List of ancient Egyptian towns and cities

This is a list of known ancient Egyptian towns and cities.[1][2][3] The list is for sites intended for permanent settlement and does not include fortresses and other locations of intermittent habitation. Use Ctrl + F and enter the town's name or alternative name for convenience.

     a capital of ancient Egypt
     a capital of ancient Egypt and regional administrative center
Thonis italicized name: only the Greek name is known

Lower Egypt


(Popular name)

In hieroglyphs Date founded Nome Patron deity Modern name Other name/s Note
Men-nefer (Memphis)

earlier than 3150 BC 1st Ptah (cult center) Mit Rahina Aneb-Hetch, Djed-Sut, Ankh-Tawy, Menfe, Hut-ka-Ptah, Moph, Noph Capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom; capital of its nome
Khem (Letopolis)
probably during Old Kingdom 2nd Khenty-irty Ausim Capital of its nome
Yamu (Apis) probably during Old Kingdom 3rd Hathor Kom el-Hisn Imu, Apis Capital of its nome
Raqote (Alexandria)

331 BC 3rd Serapis Alexandria Rhacotis, Rakotə, Eskendereyyah Alexandria was the intellectual and cultural center of the ancient world for some time; capital of the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Khito (Rosetta) 3rd Rashid Bolbitine, Bolbitinum, Bolbitinon, Trashit, Rakhit, Rexi Where Rosetta Stone was found
Ptkheka (Ptkheka) 4th Neith Tanta Capital of its nome
Zau (Sais)

earlier than 3300 BC 5th Neith (cult center) Sa el-Hagar Capital of 24th and 26th Dynasties; capital of its nome
Per-Wadjet (Buto)

earlier than 3250 BC 5th Wadjet (cult center) Tell al-Fara'in Pe and Dep, Butus, Butosus Where Predynastic Buto-culture was found
Khasut (Xois) 6th Amun Sakha Xeos, Skhoo Capital of its nome
Timinhor (Damanhur) later than 1200 BC 7th Damanhur Hermopolis Mikra, Tel Ballamon Capital of its nome
Piemro (Naucratis) 7th century BC 7th Thoth Kom Gieif Ναύκρατις First permanent Greek colony; major center for Greek Egyptian sea trade
Thonis (Heracleion) 12th century BC 7th Amun Ἡράκλειον Egypt's main port during Late Period; sister city of Naucratis
Menouthis (Menouthis) 7th Isis and Serapis Sunk to the sea in 8th century AD; near Heracleion and Canopus
Pikuat (Canopus)

Earlier than 600 BC 7th Osiris Aboukir Canobus, Kanobos, Kanopos, Schedia Principal port in Egypt for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria
Per-Atum (Pithom)

Around 1900 BC 8th Atum Tell-el-Maskhuta Tjeku, Heroöpolis, Heroonopolis Capital of its nome
Djedu (Busiris)
A small village until 3200 BC 9th Osiris Abu Sir Bana Per Usiri Capital of its nome
Hut-hery-ib (Athribis) 10th Repyt Banha Tell Atrib, Attrib, Medeenet Ashaysh Capital of its nome
Taremu (Leontopolis) 11th Bast and Sekhmet (cult center) Kafr Al Muqdam Leonto, Leontos, Tell el-Muqdam One of the capitals during the 23rd Dynasty; capital of its nome during Ptolemaic Period
Šetennu (Pharbaetus) earlier than 7th century BC 11th Hormerty Horbeit Shednu, Sheten, Pharbaethus Capital of its nome; one of the centers of the chiefs of the Meshwesh Libyans
Tjebnutjer (Sebennytos) 12th Onuris Samanud Hometown of Manetho; capital of the 30th Dynasty; capital of its nome
Iunu (Heliopolis)

earlier than 3250 BC 13th Ra (cult center) Ayn Shams Ôn, Āwen, Ὂν Capital of its nome
Tjaru (Sile) 14th Horus Tel el-Habua Zaru, Tharu, Djaru, Tjel, Sile, Edfu of Lower Egypt Largest ancient Egyptian fortress town; place of exile for criminals; capital of its nome
Per-Amun (Pelusium)

Before 720 BC 14th Amun Tell el-Farama Sena, Seyân, Sin, Pelousion, Paramoun, Peremoun, Peromi Easternmost major Egyptian city; Battles of Pelusium
Weprehwy (Hermopolis Parva) Before 2575 BC 15th Tell al-Naqus Capital of its nome
Tamiat (Damietta) 15th Damietta Damiata, Domyat, Ταμίαθις, Tamiathis
Djedet (Mendes)

earlier than 3250 BC 16th Banebdjedet Tell El-Ruba Per-Banebdjedet, Anpet Capital of the 29th Dynasty; capital of its nome
Semabehdet (Diospolis Inferior) 17th Tel El Balamun Capital of its nome
Per-Bast (Bubastis)

Earlier than 3150 BC 18th Bastet (cult center) Tell-Basta Per-Bastet An ivory tag found in Tomb U-J dating 3150 BC many think has the Per-Bastet signature ; One of the capitals during the 22nd and 23rd Dynasties; capital of its nome
Djanet (Tanis)

late New Kingdom 19th Amun Tell Nebesha Thebes of the North, Ṣān al-Ḥagar, Zoan Capital of 21st and 22nd Dynasties; capital of its nome; important port for Asiatic trade; center of linen manufacture.
Hut-waret (Avaris)

during Middle Kingdom 19th Set Tell el-Dab'a Auaris, Hawara, Athyria Capital of 14th and 15th Dynasties
Pi-Ramesses (Pi-Ramesses) 1274 BC 19th Qantir Per-Rameses, Per Ramessu Founded by Ramesses II; absorbed Avaris; capital of Egypt during Ramesses II's reign
Per-Sopdu (Per-Sopdu) 20th Amun Saft el-Hinna Soped, Pi-Sopt Capital of its nome

Upper Egypt


(Popular name)

In hieroglyphs Date founded Nome Patron deity Modern name Other name/s Note
Abu (Elephantine)
earlier than 3000 BC 1st Khnum (cult center) Aswan Yebu Capital of its nome
Swenett (Aswan)

1st Swenett Aswan Syene Location of stone quarries for Syenite granite
Nubt (Kom Ombo)

earlier than 3000 BC 1st Sobek (cult center) Kom Ombo Omboi, Ombos, Ambo, Ombi Garrison throughout pharaonic history; arch-enemy of the city of Dendera
Behdet (Edfu)

earlier than 3000 BC 2nd Horus (cult center) Naga el-Goneima Apollonopolis Magna, Apollinopolis Magna, Djeba, Utes-Hor Capital of its nome
Nekheb (El Kab)
earlier than 3500 BC 3rd Nekhbet (cult center) El Kab Eileithyiaspolis, Lucinae Civitas Capital of its nome before Nekhen; surrounded by a massive mud brick wall
Nekhen (Hierakonpolis)

earlier than 3210 BC 3rd Horus (cult center) El Kab Al-Kom Al-Aħmar Capital of its nome after Nekheb; opposite Nekheb on the other side of the Nile
Ta-senet (Latopolis)

earlier than Middle Kingdom 3rd Khnum Esna Iunyt, Polis Latton, Lato Capital of its nome after Nekhen
Waset (Thebes)

earlier than 3000 BC 4th Amun (cult center) Luxor Niwt-rst, Niwt-Imn, Nōʼ ʼĀmôn, No, Iunu-shema, Diospolis Magna, Ta-pe, Hundred-gated Thebes Capital of Egypt during most of Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom; capital of its nome; foremost religious center
Per-Hathor (Aphroditopolis)

earlier than 3000 BC 4th Hathor Gebelein Inerty, Pathyris, Naga el-Gherira
Iuny (Hermonthis)
4th Montu (cult center) Armant Erment, Iunu-Montu Capital of its nome during Cleopatra VII
Sumenu (Crocodilopolis) earlier than Middle Kingdom 4th Sobek (cult center) el-Mahamid Qibly Imiotru Different from Shedet (also called Crocodilopolis)
Djerty (El-Tod) during Old Kingdom 4th Montu El-Tod Ḏrty, Touphion, Tuphium, Thouôt, Tuot
Madu (Medamud) 4th Montu Medamud
Nubt (Naqada)

earlier than 3500 BC 5th Set (cult center) Naqada Ombos, South Town Where the Pre-dynastic Naqada culture was found
Iushenshen (Iushenshen) earlier than 3000 BC 5th Khozam Capital of its nome during Old Kingdom
Gesy (Qus) 5th Horus Qus Gesa, Apollonopolis Parva, Apollinopolis Mikra, Apollonos minoris A point of departure for expeditions to the Red Sea
Gebtu (Koptos)
Earlier than 3200 BC 5th Min (cult center) Qift Kebto, Keft, Justinianopolis Capital of its nome; commercial center for the Upper Egyptian Red Sea trade through Wadi Hammamat
Iunet (Dendera)

6th Hathor (cult center) Dendera Tentyra, Tentyris, Nikentori, Nitentori Capital of its nome
Seshesh (Hu) earlier than 3100 BC 7th Bat, then Hathor Hu Diospolis Parva, Diospolis Superior, Hut-Sekhem, Hiw Capital of its nome
Abdju (Abydos)

earlier than 3000 BC 8th Khentiamentiu, then Osiris (cult center) and Isis al-Birba Osiris Capital of its nome
Tjenu (Thinis)

earlier than 4000 BC 8th Anhur This Capital of the 1st and 2nd Dynasties; still unlocated
Ipu (Akhmim)
earlier than 3100 BC 9th Min (cult center) Akhmim Apu, Khent-min, Khmin, Shmin, Khemmis, Chemmis, Panopolis Capital of its nome
Hut-Repyt (Athribis) 9th Repyt Wannina Triphieion, Tripheion Distinct from Hut-hery-ib (Athribis)
Tjebu (Qau) 10th Nemty (cult center) Qaw el-Kebir Djew-Qa, Antaeopolis Capital of its nome
Shashotep (Hypselis) 11th Khnum Shutb Apotheke Capital of its nome
Per-Nemty (Hieracon) 12th Nemty al Atawla Hierakon Capital of its nome
Zawty (Asyut)

13th Anubis (cult center), Wepwawet (cult center) Asyut Sauty, Syut, Syowt, Lycopolis, Lycon, Lyco Capital of its nome
Qis (Cusae)
14th Hathor el-Qusiya Kis, Kusai Capital of its nome
Akhetaten (Amarna)

around 1346 BC 14th Aten (cult center) Tell el-Amarna Capital of Egypt during Akhenaten's reign
Khmun (Hermopolis Magna)

15th Thoth (cult center), Ogdoad El Ashmunein Hermopolis Megale, Hermupolis Capital of its nome
Herwer (Herwer)

16th Khnum and Heqet Hur Capital of its nome
Hebenu (Hebenu)

16th Kom el Ahmar Capital of its nome before Herwer
Per-Imen-mat-khent(j) (Akoris) earlier than Old Kingdom 16th Tihna el-Gebel Mer-nefer(et), Dehenet
Saka (Cynopolis) 17th Anubis (cult center) El Kays Hardai, Cynopolis Superior Capital of its nome
Tayu-djayet (El Hiba)

18th El Hiba Teudjoi, Ankyronpolis Capital of its nome
Per-Medjed (Oxyrhynchus) 19th el-Bahnasa Pemdje, Oxyrrhynkhoupolis Capital of its nome
Henen-nesut (Herakleopolis Magna)

earlier than 3000 BC 20th Heryshaf (cult center) Ihnasiyyah al-Madinah Nenj-neswt, Ehnasya, Hnas, Ahnas Capital of the 9th and 10th Dynasties; capital of its nome
Shedet (Crocodilopolis)

21st Sobek (cult center) Faiyum Arsinoë, Fayoum, She-resy Capital of its nome
Ta may Sobek neb Pay pa necer aa (Soknopaiou Nesos) 21st Sobek (as Soknopaios) Dimeh es-Seba (Arabic: ديمة السباع) tȝ mȝy Sbk nb Pay pȝ nṯr ʿȝ
Tepihu (Aphroditopolis)

22nd Hathor (cult center during Greek period) Atfih Petpeh Capital of its nome



(Popular name)

In hieroglyphs Date founded Nome Patron deity Modern name Other name/s Note
Chenem-Waset (Amara West) During Seti I's reign none Amara, Nubia Per-Menmaatre, Per-Rameses-meri-Amun Official residence of the representative of Kush
Iken (Mirgissa)

earlier than 4500 BC none Hathor Fortress town; now submerged in Lake Nasser
Buhen (Buhen)

earlier than 3000 BC none Buhen Largest fortress town in Nubia; housed a copper factory

Red Sea Coast


(Popular name)

In hieroglyphs Date founded Nome Patron deity Modern name Other name/s Note
Berenice (Berenice) 275 BC none Medinet-el Haras Berenike, Berenice Troglodytica, Baranis Founded by Ptolemy II; named after his mother, Berenice I of Egypt
Leucus Limen (Quseir) earlier than New Kingdom none Al-Qusayr, Egypt Kosseir, Al Qusair, El Quseir, Qusseir, Qosseir Important trading port during pharaonic times, where goods from Red Sea and beyond entered Egypt


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