List of countries by income equality
This is a list of countries or dependencies by income inequality metrics, including Gini coefficients. The Gini coefficient is a number between 0 and 1, where 0 corresponds with perfect equality (where everyone has the same income) and 1 corresponds with perfect inequality (where one person has all the income—and everyone else has no income). Income distribution can vary greatly from wealth distribution in a country (see List of countries by distribution of wealth). Income from black market economic activity is not included and is the subject of current economic research.
UN and CIA list – income ratios and Gini indices
- Click sorting buttons to sort alphabetically or numerically. Can sort in ascending or descending order. The row number column on the left is fixed.
R/P 10%: The ratio of the average income of the richest 10% to the poorest 10%.
R/P 20%: The ratio of the average income of the richest 20% to the poorest 20%.
Gini: Gini index, a quantified representation of a nation's Lorenz curve. A Gini index of 0% expresses perfect equality, while index of 100% expresses maximal inequality.
UN: Data from the United Nations Development Programme.
CIA: Data from the Central Intelligence Agency's The World Factbook.
Gini coefficient, before taxes and transfers
Gini coefficient, after taxes and transfers
- Underground economy and income inequality: two connected aspects in the oncoming context of Italian federalism Archived 2012-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. By Iacopo Odoardi and Carmen Pagliari. Vol. 15 No. 1, 2011 Archived 2012-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. Global & Local Economic Review.
- The Size of the Shadow Economies of 145 Countries all over the World: First Results over the Period 1999 to 2003. December 2004. By Friedrich Schneider (University of Linz and IZA Bonn). Institute for the Study of Labor.
- World Bank GINI index, accessed on November 3, 2017.
- Data show the ratio of the household income or consumption share of the richest group to that of the poorest. Household income or consumption by percentage share (%), The World Factbook, CIA, updated on January 24, 2008. Note: To calculate the value given in the table for this article, the highest 10% value was divided by the lowest 10% value.
- Distribution of family income – Gini index, The World Factbook, CIA, accessed on November 24, 2011.
- Data show the ratio of the income or expenditure share of the richest group to that of the poorest. Human Development Report 2009, UNDP, accessed on July 30, 2011.
- "Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
- Data for urban households only.
- Lafuente Lechuga, Matilde; Losa Carmona, Antonio; Sánchez Martínez, Antonio. 2016. «Análisis de la evolución de la desigualdad económica mundial en los últimos años» (pdf). XVI Jornadas de ASEPUMA y II Encuentro Internacional. Consultado el 12 de abril de 2014.
- "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu/eurostat. Eurostat. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
- "GINI Index for Montenegro". 18 January 2018. Cite journal requires
- OECD. "Income Distribution and Poverty : by country –I nequalityY". Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.
- "An Overview of Growing Income Inequalities in OECD Countries: Main Findings" (PDF), Divided We Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Growing, OECD Publishing, December 2011, ISBN 978-92-64-11163-9, retrieved 6 December 2011. This book released with two titles, depending on country of publication. However, the ISBN remains the same.
- Fed’s Brainard Says Middle Class Squeeze Poses Risks to Economy, May 2019, retrieved 15 May 2019 USA's Gini index is now .482 according to Federal Reserve Governor Lael Brainard.
- Global Peace Index Map of Gini data for 2007–2010
- Shadow economies all over the world : new estimates for 162 countries from 1999 to 2007. Friedrich Schneider, Andreas Buehn, Claudio E. Montenegro. July 2010. World Bank.
- Allianz Global Wealth Report 2018.