The jian (pronunciation [tɕjɛ̂n], English approximation: /jɛn/ jyehn, simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: jiàn; Cantonese: Gim) is a double-edged straight sword used during the last 2,500 years in China. The first Chinese sources that mention the jian date to the 7th century BCE during the Spring and Autumn period;[1] one of the earliest specimens being the Sword of Goujian. Historical one-handed versions have blades varying from 45 to 80 centimeters (18 to 31 inches) in length. The weight of an average sword of 70-centimetre (28-inch) blade-length would be in a range of approximately 700 to 900 grams (1.5 to 2 pounds).[2] There are also larger two-handed versions used for training by many styles of Chinese martial arts.

Single-handed jian and scabbard of the 18th–19th century.
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetkiếm, gươm
Thai name
Korean name
Japanese name

Professional jian practitioners are referred to as jianke (Chinese: 剑客; pinyin: jiànkè; literally: 'sword guests' or "swordsmen"; a term dating from the Han dynasty).[3][4]

In Chinese folklore, it is known as "The Gentleman of Weapons" and is considered one of the four major weapons, along with the Gùn (staff), Qiang (spear), and the Dao (sabre). These swords are also sometimes referred to as taijijian or "tai chi swords", reflecting their current use as training weapons for taijiquan practitioners, though there were no historical jian types created specifically for taijiquan.[5]

Parts of the jian

A guard or hilt protects the hand from an opposing blade. The shape of the guard can be described as short wings pointing either forward or backward. A minority of jian featured the disc-shaped guards associated with dao. A handle behind the guard can accommodate the grip of both hands or one hand plus two or three fingers of the other hand. Two-handed jiàn of up to 1.6 meters (63 inches) in length, known as shuangshou jian, existed but were not as common as the one-handed version. The longer two-handed handle could be used as a lever to lock the opponent's arm if necessary. Grips are usually of fluted wood or covered in rayskin, with a minority being wrapped with cord.

The end of the handle was finished with a pommel for balance, to prevent the handle from sliding through the hand if the hand's grip should be loosened, and for striking or trapping the opponent as opportunity required such as in "withdrawing" techniques. The pommel was historically peened onto the tang of the blade; thereby holding together as one solid unit the blade, guard, handle, and pommel. Most jian of the last century or so are assembled with a threaded tang onto which the pommel or pommel-nut is screwed.

Sometimes a tassel is attached to the hilt. During the Ming Dynasty these were usually passed through an openwork pommel, and in the Qing through a hole in the grip itself; modern swords usually attach the tassel to the end of the pommel. Historically these were likely used as lanyards, allowing the wielder to retain the sword in combat. There are some sword forms which utilize the tassel as an integral part of their swordsmanship style (sometimes offensively), while other schools dispense with sword tassels entirely. The movement of the tassel may have served to distract opponents, and some schools further claim that metal wires or thin silk cords were once worked into the tassels for impairing vision and causing bleeding when swept across the face. The tassel's use now is primarily decorative.[6][7]

The blade itself is customarily divided into three sections for leverage in different offensive and defensive techniques. The tip of the blade is the jiànfeng, meant for stabbing, slashing, and quick percussive cuts. The jiànfeng typically curves smoothly to a point, though in the Ming period sharply angled points were common. Some antiques have rounded points, though these are likely the result of wear. The middle section is the zhongren or middle edge, and is used for a variety of offensive and defensive actions: cleaving cuts, draw cuts, and deflections. The section of blade closest to the guard is called the jiàngen or root, and is mainly used for defensive actions; on some late period jian, the base of the blade was made into a ricasso. These sections are not necessarily of the same length, with the jiànfeng being only three or four inches long.[8][9]

Jian blades generally feature subtle profile taper (decreasing width), but often have considerable distal taper (decreasing thickness), with blade thickness near the tip being only half the thickness of the root's base. Jiàn may also feature differential sharpening, where the blade is made progressively sharper towards the tip, usually corresponding to the three sections of the blade. The cross-section of the blade is typically that of a flattened diamond with a visible central ridge, though some are lenticular (eye-shaped) instead; ancient bronze jian sometimes have a hexagonal cross-section.


Jian were originally made from bronze, then steel as metal technology advanced. There are some, perhaps ceremonial, jian which are carved from a single solid piece of jade.

Traditional jian blades are usually of sanmei (three plate) construction, which involved sandwiching a core of hard steel between two plates of softer steel. The central plate protrudes slightly from its surrounding pieces, allowing for a sharp edge, while the softer spine protects the brittle core. Some blades had wumei or five plate construction, with two more soft plates being used at the central ridge.[10] Bronze jian were often made in a somewhat similar manner: in this case an alloy with a high copper content would be used to make a resilient core and spine, while the edge would be made from a high-tin-content alloy for sharpness and welded onto the rest of the blade.

The sword smiths of China are often credited with the forging technologies that traveled to Korea and Japan to allow sword smiths there to create such weapons as the katana. These technologies include folding, inserted alloys, and differential hardening of the edge.[11][12] While the Japanese would be more influenced by the Chinese dāo (single-edged swords of various forms), the early Japanese swords known as ken are often based on jian. The Korean version of the jian is known as the geom or gum, and these swords often preserve features found in Ming-era jian, such as openwork pommels and sharply angled tips.

In martial art schools wooden swords are used for training, so most martial arts students' first experience with a jian in modern times is with one of those weapons. Before schools were a formal way of passing on sword knowledge, students may begin with a simple wooden stick when training with their teacher.[13] In some religious Taoist sects, those wooden practice swords have come to have an esoteric ritual purpose. Some claim that these wooden swords metaphorically represent the discipline of an accomplished student.

Contemporary jian versions are often forged (shaped with heat and hammer) and assembled by mostly traditional methods for training of practitioners of Chinese martial arts around the world. These jian vary greatly in quality and historical accuracy.

Contemporary jian are also sometimes forgeries (artificially aged and misrepresented as original antiques), for sale to tourists and collectors who cannot distinguish them from true antiques.

Historical use

Originally similar to bronze double-edged daggers in varying lengths, jian reached modern lengths by roughly 500 BC. Though there is significant variation in length, balance, and weight of the jian from different periods, within any given period the general purpose of the jian is to be a multipurpose cut and thrust weapon capable of stabbing, as well as making both precise cuts and slashes, as opposed to specializing in one form of use. Although the many forms and schools of swordsmanship with the jian vary as well, the general purpose and use is still not lost.

Historical jian wielders would engage in test cutting called shizhan, practicing their skills on targets known as caoren, or "grass men". Such targets were made from bamboo, rice straw, or saplings. Though similar to the Japanese art of tameshigiri, shizhan was never formalized to the extent that the latter art was.[14]

Today many Chinese martial arts such as taijiquan and their martial artists still train extensively with jian and expertise in its techniques is said by many of them to be the highest physical expression of their kung fu. Famous jian forms include Sancai Jian (三才劍), Kunwu Jian (崑吾劍), Wudang Xuanmen Jian (武当玄门剑), and Taijijian (太极剑). Most jian today are flexible tai-chi or wushu jian used mainly for ceremonial or performance purposes and not for actual combat. These swords have extremely thin blades or a high degree of flexibility compared to historical battlefield quality jian, properties intended to add auditory and visual appeal to a wushu performance. These same properties render them unsuitable for historically accurate combat.

Jian was an old weapon in China, almost had 2500 years old history about the jian. Jian in English mean sword. The jian is a long weapon with sharp blade, and its size and length are based on human body. Zheng e is more detailed in the sword, that "the size of the shape of people is different, the system of the sword for its service, not straight to view the United States, to make each suitable for its use. Therefore, the system of the third class, waiting for the third class, so as to appropriate and then. The stalk of the sword is five inches long. If the body of the sword is five times as long as the stalk, it is three feet, nine qiang, and twelve liang. Only the superior and the strong, then can win, so the chief of staff. The body of the sword is four stems. The length of the stem is two feet five inches, the weight is seven qiang, and the length is fourteen liang. Only the person in the right to serve, so the sergeant to serve. If the body of the sword three stem, then two feet ear, weight five qiang, then two jin one two three middle ear, light and short, so it is under the system. If you are short in shape and weak in strength, you can take it."

The jian system mentioned above was mostly used in ancient times, with many changes in the past dynasties, from the qin dynasty to the song dynasty. Zheng e cloud: "if the qin and han jian and song jian comparison, the song long sword has 21 inches three points, han long sword only 17 inches nine points. The short sword in the song dynasty was 15 inches and 2 points, while the short sword in the han dynasty was only 10 inches and 5 points. Therefore, the sword in the song dynasty was longer and of better quality than that in the han dynasty. That said, there should be some evidence, but do not agree. The purpose of the cover sword is not only for killing, but also for the ornament of the teachers of the law. However, it is mainly used for defending against the enemy. For example, the long sword is inconvenient to use, the short sword is hard to reach, the short sword is light and hard to strike, and the old one is heavy and slow to wield. According to an ancient book, "emperor gaozu of the han dynasty gained the world with a sword of three feet". According to the records of jian history, it is about the length of the ancient jian, ranging from one foot three inches to more than four feet, and its weight is two to three jin.

Jian is a kind of short weapon, derived from spear shaped spear and short dagger, originated before the Yin and shang dynasties. The ancients used this sword to cut and Pierce their waist to resist bandits and wild animals. By the zhou dynasty, especially in the spring and autumn period and warring states period, it had become a major weapon of short duration. Even feng and the han xin of the early han dynasty, even though they were too poor to eat, still kept them with them. Famous ganjiang, moxie, longquan, taia, chun jun, zhan lu, fish intestines, ju que and so on. In the spring and autumn period, there is still a longquan sword hidden in the imperial palace, which is still very sharp, proving that China has a long history in the manufacture and use of swords.

Mythology and legacy

There are several Taoist immortals who are associated with the jian. One example is Lü Dongbin. The bodhisattva Mañjuśrī (Ch: 文殊 Wénshū) is often depicted holding a jian, which is then referred to as the "sword of wisdom".

Jian frequently appear in wuxia fiction and films. The swords or the techniques used to wield them may be effectively or explicitly supernatural,[16] and the quest for such swords or techniques may be a major plot element.

See also


  1. Ebrey 1999, p. 41
  2. Rodell 2003, p. 19
  3. Lorge 2011, p. 69.
  4. Wushu Shaolin (2 January 2015). "Shaolin Jian - Shaolin Kung Fu HD". Retrieved 22 March 2018 via YouTube.
  5. Rodell (2003), p. 20
  6. Sugawara 1998, p.204
  7. Zhang 1998, pp. 38-39
  8. Rodell 2003, pp.22-23
  9. Zhang 1998, pp.37-38
  10. Rodell 2003, pp.16-17
  11. Sugawara 1998, pp.298-299
  12. Rodell 2003, p. 17
  13. Xia 2017 pp.30
  14. Rodell 2007, pp. 2, 10, 39
  15. Werner, E. T. C. (1922). Myths & Legends of China. New York: George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd. Retrieved 2007-03-14. (Project Gutenberg eText 15250)
  16. Liu 1967, p. 130


  • Chen Fangmei (1995). Illustrated Catalogue of Ancient Bronze Weaponry in the National Palace Museum. National Palace Museum. ISBN 957-562-199-9.
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (1999). The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66991-X (paperback).
  • James J. Y. Liu (1967). The Chinese Knight-Errant. University of Chicago Press. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 66-14112.
  • Lorge, Peter A. (2011), Chinese Martial Arts: From Antiquity to the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-87881-4
  • Scott M. Rodell (2003). Chinese Swordsmanship: The Yang Family Taiji Jian Tradition. Seven Stars Books and Video. ISBN 0-9743999-0-6.
  • Scott M. Rodell (2007). A Practical Guide to Test Cutting for Historical Swordsmanship. Seven Stars Books and Video. ISBN 978-0-9743999-5-9.
  • Tetsutaka Sugawara; Lujian Xing; Mark B. Jones (1998). Aikido and Chinese Martial Arts, Volume 2: Aikido and Weapons Training. Sugawara Martial Arts Institute. ISBN 0-87040-963-8.
  • Xia, Chongyi (2017). Taiji Fencing Principles, Vol. 1. Lulu. ISBN 978-1-387-34346-1.
  • Zhang Yun (1998). The Art of Chinese Swordsmanship. Weatherhill. ISBN 0-8348-0412-3.
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