes; the Casa Profesa with a library of 80000 volumes, considered the second best in Spain at the time, after the National Library; and the Instituto Católico de Artes e Industrias, with 20000 volumes, including the archives of the paleographer García Villada, and 100000 popular songs compiled by P. Antonio Martínez. Everything was lost.
Institut für Sexualwissenschaft Berlin Nazi Germany 1933-05-?? Members of the Deutsche Studentenschaft On 6 May 1933, the Deutsche Studentenschaft made an organised attack on the Institute of Sex Research. A few days later, the Institute's library and archives were publicly hauled out and burned in the streets of the Opernplatz.
National University of Tsing Hua, University Nan-k'ai, Institute of Technology of He-pei, Medical College of He-pei, Agricultural College of He-pei, University Ta Hsia, University Kuang Hua, National University of Hunan China 1937–1945 World War II Japanese Troops During World War II, Japanese military forces destroyed or partly destroyed numerous Chinese libraries, including libraries at the National University of Tsing Hua, Peking (lost 200,000 of 350,000 books), the University Nan-k'ai, T'ien-chin (totally destroyed, 224,000 books lost), Institute of Technology of He-pei, T'ien-chin (completely destroyed), Medical College of He-pei, Pao-ting (completely destroyed), Agricultural College of He-pei, Pao-ting (completely destroyed), University Ta Hsia, Shanghai (completely destroyed), University Kuang Hua, Shanghai (completely destroyed), National University of Hunan (completely destroyed).[32]
Library of the Catholic University of Leuven Leuven Belgium 1940-05-?? German Occupation Troops Caught fire during German invasion of Louvain, Belgium.[33]
National Library of Serbia Belgrade Yugoslavia 1941-04-06 Nazi German Luftwaffe Destroyed during the World War II bombing of Belgrade.
SS. Cyril and Methodius National Library Sofia Bulgaria 1943–1944 Allied bombing Allied air forces
Załuski Library Warsaw Poland 1944 Nazi German troops The library was burned down during the Nazi suppression of the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. The burning of this library was part of the general setting on fire of a large part of the city of Warsaw.[34]
Lebanese National Library Beirut Lebanon 1975 Lebanese Civil War The 1975 war fighting began in Beirut's downtown where the National Library was located. During the war years, the library suffered significant damage. According to some sources, 1200 of most precious manuscripts disappeared, and no memory is left of the Library's organization and operational procedures of that time.
National Library of Cambodia Phnom Penh Cambodia 1976–1979 The Khmer Rouge[32] Burnt most of the books and all bibliographical records. Only 20% of materials survived.[32]
Jaffna Public Library Jaffna Sri Lanka 1981-05-?? Plainclothes police officers and others In May 1981, a mob composed of thugs and plainclothes police officers went on a rampage in minority Tamil-dominated northern Jaffna, and burned down the Jaffna Public Library. At least 95,000 volumes – the second largest library collection in South Asia – were destroyed.[35]
Sikh Reference Library Punjab India 1984-06-07 Troops acting under Indira Gandhi's orders Before its destruction, the library contained rare books and handwritten manuscripts on Sikh religion, history, and culture.[36] It could have been a desperate act on failure to locate letters or documents that could have implicated the then Indian government and its leader Indira Gandhi.[37][38]
! Central University Library of Bucharest Bucharest Romania 1989-12-2? Romanian Land Forces Burnt down during the Romanian Revolution.[39][40]
Oriental Institute in Sarajevo Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-05-17 Bosnian Serb Army Destroyed by the shellfire during the Siege of Sarajevo.[41][42][43]
National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-08-25 Bosnian Serb Army The library was completely destroyed during the Siege of Sarajevo.[41]
Abkhazian Research Institute of History, Language and Literature & National Library of Abkhazia Sukhumi Abkhazia 1992-10-?? Georgian Armed Forces Destroyed during the War in Abkhazia.[44]
City library Linköping Sweden 1996-09-20 Lack of evidence for trial After a year of repeated, minor arson attempts against an information bureau for immigrants located in the building, the library is eventually burnt down to the ground.
Pol-i-Khomri Public Library Pol-i-Khomri Afghanistan 1998 Taliban militia It held 55,000 books and old manuscripts.[45]
Iraq National Library and Archive, Al-Awqaf Library, Central Library of the University of Baghdad, Library of Bayt al-Hikma, Central Library of the University of Mosul and other libraries Baghdad Iraq 2003-04-?? Unknown members of the Bagdad population Several libraries looted, set on fire, damaged and destroyed in various degrees during the 2003 Iraq War.[46][47][48][49][50]
The People's Library Occupy Wall Street Zuccotti Park Lower Manhattan New York City United States 2011 New York City Department of Sanitation Over 5,000 books cataloged in LibraryThing were seized.[51]
Egyptian Scientific Institute Cairo Egypt 2011-12-?? Aftermath of street clashes during the Egyptian revolution A first estimate says that only 30,000 volumes have been saved of a total of 200,000.[52]
Ahmed Baba Institute (Timbuktu library) Timbuktu Mali 2013-01-28 Islamist militias Before the library was burned down, it contained over 20,000 manuscripts with only a fraction of them having been scanned as of January 2013. Before and during the occupation, more than 300,000 Timbuktu Manuscripts from the Institute and from private libraries were saved and moved to more secure locations.[53][54][55]
Libraries of Fisheries and Oceans Canada Canada 2013 Government of Canada headed by prime minister Stephen Harper Digitization effort to reduce the nine original libraries to seven and save $C443,000 annual cost.[56] Only 5–6% of the material was digitized, and that scientific records and research created at a taxpayer cost of tens of millions of dollars was dumped, burned, and given away.[57] Particularly noted are baseline data important to ecological research, and data from 19th century exploration.
Saeh Library Tripoli Lebanon 2014-01-03 Unknown The Christian library was burned down, it contained over 80,000 manuscripts and books.[58][59][60][61]
National Archives of Bosnia and Herzegovina (partially) Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina 2014-02-07 Seven Bosnian rioters suspected of having started the fire; two (Salem Hatibović and Nihad Trnka)[62] were arrested.[63]

On 4 April 2014, Salem Hatibović and Nihad Trnka were released (although still under suspicion of terrorism), on conditions that they don't leave their places of residence and abstain from having any contact with each other. Both were also mandated to report to the police once every week.[62]
During the 2014 unrest in Bosnia and Herzegovina large amounts of historical documents were destroyed when sections of the Archives of Bosnia and Herzegovina, housed in the presidential building, were set on fire. Among the lost archival material were documents and gifts from the Ottoman period, original documents from the 1878–1918 Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as documentations of the interwar period, the 1941–1945 rule of the Independent State of Croatia, papers from the following years, and about 15000 files from the 1996–2003 Human Rights Chamber for Bosnia and Herzegovina.[64][65]

In the repositories that were burnt, about 60 percent of the material was lost, according to estimates by Šaban Zahirović, the head of the Archives.[66]

Mosul University libraries
and private libraries
Mosul Iraq 2014-12-?? Ongoing ISIL book burning Book burning.[67]
Libraries in Al Anbar Governorate Al Anbar Governorate Iraq 2014-12-?? Ongoing ISIL book burning Book burning.[67]
Institute of Scientific Information on Social Sciences (INION) (partially?) Moscow Russia 2015-01-29 Unknown. Fire spread to 2000 m² in third Floor. Roof caved in. Additional water damage. Ambient temperature too high for self-freezing of damaged Works. Library contains 14 million books, including rare texts in ancient Slavic languages, documents from the League of Nations, UNESCO, and parliamentary reports from countries including the US dating back as far as 1789.[68]
Mosul public library
(Central Public Library in Ninawa)
Mosul Iraq 2015-02-?? ISIL book burning 8,000 rare old books and manuscripts. Manuscripts from the 18th century, Syriac books printed in Iraq's first printing house in the 19th century, books from the Ottoman era, Iraqi newspapers from the early 20th century.[69]

Natural disasters

Image Name of Library City Country Date of Destruction Causes and/or Account of Destruction
Library of Celsus Ephesus Roman Empire 262 262 Southwest Anatolia earthquake
Royal Library of Portugal, Ribeira Palace Lisbon Portugal 1755-11-01 Great Lisbon earthquake
Imperial University Library in Tokyo, Max Müller Library, Nishimura Library, Hoshino Library Japan 1923-09-01 An earthquake and the following fires.[32]
National Library of Nicaragua Rubén Darío Nicaragua 1931, 1972 It was damaged in the 1931 earthquake. Another earthquake in 1972 caused damages; furthermore, it was looted.[70]
Several libraries, archives, and museums Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Thailand, Sri Lanka 2004-12-?? The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. See Library damage resulting from the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.


Image Name of Library City Country Date of Destruction Account of Destruction
Library of Celsus Ephesus Turkey 262
University of Copenhagen Library Copenhagen Denmark 1728 October Copenhagen Fire of 1728
Cotton Library Huntingdon United Kingdom 1731-10-23
Library of Congress Washington, D.C. United States 1814-08-25
Birmingham Central Library Birmingham United Kingdom 1879-01-11 A fire broke out behind a wooden partition serving as a temporary wall during building operations.[71] The fire caused extensive damage, with only 1,000 volumes saved from a stock of 50,000.[71]
University of Virginia Library Charlottesville, Virginia United States 1895-10-27
New York State Library Albany, New York United States 1911-03-29
National Library of Peru Lima Peru 1943-05-10
Jewish Theological Seminary of America library New York City United States 1966-04-18 Jewish Theological Seminary library fire
Charles A. Halbert Public Library Basseterre Saint Kitts and Nevis 1982[72]
Dalhousie University Law Library Halifax, Nova Scotia Canada 1985-08-16 A lightning strike caused a short in the electrical system which started a fire that destroyed the top floor of the building which housed the library.[73]
Los Angeles Central Library Los Angeles, California United States 1986-04-29 & 1986-09-03
Academy of Sciences Library Leningrad, USSR 1988-02-14 The 1988 fire in the Library of the USSR Academy of Sciences (now Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences) broke out on Sunday, February 14, 1988, in the newspaper section on the third floor of the library. According to the library's acting director Valeriy Leonov, the fire alarm sounded at 8:13 pm, when the library was closed for visitors. By the time the fire was extinguished the following afternoon, it had destroyed between 300,000[74] and 400,000[75] books of the total 12 million housed. About 3.5 million volumes initially became damp due to firefighting foam.
Norwich Library – Norwich, England United Kingdom 1994-08-01[76]
Iraq National Library Baghdad Iraq 2003-04-15
Duchess Anna Amalia Library Weimar Germany 2004-09-02
Glasgow School of Art, Rennie Mackintosh Library Glasgow, Scotland United Kingdom 2014-05-23
Institute of Scientific Information on Social Sciences (INION) Moscow Russia 2015-01-31
Mzuzu University Library Mzuzu Malawi 2015-12-18[77]
National Museum of Brazil Quinta da Boa Vista in Rio de Janeiro Brazil 2018-09-02 Not yet investigated. See National Museum of Brazil fire. Museum library was also destroyed.

See also


  1. Fadhil, Muna (26 February 2015). "Isis destroys thousands of books and manuscripts in Mosul libraries". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  2. "Arson ruled out". Home News. The Times (Final 3 ed.). London. 17 June 2005. p. 38. A fire that destroyed a public library in Northam, Devon, was thought to have been the work of an arsonist, but investigators have determined that a beam from a hands-free magnifier ignited leaflets, which fell onto a box of books. Flames destroyed 90 per cent of the collection.
  3. TECHNICAL CONSERVATION, RESEARCH AND EDUCATION group (2007). Action C17: Built Heritage: Fire Loss to Historic Buildings: Final Report (PDF). Historic Scotland. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-904966-53-1.
  4. Fineberg, Gail. "Moving Toward a Safer Library. Compliance Office Issues Fire Safety Report," Library of Congress Information Bulletin 60 no. 3, 65, March 2001
  5. L.A., "Inspection Scorches Fire Safety at LC," American Libraries, 32 no. 3 17–18, March 2001
  6. Fixen, Edward L. and Vidar S. Landa,"Avoiding the Smell of Burning Data," Consulting-Specifying Engineer, May 2006, Vol. 39 Issue 5, p47-51
  7. Sima Qian. Records of the Grand Historian, Biography of Emperor Gaozu.
  8. The Alexandrian Library"
  9. "The Vanished Library by Bernard Lewis". Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  10. Dirk Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity, (Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2016), 240.
  11. Ann Christy, Christians in Al-Andalus:711–1000, (Curzon Press, 2002), 142.
  12. Libraries, Claude Gilliot, Medieval Islamic Civilization: L-Z, Index, ed. Josef W. Meri, Jere L. Bacharach, (Routledge, 2006), 451.
  13. "Moslem Libraries and Sectarian Propaganda", Ruth Stellhorn Mackensen, The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 51, No. 2 (January , 1935), 93–94.
  14. C.E. Bosworth, The Later Ghaznavids, (Columbia University Press, 1977), 117.
  15. Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, Vol. II, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 69.
  16. The Tomb of Omar Khayyâm, George Sarton, Isis, Vol. 29, No. 1 (July , 1938):16.
  17. Sen, Gertrude Emerson (1964) The Story of Early Indian Civilization. Orient Longmans
  18. Ibn Taymiyya, David Waines, The Islamic World, ed. Andrew Rippin, (Routledge, 2008), 382
  19. George Lane, Daily Life in the Mongol Empire, (Greenwood Press, 2006), 88.
  20. Robert S. Nelson, The Italian Appreciation and Appropriation of Illuminated Byzantine Manuscripts, Ca. 1200–1450, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 49 (1995): 209-210.
  21. Mercedes Garcia-Arenal Rodriquez and Fernando Rodríguez Mediano, The Orient in Spain: Converted Muslims, the Forged Lead Books of Granada, and the Rise of Orientalism, transl. Consuelo Lopez-Morillas, (Brill, 2013), 41.
  22. (DE)Edit Szegedi, Geschichtsbewusstsein und Gruppenidentität, (Bohlau Verlag, 2002), 223.
  23. "Jefferson's Legacy: A Brief History of the Library of Congress". Library of Congress. 2006-03-06. Retrieved 2008-01-14.
  24. Tovar de Teresa, Guillermo (1990). La ciudad de los palacios: crónica de un patrimonio perdido, Volume 1. Editorial Vuelta. p. 14.
  25. Báez, Guillermo (2013). Historia Universal de la Destrucción de Libros. OCEANO. pp. 220–222.
  26. Wolfe, Suzanne Rau (1983). The University of Alabama: A Pictorial History. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press. pp. 57–59.
  27. R.J. Crampton, A Concise History of Bulgaria, (Cambridge University Press, 2006), 111.
  28. Bird, George W. (1897). Wanderings in Burma. London: F. J. Bright & Son. p. 254.
  29. Kramer, Alan (2008). Dynamic of Destruction: Culture and Mass Killing in the First World War. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-1-84614-013-6.Gibson, Craig (2008). "The culture of destruction in the First World War". Times Literary Supplement (January 30, 2008). Retrieved 2008-02-18.
  30. Hill, J. R. (2003). A New History of Ireland Volume VII: Ireland 1921–84. Oxford University Press. pp. Chapter II p2. ISBN 978-0-19-161559-7.
  31. Ferriter, Diarmaid (2010). The Limits of Liberty – Episode 1. RTÉ.
  32. Lost memory: libraries and archives destroyed in the twentieth century
  33. University of Louvain, International Dictionary of University Histories, ed. Carol J. Summerfield, Mary Elizabeth Devine, Anthony Levi, (Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1998), 531.
  34. Rebecca Knuth (2006). Burning Books and Leveling Libraries: extremist violence and cultural destruction. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. p. 166. ISBN 0-275-99007-9.
  35. Knuth, Rebecca (2006-06-27). Destroying a Symbol: Checkered History of Sri Lanka's Jaffna Public Library (PDF). IFLA. Retrieved 2008-08-30.
  36. Kaur, Jaskaran; Crossette, Barbara (2006).|
  38. The Smoking Gun Recovered, United Sikhs documentary"|
  39. The Central University Library of Bucharest, official site: "the History".
  40. "Legea recunoştinţei, made in Romania", Evenimentul Zilei, 03 June 2010.
  41. Collection of articles and studies on destruction of libraries and archives in Bosnia and Herzegovina (available for download in .pdf)
  42. Erasing the Past: The Destruction of Libraries and Archives in Bosnia-Herzegovina Archived 2012-01-18 at the Wayback Machine ()
  43. Crimes of war, crimes of peace: destruction of libraries during and after the Balkan wars of the 1990s ()
  44. Abkhazia: Cultural Tragedy Revisited, Caucasus Reporting Service, Institute for War and Peace Reporting
  45. Censorship of historical thought: a world guide, 1945–2000, Antoon de Baets
  46. Prized Iraqi annals 'lost in blaze' ()
  47. "Photos by Dr Saad Eskander of damage to Iraq National Library and Archive". Archived from the original on 27 April 2010. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  48. "Pictures of Damaged Libraries in Iraq". Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  49. "MELA Committee on Iraqi Libraries". Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  50. "ICBS -Assessment of damage to Libraries and Archives in Iraq". Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  51. Norton, Daniel; Henk, Mandy; Fagin, Betsy; Taylor, Jaime; Loeb, Zachary (Spring 2012). "OCCUPY WALL STREET LIBRARIANS SPEAK OUT" (PDF). Progressive Librarian. 38/39 (38/39): 3–16. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  52. Un incendio durante los disturbios de El Cairo destruye el original de la 'Descripción de Egipto' encargada por Napoleón (Archived December 19, 2011, at WebCite)
  53. Harding, Luke (January 28, 2013). "Timbuktu mayor: Mali rebels torched library of historic manuscripts". The Guardian. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
  54. Walker, Peter (January 28, 2013). "Timbuktu library is treasure house of centuries of Malian history". The Guardian. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
  55. Fleeing Islamists burn priceless Timbuktu library, accessed 29 January 2013
  56. Andrew Nikiforuk (30 December 2013). "Secret Memo Casts Doubt on Feds' Claims for Science Library Closures: Goal stated is 'culling' research, not preserving and sharing through digitization". The Tyee.
  57. "Irreplaceable research lost from purged federal libraries: BC Green Party MLA Andrew Weaver says government didn't digitize entire libraries as promised". News1130. 6 January 2014.
  58. "Lebanon Loses 78000 Books To Terrorism: Tripoli's "Al Sa'eh" Library Burned". Archived from the original on 2014-01-05.
  59. "Thousands of books, manuscripts torched in fire at historic Lebanese library".
  60. "Tripoli Figures Condemn Torching Famed Library as Father Sarrouj 'Forgives Attackers'". Archived from the original on 2014-01-05.
  61. "20 Pictures Of Al Sa'eh Library in Tripoli Before It Got Torched". Archived from the original on 2014-01-05.
  62. "Custody of the Suspects Hatibović and Trnka terminated and prohibiting measures ordered". Court of Bosnia & Herzegovina. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
  63. "Sedmorica osumnjičena za paljenje Predsjedništva i Arhiva BiH" (in Croatian). 9 March 2014. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
  64. "Ogromna šteta, dio dokumentacije nepovratno uništen". 13 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  65. "Nepovratno uništen deo Arhiva BiH". B92. 13 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  66. "Direktor Arhiva BiH tvrdi: Izgorjelo je 60 posto depoa". Oslobođenje. 13 February 2014. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
  67. ""داعش" يحرق آلاف الكتب في الموصل والأنبار". 23 February 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  68. "A Moscow library containing rare UN documents, ancient Slavic texts, and 14 million books is on fire". QUARTZ. 30 January 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  69. "ISIS Burns 8000 Rare Books and Manuscripts in Mosul". Yahoo Finance (The Fiscal Times). 23 February 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
  70. Biblioteca Nacional Rubén Darío Archived 2011-10-04 at the Wayback Machine (in Spanish)
  71. Notes on the history of Birmingham Public Libraries (1861–1961), Birmingham, 1962
  72. Charles A. Halbert Public Library ( Archived August 17, 2012, at WebCite)
  73. "The Buildings of Dalhousie University – Weldon Law Building – Building History". 1967-03-18. Archived from the original on 2016-01-07. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  74. Парфенов, Леонид. Намедни. Наша эра. 1981–1990 (in Russian). p. 209.
  75. "Leningrad Library Fire". Abbey Newsletter. Jun 1988. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  76. BBC Website – On This Day 1 August
  77. "Mzuni library completely destroyed by fire". The Maravi Post. 18 December 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015.

Further reading

This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.