List of Old Testament pseudepigrapha

Pseudepigrapha are falsely attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figure of the past.[1] Some of these works may have originated among Jewish Hellenizers, others may have Christian authorship in character and origin.[2]


Expansions of Old Testament and other legends

  • The Letter of Aristeas (Jewish, c. 200–150 BCE)
  • Jubilees (Jewish, c. 150–100 BCE)
  • Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah (has three sections, the first Jewish from c. 100 BCE, and 2nd and 3rd sections are Christian. The second from c. 2nd cent. CE, and the third— Testament of Hezekiah, c. 90–100 CE)
  • Joseph and Asenath (Jewish, c. 100 CE)
  • Life of Adam and Eve (Jewish, c. early to middle 1st cent. CE)
  • Pseudo-Philo (Jewish, c. 66–135 CE)
  • Lives of the Prophets (Jewish, c. early 1st cent. CE with later Christian additions)
  • Ladder of Jacob (earliest form is Jewish dating from late 1st cent. CE. One chapter is Christian)
  • 4 Baruch (Jewish original but edited by a Christian, c. 100–110 CE)
  • Jannes and Jambres (Christian in present form, but dependent on earlier Jewish sources from c. 1st cent. BCE)
  • History of the Rechabites (Christian in present form dating c. 6th cent. CE, but contains some Jewish sources before 100 CE)
  • Eldad and Modat (forged on basis of Numbers 11.26–29, before the 1st CE is now lost, but quoted in Shepherd of Hermas c. 140 CE)
  • History of Joseph (Jewish, but difficult to date).

Wisdom and philosophical literature

Prayers, Psalms, and Odes

  • More Psalms of David (Jewish psalms from c. 3rd cent. BCE to 100 CE)
  • Prayer of Manasseh (sometimes in Apocrypha, Jewish from c. early 1st cent. CE)
  • Psalms of Solomon (Jewish, c. 50–5 BCE)
  • Hellenistic Synagogal Prayers (Jewish, c. 2nd–3rd cent. CE)
  • Prayer of Joseph (Jewish, c. 70–135)
  • Prayer of Jacob (mostly lost Jewish document from c. 4th cent. CE)
  • Odes of Solomon (Christian but influenced by Judaism and probably also Qumran, c. 100 CE)

See also


  1. Bauckham, Richard; "Pseudo-Apostolic Letters", Journal of Biblical Literature, Vo. 107, No. 3, September 1988, pp.469494.
  2. The following list is based on James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, Garden City: Doubleday & Company, 1983-1985 (two volumes).
  3. Treatise of Shem


  • Lee Martin McDonald, The Origin of the Bible: A Guide for the Perplexed, London: T & T Clark, 2011.
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files.