Lens antennas are microwave antennas constructed with single or multiple lenses . Lens antennas are typically designed using geometrical optics, physical optics or full-wave analysis (finite-difference time-domain method). The lens is excited with a small antenna element, typically a patch antenna or an open-ended waveguide. An array of feeding elements is referred to as a focal plane array (FPA).
- Frid, Henrik (2016). "Closed-Form Relation Between the Scan Angle and Feed Position for Extended Hemispherical Lenses Based on Ray Tracing". IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters.