List of ancient Egyptian dynasties

In Ancient Egyptian history, dynasties are series of rulers sharing a common origin. They are usually, but not always, traditionally divided into thirty-two pharaonic dynasties. The first thirty divisions are due to the 3rd century BC Egyptian priest Manetho, and appeared in his now-lost work Aegyptiaca, which was perhaps written for the Greek-speaking Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt. The names of the last two, the short-lived Thirty-First Dynasty and the longer-lasting Ptolemaic Dynasty, are later coinings.

While widely used and useful, the system does have its shortcomings. Some dynasties only ruled part of Egypt and existed concurrently with other dynasties based in other cities. The Seventh might not have existed at all, the Tenth seems to be a continuation of the Ninth, and there might have been one or several Upper Egyptian Dynasties before the First Dynasty.

List of dynasties in ancient Egyptian history

Dynasty Seat Period of rule Rulers
Start End Term First to rule Last to rule List
Early Dynastic Period
Dynasty I Thinis 3100 BCE 2900 BCE 200 years Narmer Qa'a (list)
Dynasty II Thinis 2890 BCE 2686 BCE 204 years Hotepsekhemwy Khasekhemwy (list)
Old Kingdom
Dynasty III Memphis 2686 BCE 2613 BCE 73 years Djoser Huni (list)
Dynasty IV Memphis 2613 BCE 2494 BCE 119 years Sneferu Shepseskaf
or
Thamphthis[lower-alpha 1]
(list)
Dynasty V Memphis 2494 BCE 2345 BCE 149 years Userkaf Unas (list)
Dynasty VI Memphis 2345 BCE 2181 BCE 164 years Teti Merenre Nemtyemsaf II
or
Netjerkare Siptah[lower-alpha 2]
or
Nitocris[lower-alpha 3]
(list)
First Intermediate Period
Dynasty VII[lower-alpha 4] Memphis[1]:396 Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown (list)
Dynasty VIII Memphis[1]:396 2181 BCE 2160 BCE 21 years Netjerkare Siptah[lower-alpha 2]
or
Menkare
Neferirkare II (list)
Dynasty IX Heracleopolis Magna 2160 BCE 2130 BCE 30 years Meryibre Khety[lower-alpha 5] Unknown (list)
Dynasty X Heracleopolis Magna 2130 BCE 2040 BCE 90 years Meryhathor Unknown (list)
Middle Kingdom
Dynasty XI[lower-alpha 6] Thebes 2130 BCE 1991 BCE 139 years Intef Mentuhotep IV (list)
Dynasty XII Itjtawy 1991 BCE 1802 BCE 189 years Amenemhat I Sobekneferu (list)
Dynasty XIII[lower-alpha 7] Itjtawy 1803 BCE 1649 BCE 154 years Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep Unknown (list)
Second Intermediate Period
Dynasty XIV Avaris 1725 BCE 1650 BCE 75 years Yakbim Sekhaenre[lower-alpha 8] Unknown (list)
Dynasty XV Avaris 1650 BCE 1550 BCE 100 years Salitis Khamudi (list)
Abydos dynasty[lower-alpha 9] Abydos 1650 BCE 1600 BCE 50 years Unknown Unknown (list)
Dynasty XVI Thebes
or
Avaris
1649 BCE 1582 BCE 67 years Anat-her Unknown (list)
Dynasty XVII Thebes 1580 BCE 1550 BCE 30 years Rahotep Kamose (list)
New Kingdom
Dynasty XVIII Thebes
and
Amarna
1550 BCE 1292 BCE 258 years Ahmose I Horemheb (list)
Dynasty XIX Thebes
and
Memphis
and
Pi-Ramesses
1292 BCE 1189 BCE 103 years Ramesses I Twosret (list)
Dynasty XX Pi-Ramesses 1189 BCE 1077 BCE 112 years Setnakhte Ramesses XI (list)
Third Intermediate Period
Dynasty XXI Tanis 1069 BCE 943 BCE 126 years Smendes Psusennes II (list)
Dynasty XXII Bubastis 943 BCE 720 BCE 223 years Shoshenq I Osorkon IV (list)
Dynasty XXIII Heracleopolis Magna
or
Hermopolis
or
Thebes
837 BCE 728 BCE 109 years Harsiese A Rudamun (list)
Dynasty XXIV Sais 732 BCE 720 BCE 12 years Tefnakht Bakenranef (list)
Dynasty XXV
(Nubian)
Memphis 744 BCE 656 BCE 88 years Piye Tantamani (list)
Late Period
Dynasty XXVI Sais 664 BCE 525 BCE 139 years Psamtik I Psamtik III (list)
Dynasty XXVII
(Persian)
Babylon 525 BCE 404 BCE 121 years Cambyses II Darius II (list)
Dynasty XXVIII Sais 404 BCE 398 BCE 6 years Amyrtaeus Amyrtaeus (list)
Dynasty XXIX Mendes 398 BCE 380 BCE 18 years Nepherites I Nepherites II (list)
Dynasty XXX Sebennytos 380 BCE 343 BCE 37 years Nectanebo I Nectanebo II (list
Dynasty XXXI
(Persian)
Babylon 343 BCE 332 BCE 11 years Artaxerxes III Darius III (list)
Greco–Roman Period
Argead dynasty
(Greek)
Alexandria 332 BCE 309 BCE 23 years Alexander III of Macedon Alexander IV of Macedon (list)
Ptolemaic dynasty
(Greek)
Alexandria 305 BCE 30 BCE 275 years Ptolemy I Soter Caesarion (list)
Egypt was incorporated into the Roman Empire in 30 BCE.
(see Roman Egypt and List of Roman dynasties)


The 31 pre-Ptolemaic dynasties by the length of their rule (in 25-year bins),[lower-alpha 10] each dynasty being a coloured box. The early dynasties and the three Kingdoms are blue, with darker colours meaning older. Intermediate periods are red, orange, and yellow. Note that multiple dynasties could reign from different cities simultaneously in intermediate periods and at the end of the Middle Kingdom. Dynastic reigning times are often very approximate; the above uses the dates of the Egyptian dynasty list template.

See also

Notes

  1. The existence of Thamphthis is not archaeologically attested.
  2. Netjerkare Siptah could either be the last monarch of Dynasty VI or the founder of Dynasty VIII depending on the historian's characterization.
  3. The existence of Nitocris is not archaeologically attested.
  4. The only historical account of Dynasty VII was found in Aegyptiaca by Manetho. Some historians consider Dynasty VII to be fictitious.[1]:393[2]:xiii
  5. Some historians consider Meryibre Khety to be the founder of Dynasty IX,[3][4][5][6] while others believe that Meryibre Khety reigned during Dynasty X.[7]
  6. Dynasty XI before the reign of Mentuhotep II is typically classified as part of the First Intermediate Period of Egypt.
  7. Some historians classify Dynasty XIII as part of the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt.
  8. Some historians consider Yakbim Sekhaenre to be the founder of Dynasty XIV,[8] while others believe Yakbim Sekhaenre reigned during Dynasty XVI.[9]
  9. The existence of the Abydos dynasty is debated.
  10. Starting on the far right of this chart, only one dynasty lasted over 250 years (18th dynasty). Two dynasties lasted between 200 and 225 years (two boxes). One dynasty lasted between 175 and 200 years (one box), etc.

References

  1. Hratch Papazian (2015). "The State of Egypt in the Eighth Dynasty". In Peter Der Manuelian; Thomas Schneider (eds.). Towards a New History for the Egyptian Old Kingdom: Perspectives on the Pyramid Age. Harvard Egyptological Studies. BRILL.
  2. Wilkinson, Toby (2010). "Timeline". The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt. New York: Random House. p. xiii. ISBN 9781408810026. The system of dynasties devised in the third century B.C. is not without its problems—for example, the Seventh Dynasty is now recognized as being wholly spurious, while several dynasties are known to have ruled concurrently in different parts of Egypt...
  3. Flinders Petrie, A History of Egypt from the Earliest Times to the XVIth Dynasty (1897), pp. 114–15.
  4. Alan Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs. An introduction, Oxford University Press, 1961, p. 112.
  5. William C. Hayes, in The Cambridge Ancient History, vol 1, part 2, 1971 (2008), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-07791-5, p. 464.
  6. Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford, Blackwell Books, 1992, p. 140.
  7. Jürgen von Beckerath, Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, 2nd edition, Mainz, 1999, p. 74.
  8. Ryholt (1997), p. 409
  9. Sekhaenre Yakbim on Egyphica.net
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